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Cancer Immunity

Sandra J Yokota, John G Facciponte, Raymond J Kelleher, Leonard D Shultz, Jenni L Loyall, Robert R Parsons, Kunle Odunsi, John G Frelinger, Edith M Lord, Scott A Gerber, Sathy V Balu-Iyer, Richard B Bankert
Despite an initial response to chemotherapy, most patients with ovarian cancer eventually progress and succumb to their disease. Understanding why effector T cells that are known to infiltrate the tumor do not eradicate the disease after cytoreduction is critically important to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to augment tumor immunity and improve patient outcomes. Such studies have been hampered by the lack of a suitable in vivo model. We report here a simple and reliable model system in which ovarian tumor cell aggregates implanted intraperitoneally into severely immunodeficient NSG mice establish tumor microenvironments within the omentum...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Yao-Tseng Chen, Dengfeng Cao, Rita Chiu, Peishan Lee
Cancer/Testis (CT) antigens are normally only expressed in germ cells and yet are aberrantly activated in a wide variety of human cancers. Most chromosome X-encoded CT antigens (CT-X) show restricted expression in pre-meiotic germ cells in adult testis, except for the expression of SPANX in post-meiotic germ cells. In the present study, the expression of eight CT-X antigens (MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGE-C1/CT7, MAGE-C2/CT10, CT45, SAGE1, and SPANX) in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors was evaluated immunohistochemically, including 24 embryonal carcinomas, 20 yolk sac tumors, 9 teratomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas, and the results were compared to our previous study of 77 classic seminomas and 2 spermatocytic seminomas...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Lisa M Fox, Jennifer Miksanek, Nathan A May, Louise Scharf, Jennifer L Lockridge, Natacha Veerapen, Gurdyal S Besra, Erin J Adams, Amy W Hudson, Jenny E Gumperz
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T lymphocytes that specifically recognize α-linked glycosphingolipids (α-GSLs) as antigens presented by CD1d molecules. Activating iNKT cells by administering α-GSLs improves disease outcomes in murine cancer models and, thus, there is great interest in the clinical potential of these lipids for treating human cancers. However, humans possess several other CD1 isoforms that are not present in mice and it is not clear whether these CD1 molecules, which also bind lipids, affect human iNKT cell responses...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Nicola Hardwick, Sarah Buchan, Wendy Ingram, Ghazala Khan, Gisella Vittes, Jason Rice, Karen Pulford, Ghulam Mufti, Freda Stevenson, Barbara-ann Guinn
We have previously identified the novel Cancer/Testis antigen PASD1 by immunoscreening a testis library with pooled acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient sera. To develop a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing vaccine, we have now investigated the carboxy-terminal region, known to contain serological determinants, for MHC class I (HLA-A⋆0201)-binding peptides. Algorithm-selected natural peptides failed to show detectable HLA-A⋆0201 binding in T2 assays. However, anchor-modified analogue peptides showed enhanced binding, with decreased off-rates...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Nathalie Vigneron, Vincent Stroobant, Benoît J Van den Eynde, Pierre van der Bruggen
The plethora of tumor antigens that have been--and are still being--defined required systematization to provide a comprehensive overview of those tumor antigens that are the most relevant targets for cancer immunotherapy approaches. Here, we provide a new update of a peptide database resource that we initiated many years ago. This database compiles all human antigenic peptides described in the literature that fulfill a set of strict criteria needed to ascertain their actual "tumor antigen" nature, as we aim at guiding scientists and clinicians searching for appropriate cancer vaccine candidates (www...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Michelle R Simpson-Abelson, Jenni L Loyall, Heather K Lehman, Jennifer L Barnas, Hans Minderman, Kieran L O'Loughlin, Paul K Wallace, Thaddeus C George, Peng Peng, Raymond J Kelleher, Kunle Odunsi, Richard B Bankert
