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Molecular Imaging

Ahmed Abbas, Lihai Yu, Tyler Lalonde, Derek Wu, Jonathan D Thiessen, Leonard G Luyt, Savita Dhanvantari
One-third of patients with heart disease develop heart failure, which is diagnosed through imaging and detection of circulating biomarkers. Imaging strategies reveal morphologic and functional changes but fall short of detecting molecular abnormalities that can lead to heart failure, and circulating biomarkers are not cardiac specific. Thus, there is critical need for biomarkers that are endogenous to myocardial tissues. The cardiac growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which binds the hormone ghrelin, is a potential biomarker for heart failure...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Anne Herrmann, Arthur Taylor, Patricia Murray, Harish Poptani, Violaine Sée
Metastasis is the most common cause of death for patients with cancer. To fully understand the steps involved in metastatic dissemination, in vivo models are required, of which murine ones are the most common. Therefore, preclinical imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have mainly been developed for small mammals and their potential to monitor cancer growth and metastasis in nonmammalian models is not fully harnessed. We have here used MRI to measure primary neuroblastoma tumor size and metastasis in a chick embryo model...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Kendra S Carmon, Ali Azhdarinia
Targeted therapies hold great promise for cancer treatment and may exhibit even greater efficacy when combined with patient selection tools. The clinical impact of identifying likely responders includes reducing the number of unnecessary and ineffective therapies as well as more accurately determining drug effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using zirconium-89 radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), also referred to as zirconium-89 (89 Zr)-immuno-PET, provides a potential biomarker to measure target expression and verify optimal delivery of targeted agents to tumors...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Martin G Strebl, Jane Yang, Lyle Isaacs, Jacob M Hooker
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with biological macromolecules greatly expands the possibilities of molecular imaging. There are, however, practical aspects limiting the potential of the approach, including the dosimetric consequences of the slow kinetics of radiolabeled biomacromolecules. Pretargeting strategies have led to impactful improvements in the field but are themselves limited by shortcomings of available bioconjugation methodology. We report our initial findings concerning the suitability of the adamantane/cucurbit[7]uril system for pretargeted immuno-PET imaging and provide proof-of-concept PET/computed tomography imaging experiments to establish the stability and rapid formation of host-guest complexes in vivo...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Liliya M Yamaleyeva, K Bridget Brosnihan, Lane M Smith, Yao Sun
Placental oxygenation varies throughout pregnancy. The detection of early changes in placental oxygenation as pregnancy progresses is important for early identification of preeclampsia or other complications. This invited commentary discusses a recent preclinical study on the application of 3-dimensional photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for assessment of regional variations in placental oxygenation and longitudinal analysis of differences in placental oxygenation throughout normal pregnancy and pregnancy associated with hypertension or placental insufficiency in mice...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Ying Xiong, Dahong Nie, Shaoyu Liu, Hui Ma, Shu Su, Aixia Sun, Jing Zhao, Zhanwen Zhang, Xianhong Xiang, Ganghua Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of 2-(3-[18 F]fluoropropyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid ([18 F]ML-8) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of rat pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, including pulmonary fibrosis model group and control group. The rat model was established by an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM). Control rats were treated with saline. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) with [18 F]ML-8 or 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18 F]FDG) was performed on 2 groups...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Cuiping Jiang, Lin Xie, Yiding Zhang, Masayuki Fujinaga, Wakana Mori, Yusuke Kurihara, Tomoteru Yamasaki, Feng Wang, Ming-Rong Zhang
CEP-32496, also known as RXDX-105 or Agerafenib, is a new orally active inhibitor for the mutated v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAFV600E ), which has attracted considerable attention in clinical trials for the treatment of human cancers. Here, we used carbon-11-labeled CEP-32496 ([11 C]CEP-32496) as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer to evaluate its pharmacokinetic properties and explore its potential for in vivo imaging. Following radiotracer synthesis, we performed in vitro binding assays and autoradiography of [11 C]CEP-32496 in the A375 melanoma cell line and on tumor tissue sections from mice harboring the BRAFV600E mutation...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Dominik Jan Naczynski, Jason H Stafford, Silvan Türkcan, Cesare Jenkins, Ai Leen Koh, Conroy Sun, Lei Xing
The use of short-wave infrared (SWIR) light for fluorescence bioimaging offers the advantage of reduced photon scattering and improved tissue penetration compared to traditional shorter wavelength imaging approaches. While several nanomaterials have been shown capable of generating SWIR emissions, rare-earth-doped nanoparticles (REs) have emerged as an exceptionally bright and biocompatible class of SWIR emitters. Here, we demonstrate SWIR imaging of REs for several applications, including lymphatic mapping, real-time monitoring of probe biodistribution, and molecular targeting of the αv β3 integrin in a tumor model...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Lee Josephson, Nancy Stratman, YuTing Liu, Fang Qian, Steven H Liang, Neil Vasdev, Shil Patel
Development of an α-synuclein (α-Syn) positron emission tomography agent for the diagnosis and evaluation of Parkinson disease therapy is a key goal of neurodegenerative disease research. BF-227 has been described as an α-Syn binder and hence was employed as a lead to generate a library of α-Syn-binding compounds. [3 H]BF-227 bound to α-Syn and amyloid β peptide (Aβ) fibrils with affinities (KD ) of 46.0 nM and 15.7 nM, respectively. Affinities of BF-227-like compounds (expressed as Ki ) for α-Syn and Aβ fibrils were determined, along with 5 reference compounds (flutafuranol, flutemetamol, florbetapir, BF-227, and PiB)...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Sara Zullino, Monica Argenziano, Ilaria Stura, Caterina Guiot, Roberta Cavalli
Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCAs) consisting of gas-filled-coated Microbubbles (MBs) with diameters between 1 and 10 µm have been used for a number of decades in diagnostic imaging. In recent years, submicron contrast agents have proven to be a viable alternative to MBs for ultrasound (US)-based applications for their capability to extravasate and accumulate in the tumor tissue via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. After a short overview of the more recent approaches to ultrasound-mediated imaging and therapeutics at the nanoscale, phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs), which can be phase-transitioned into highly echogenic MBs by means of US, are here presented...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Lauren Kosten, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Leonie Wyffels, Sigrid Stroobants, Steven Staelens
