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Developing World Bioethics

Arianne Shahvisi
Neglected tropical diseases are defined operationally as diseases that prevail in "tropical" regions and are under-researched, under-funded, and under-treated compared with their disease burden. By analysing the adjectives "tropical" and "neglected," I expose and interrogate the discourses within which the term "neglected tropical disease" derives its meaning. First, I argue that the term "tropical" conjures the notion of "tropicality," a form of Othering which erroneously explains the disease-prevalence of "tropical" regions by reference to environmental determinism, rather than colonialism and neocolonialism...
March 19, 2019: Developing World Bioethics
Roghieh Dehghan, James Wilson
This paper examines the ethical issues that arise when healthcare providers act as gatekeepers to research involving vulnerable populations. Traumatised refugees serve as an example of this subset of research participants. Highlighting the particular vulnerabilities of this group, we argue that specific ethical considerations are required that go beyond the conventional research approaches. While gatekeeping responds to some of those vulnerabilities, it risks wronging through unwarranted paternalism. Instead, we will propose that a relational ethics of justice and care serves as a more appropriate framework for responding to the challenges of research involving traumatised refugees...
March 19, 2019: Developing World Bioethics
Megan Scott, Jennifer Watermeyer, Tina-Marie Wessels
Video-recording healthcare interactions provides important opportunities for research and service improvement. However, this method brings about tensions, especially when recording sensitive topics. Subsequent reflection may compel the researcher to engage in ethical and moral deliberations. This paper presents experiences from a South African genetic counselling study which made use of video-recordings to understand communicative processes in routine practice. Video-recording as a research method, as well as contextual and process considerations are discussed, such as researching one's own field, issues of trust and anonymity, the challenge of providing true informed consent and capturing details which may cause psychological harm...
March 19, 2019: Developing World Bioethics
Andrew Fenton
Though there is a burgeoning interest in applied Buddhist ethics, Buddhist animal research ethics remains an underdeveloped area. In this paper I will explore how some central Buddhist ethical considerations can usefully engage our use of other animals (henceforth, animals) in science. As the scientific use of animals is broad, I will narrow my focus to laboratory science. I will show that, though a Buddhist abolitionism would not be unmotivated, it is possible to reject it. While doing so, it will be important to resist emphasizing elements of Buddhist thought that merely provide reasons to adopt the dominant ethical framework governing laboratory animal research ethics, known as the 3Rs...
February 21, 2019: Developing World Bioethics
Megan Scott, Jennifer Watermeyer, Samantha Nolle, Claire Penn
Enrollers play a critical yet often overlooked role in clinical research, particularly in informed consent processes. Study retention may depend in part on how complex information is conveyed to potential participants. This qualitative study aimed to assess communicative barriers during consent and enrolment in two South African TB/HIV clinical studies. In particular, we compared our own perceptions of potential challenges to consent with that of thirteen enrollers, gained via reflective journaling and focus group discussions...
January 29, 2019: Developing World Bioethics
Miriam Wiersma, Narcyz Ghinea, Wendy Lipworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Developing World Bioethics
Jesse Schnall, Dean Hayden, Dominic Wilkinson
Newborn infants are among those most severely affected by humanitarian crises. Aid organisations increasingly recognise the necessity to provide for the medical needs of newborns, however, this may generate distinctive ethical questions for those providing humanitarian medical care. Medical ethical approaches to neonatal care familiar in other settings may not be appropriate given the diversity and volatility of humanitarian disasters, and the extreme resource limitations commonly faced by humanitarian aid missions...
December 26, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Developing World Bioethics
Yusuf Yuksekdag
Compulsory (health) service contracts have recently received considerable attention in the normative literature. The service contracts are considered and offered as a permissible and liberal alternative to emigration restrictions if individuals relinquish their right to exit via contract in exchange for the state-funded tertiary education. To that end, the recent normative literature on the service programmes has particularly focused on discussing the circumstances or conditions in which the contracts should be signed, so that they are morally binding on the part of the skilled workers...
December 12, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Glenda Morais Rocha, Cesar Koppe Grisolia
Brazil is the biggest market for pesticides in the world. In the registration process, a pesticide must be authorized by the Institute of the Environment, Health Surveillance Agency and Ministry of Agriculture. Evaluations follow a package of toxicological studies submitted by the companies and also based on the Brazilian law regarding pesticides. We confronted data produced by private laboratories, submitted to the Institute of the Environment for registration, with data obtained from scientific databases, corresponding to mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of pesticides...
December 6, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Nancy S Jecker, Jacqueline Joon-Lin Chin
Growing demand for direct care workers to assist care-dependent elderly people has created an opening for migrant workers from low- income nations to sell their services to middle and high-income nations. Using Singapore as a case example, we draw on capability theory to make the case that receiving nations that import direct care workers should be held to global justice standards that protect workers' floor level human capabilities. Specifically, we (1) show that Singapore and other receiving nations fail to protect human capabilities at a threshold level required by dignity; (2) identify specific human capabilities placed at risk; and (3) recommend standards for receiving nations that support central capabilities...
November 26, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Dan Allman, Bridget Haire, Aminu Yakubu, Muhammed O Afolabi, Joseph Cooper
Community engagement in research, including public health related research, is acknowledged as an ethical imperative. While medical care and public health action take priority over research during infectious disease outbreaks, research is still required in order to learn from epidemic responses. The World Health Organisation developed a guide for community engagement during infectious disease epidemics called the Good Participatory Practice for Trials of Emerging (and Re-emerging) Pathogens that are Likely to Cause Severe Outbreaks in the Near Future and for which Few or No Medical Counter-Measures Exist (GPP-EP)...
November 15, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Jamie Webb
This paper considers the ethics of placebo-controlled trials in developing countries, where a treatment already exists but is not available due to the low local standard of care. Such trials would not be permitted in more developed nations where a higher standard of care is available. I argue that there are moral intuitions against such trials, but a further intuition that if the trials were aimed at producing treatment options for the developing world, that would be more permissible than if the trials were designed with the benefit of rich world people in mind...
September 18, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Mbih Jerome Tosam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Itziar de Lecuona, María Villalobos-Quesada
INTRODUCTION: The paradigm shift to a knowledge-based economy has incremented the use of personal information applied to health-related activities, such as biomedical research, innovation, and commercial initiatives. The convergence of science, technology, communication and data technologies has given rise to the application of big data to health; for example through eHealth, human databases and biobanks. METHODS: In light of these changes, we enquire about the value of personal data and its appropriate use...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Angelina Olesen, Latifah Amin, Zurina Mahadi
INTRODUCTION: To explore academia perceptions and experience with unethical authorship practices in their respective institutions. METHOD: 21 in-depth interviews were carried out. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed variability in experiences with various types of unethical authorship practices among the interviewees. Second, we found that unethical authorship practices are not so unusual among academia although the exact numbers of incidents are unknown due to the fact that such practices are seldom reported...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Teodora Alexa-Stratulat, Marius Neagu, Anca-Iulia Neagu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Beatrice Gabriela Ioan
The article explores the challenges of ensuring voluntary and informed consent which is obtained from potential research subjects in the north-eastern part of Romania. This study is one of the first empirical papers of this nature in Romania. The study used a quantitative survey design using the adapted Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) questionnaire. The target population consisted of 100 adult persons who voluntarily enrolled in clinical trials. The informed consent form must contain details regarding the potential risks and benefits, the aim of the clinical trial, study design, confidentiality, insurance and contact details in case of additional questions...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
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