Human memory T cells present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids fail to respond normally to stimulation via the T cell receptor (TCR). This immunosuppression is manifested by decreases in NF-κB and NFAT activation, IFN-γ production, and cell proliferation in response to TCR stimulation with immobilized antibodies to CD3 and CD28. The anergy of the tumor-associated T cells (TATs) is mediated by soluble factors present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids. The non-responsiveness of the T cells is quickly reversed when the cells are assayed in the absence of the ascites fluid, and is rapidly reestablished when a cell-free ascites fluid is added back to the T cells...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Sylvia Janetzki, Axel Hoos, Cornelis J M Melief, Kunle Odunsi, Pedro Romero, Cedrik M Britten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Cancer Immunity
Lotta von Boehmer, Muriel Mattle, Peter Bode, Alexandro Landshammer, Carolin Schäfer, Natko Nuber, Gerd Ritter, Lloyd Old, Holger Moch, Niklaus Schäfer, Elke Jäger, Alexander Knuth, Maries van den Broek
During cancer progression, malignant cells may evade immunosurveillance. However, evidence for immunological escape in humans is scarce. We report here the clinical course of a melanoma patient whose initial tumor was positive for the antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-C1, and Melan-A. Upon immunization with a recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox NY-ESO-1 construct, the patient experienced a mixed clinical response and spreading of the NY-ESO-1 epitopes in the CD4+ T cell compartment. After NY-ESO-1 protein + CpG immunization, the patient's anti-NY-ESO-1 IgG response increased...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Paul Spear, Ming-Ru Wu, Marie-Louise Sentman, Charles L Sentman
The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Jeffrey Weber, Omid Hamid, Asim Amin, Steven O'Day, Eric Masson, Stacie M Goldberg, Daphne Williams, Susan M Parker, Scott D Chasalow, Suresh Alaparthy, Jedd D Wolchok
We describe a randomized three-arm phase I study of ipilimumab administered alone (I group) or in combination with dacarbazine (D group) or carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP group) in patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma. The primary objective was to estimate the effect of ipilimumab on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dacarbazine and paclitaxel and, conversely, to estimate the effects of dacarbazine and carboplatin/paclitaxel on the PK of ipilimumab. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the safety and anti-tumor activity of ipilimumab when administered alone or with either dacarbazine or carboplatin/paclitaxel, and assessment of pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of ipilimumab on the immune system when administered alone or with either of the two chemotherapies...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Petra A Link, Wa Zhang, Kunle Odunsi, Adam R Karpf
Cancer germline (CG) genes are normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers; their immunogenicity has led to the widespread development of cancer vaccines targeting these antigens. BORIS/CTCFL is an autosomal CG antigen and promising cancer vaccine target. BORIS is the only known paralog of CTCF, a gene intimately involved in genomic imprinting, chromatin insulation, and nuclear regulation. We have previously shown that BORIS is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and that its expression coincides with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Joseph F Grosso, Maria N Jure-Kunkel
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a key negative regulator of T cell activation. A complex integration of positive and negative co-stimulatory signals in the well-defined B7:CD28/CTLA-4 pathway modulates the generation and maintenance of immune responses. Inhibiting negative regulation through binding of CTLA-4 has been shown to promote stimulation of adaptive immunity and potentiation of T cell activation. CTLA-4-blocking antibodies have demonstrated efficacy in various murine malignancy models when administered as monotherapy; additionally, they have shown synergistic anti-tumor activity when utilized with other agents, such as vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiation...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Hristina Nedelkovska, Jacques Robert