Detecting changes in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) availability through molecular imaging with the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [11 C]ABP688 is valuable for studying dysfunctional glutamate transmission associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Using an infusion protocol in rats, we visualized the acute effect of subanesthetic doses of ketamine on mGluR5 in rat brain. Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist known to increase glutamate release. Imaging was performed with a high-affinity PET ligand [11 C]ABP688, a negative allosteric modulator of mGluR5...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Vidya Narayanaswami, Kenneth Dahl, Vadim Bernard-Gauthier, Lee Josephson, Paul Cumming, Neil Vasdev
The dynamic and multicellular processes of neuroinflammation are mediated by the nonneuronal cells of the central nervous system, which include astrocytes and the brain's resident macrophages, microglia. Although initiation of an inflammatory response may be beneficial in response to injury of the nervous system, chronic or maladaptive neuroinflammation can have harmful outcomes in many neurological diseases. An acute neuroinflammatory response is protective when activated neuroglia facilitate tissue repair by releasing anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Mariya Shapovalova, Sean R Pyper, Branden S Moriarity, Aaron M LeBeau
The recent success of autologous T cell-based therapies in hematological malignancies has spurred interest in applying similar immunotherapy strategies to the treatment of solid tumors. Identified nearly 4 decades ago, natural killer (NK) cells represent an arguably better cell type for immunotherapy development. Natural killer cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that mediate the direct killing of transformed cells with reduced or absent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and are the effector cells in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Jade E Jones, Susheel Bhanu Busi, Jonathan B Mitchem, James M Amos-Landgraf, Michael R Lewis
The goal of these studies was to use a tumor-targeting, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent peptide to evaluate early detection and to guide surgical removal of polyps in a genetically engineered rat model of spontaneous colorectal cancer. This peptide, LS301, was conjugated to Cy7.5 and applied topically to the colon of adenoma-bearing Pirc rats. Ten minutes after administration, rats underwent targeted NIR laser colonoscopy. Rats were also evaluated by white light colonoscopy and narrow-band imaging, for comparison to the NIR technique...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Mehdi Shirin Shandiz, Hamid Saligheh Rad, Pardis Ghafarian, Khadijeh Yaghoubi, Mohammad Reza Ay
PURPOSE: Prostate imaging is a major application of hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Currently, MRI-based attenuation correction (MRAC) for whole-body PET/MRI in which the bony structures are ignored is the main obstacle to successful implementation of the hybrid modality in the clinical work flow. Ultrashort echo time sequence captures bone signal but needs specific hardware-software and is challenging in large field of view (FOV) regions, such as pelvis...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Frezghi Habte, Arutselvan Natarajan, David S Paik, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir
Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is commonly performed using two-dimensional (2-D) conventional optical imaging systems for its cost-effective solution. However, quantification of CLI comparable to conventional three-dimensional positron emission tomography (PET) is challenging using these systems due to both the high attenuation of Cerenkov radiation (CR) on mouse tissue and nonexisting depth resolution of CLI using 2-D imaging systems (2-D CLI). In this study, we developed a model that estimates effective tissue attenuation coefficient and corrects the tissue attenuation of CLI signal intensity independent of tissue depth and size...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Joseph E Kobes, George I Georgiev, Anthony V Louis, Isen A Calderon, Eriko S Yoshimaru, Louie M Klemm, Douglas W Cromey, Zain Khalpey, Mark D Pagel
Reseeding of decellularized organ scaffolds with a patient's own cells has promise for eliminating graft versus host disease. This study investigated whether ultrasound imaging or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can track the reseeding of murine liver scaffolds with silica-labeled or iron-labeled liver hepatocytes. Mesoporous silica particles were created using the Stöber method, loaded with Alexa Flour 647 fluorophore, and conjugated with protamine sulfate, glutamine, and glycine. Fluorescent iron oxide particles were obtained from a commercial source...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Pedro Brugarolas, Daniel S Reich, Brian Popko
Noninvasive imaging of demyelination and remyelination is critical for diagnosis and clinical management of demyelinating diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to complement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by providing a quantitative measure specific to demyelination. In Brugarolas et al's study 1 , we describe the development of the first PET tracer for voltage-gated K+ channels based on a clinically approved drug for multiple sclerosis that can be used for imaging demyelination in animal models...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Masaru Ishihara, Masahisa Onoguchi, Takayuki Shibutani
The aim of this study was to assess the washout rate (WOR) for thallium-201-chloride single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using cadmium zinc telluride detectors for SPECT (CZT SPECT) versus conventional Anger-type SPECT (conventional SPECT). A total of 52 Japanese patients were examined using CZT SPECT and conventional SPECT, and the global WORs were compared. Additionally, the MPI WORs were compared for patients with a normal MPI versus those in whom MPI reflected the patients' multivessel disease (MVD) MPI...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
Kambiz Rahbar, Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Hossein Jadvar, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising target for imaging diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy (theranostics) of prostate cancer and its metastases. There is increasing evidence of encouraging response rates and a low toxicity profile of radioligand therapy (RLT) of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer using 177 Lu-labeled PSMA ligands. In this article, we review the current status of diagnostics and therapy using radiolabeled PSMA ligands. We also suggest protocols for patient selection criteria and conduct of PSMA-based RLT...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
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