The heat shock proteins (HSPs) gp96 and HSP70 mediate potent antigen-dependent anti-tumor T cell responses in both mammals and Xenopus laevis. We have shown that frogs immunized with total HSP70 generate CD8+ T cell responses against the Xenopus thymic lymphoid tumor 15/0 that expresses several non-classical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes, but no classical MHC class Ia (class Ia). In the absence of class Ia, we hypothesized that hsp72 can prime class Ib-mediated anti-tumor unconventional CD8+ T cells in an antigen-dependent manner...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Anurag Gupta, Natko Nuber, Christoph Esslinger, Mareike Wittenbrink, Martin Treder, Alexandro Landshammer, Takuro Noguchi, Marcus Kelly, Sacha Gnjatic, Erika Ritter, Lotta von Boehmer, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Hiroshi Shiku, Lloyd Old, Gerd Ritter, Alexander Knuth, Maries van den Broek
We investigated whether antibodies against intracellular tumor-associated antigens support tumor-specific immunity when administered together with a treatment that destroys the tumor. We propose that released antigens form immune complexes with the antibodies, which are then efficiently taken up by dendritic cells. We cloned the first human monoclonal antibodies against the Cancer/Testis (CT) antigen, NY-ESO-1. We tested whether the monoclonal anti-NY-ESO-1 antibody (12D7) facilitates cross-presentation of a NY-ESO-1-derived epitope by dendritic cells to human CD8+ T cells, and whether this results in the maturation of dendritic cells in vitro...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Matthew R Buckwalter, Pramod K Srivastava
Apoptotic cells are significantly more immunogenic than necrotic cells, even though both forms are identical in antigenic content. When a combination of apoptotic and necrotic cells are used to immunize, the phenotype conferred by apoptotic cells, i.e., high immunogenicity, is dominant. However, necrotic cells are not immunosuppressive or tolerogenic. Apoptotic and necrotic cells are taken up by antigen-presenting cells in an equivalent manner. The priming of naïve T cell response is also equivalent. However, the CD8+ T cells elicited by apoptotic cells expand, accumulate, and express effector function, while those primed by the necrotic cells do not...
2013: Cancer Immunity
Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, Dan Wang, Liaquat Ali, Shashikant Lele, Michael A Huba, Song Liu, Kunle Odunsi
The aims of this study were to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in patients with familial ovarian cancer. Clinical and pathological information were retrieved from the Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry (GRFOCR) in Buffalo, NY. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of GRFOCR participants using specific antibodies for CD3+, CD8+, CD25+, FOXP3+, CD68+, and CD163+. The correlation between the frequencies of TILs and TAMs and clinic-pathologic parameters were determined...
2013: Cancer Immunity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Cancer Immunity
H M C Shantha Kumara, Michael J Grieco, Otavia L Caballero, Tao Su, Aqeel Ahmed, Erika Ritter, Sacha Gnjatic, Vesna Cekic, Lloyd J Old, Andrew J Simpson, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Richard L Whelan
The expression of Cancer/Testis (CT) antigens in some tumors and restricted expression in normal tissue make CT antigens attractive vaccine targets. We evaluated the expression of MAGE-A3, PLAC1, GAGE, and CTAG2 in a series of colorectal cancers (CRC). CT mRNA expression was determined via quantitative PCR on paired tumors and normal tissue samples from 82 CRC patients. In addition, plasma antibody titers specific to MAGE-A3, PLAC1, GAGE, and CTAG2 were determined via ELISA. Tissue expression of MAGE-A3 was assessed via a standard IHC protocol...
2012: Cancer Immunity
Jorge Estefano Santana de Souza, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto Galante, Renan Valieris Bueno de Almeida, Julia Pinheiro Chagas da Cunha, Daniel Takatori Ohara, Lucila Ohno-Machado, Lloyd J Old, Sandro José de Souza
Cell surface proteins (CSPs) are excellent targets for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, and it is estimated that 10-20% of all genes in the human genome encode CSPs. In an effort to integrate all data publicly available for genes encoding cell surface proteins, a database (SurfaceomeDB) was developed. SurfaceomeDB is a gene-centered portal containing different types of information, including annotation for gene expression, protein domains, somatic mutations in cancer, and protein-protein interactions for all human genes encoding CSPs...
2012: Cancer Immunity
Andrew M Scott, James P Allison, Jedd D Wolchok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Cancer Immunity
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