Andrea Leonardi, Luigi Quintieri, Ignacio Jáuregui Presa, Jesús Merayo LLoves, Jesús Montero, José Manuel Benítez-Del-Castillo, Francisco Javier Seoane Lestón, Eloína González-Mancebo, Riccardo Asero, Anna Groblewska, Piotr Kuna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review, is to present an updated revision of topical management of SAC and PAC, based on the available scientific evidence and focused on the impact of ophthalmic solution formulations on eye surface. RECENT FINDINGS: Physicians treating ocular allergy should be aware of tear film and tear film disruption in SAC and PAC, and how eye drop composition and additives affect the physiology of the allergic eye. Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and PAC) are the most frequent causes of ocular allergy (OA), and both conditions are underdiagnosed and undertreated...
June 13, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Richard W Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delineation of the impact of elevated carbon dioxide and concomitant global warming on airborne allergens is performed. RECENT FINDINGS: European tree pollen trends in general showed earlier start and end dates and increased total pollen release, with some differences both in locale and among species. Earlier flowering was also seen with grasses and weeds. In the case of some boreal trees, flowering was delayed due to a pre-seasonal requirement for necessary accumulated chilling temperature to achieve bud-set...
June 11, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Angelica Nazarian, Andrew F Alexis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to deliver a comprehensive report of the most recent knowledge on diagnosing allergic dermatoses in skin of color (SOC) patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Allergic dermatoses can affect populations of all backgrounds. However, racial/ethnic variations in epidemiology, clinical features, and associated allergens have been reported. Nuances in the approach to diagnosis, including the assessment of erythema and interpretation of patch tests, are important considerations when treating patients with SOC...
May 22, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Khushnood Faraz, Mason Seely, Anne L Marano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper explores how environmental factors influence allergic skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD), contact dermatitis (CD), urticaria, angioedema, and reactions to drugs and insect bites. RECENT FINDINGS: Research indicates a significant impact of environmental elements on allergic skin diseases. High air pollution levels exacerbate symptoms, while climate change contributes to increased skin barrier dysfunction, particularly affecting AD...
May 11, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Aikaterini Anagnostou, Andrew Yaworsky, Monica Brova, Nazifa Ibrahim, Siddharth Kakked, Sasha Spite, Linette Duluc, Alan L Shields, Tricia Lee, Stephanie Leonard, Kathy Przywara, Amelia Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Based on shared decision-making (SDM) principles, a decision aid was previously developed to help patients, their caregivers, and physicians decide which peanut allergy management approach best suits them. This study refined the decision aid's content to better reflect patients' and caregivers' lived experience. RECENT FINDINGS: Current standard of care for peanut allergy is avoidance, although peanut oral immunotherapy has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in patients 4-17 years old...
April 19, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Hyun J Yim, Tiffany Jean, Peck Y Ong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Historically, systemic treatments for atopic dermatitis (AD) primarily consisted of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDS), which provided symptomatic relief but often had long-term adverse effects. Newer treatments have shown significant efficacy with less side effects in clinical trials. This review discusses and compares conventional and newer systemic treatments for AD. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer medications for AD including dupilumab, tralokinumab, lebrikizumab, and oral JAK inhibitors have been shown to be safe and efficacious...
April 18, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Scout Treadwell, Maxwell Green, Geetha Gowda, Estelle Levetin, John C Carlson
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Fungal sensitizations have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions with variable levels of evidence available to link types of fungi with human disease. We conducted systematic reviews of the literature to identify the strength of evidence linking lesser-studied fungi for which there are commercially available extracts to identify populations in which they were useful in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Excluding five fungi for which hundreds of articles were identified, there are 54 articles on the remaining fungi with clinical data...
April 5, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Yike Jiang, Rebecca E Sadun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review reflects on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of rheumatology, emphasizing resulting insights related to the risks of viral infections in immunosuppressed patients, vaccine immunogenicity in immunocompromised patients, and immune dysregulation in the setting of viral infection. RECENT FINDINGS: During the pandemic, global patient registries provided real-time insights into the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in rheumatology patients...
April 3, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Brooke S Mills, Bonnie L Bermas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will review the current understanding of the immunologic changes that occur during pregnancy. It will discuss the impact of pregnancy on the disease activity of autoimmune or inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRD). Lastly, it will highlight the most recent data on pre-conception and pregnancy management practices that can improve pregnancy outcomes in autoimmune patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy is an immunologically complex and dynamic state that may affect the activity of AIRDs, with more patients having active disease during pregnancy than previously thought...
April 2, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Ellie J M Furuta, Glenn T Furuta, Robin Shandas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to understand novel avenues for eosinophilic GI disease management. Biomarkers offer a unique and non-invasive approach to tracking EoE disease progression. While no biomarkers have definitively met the diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic GI diseases, some biomarkers have been shown to be associated with disease activity. Here, we examine the potential of recently studied biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research shows advancements in blood, luminal fluid, and breath testing...
March 27, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Bob Z Sun, Jonathan M Gaffin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ubiquitous environmental exposures, including ambient air pollutants, are linked to the development and severity of childhood asthma. Advances in our understanding of these links have increasingly led to clinical interventions to reduce asthma morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: We review recent work untangling the complex relationship between air pollutants, including particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone and asthma, such as vulnerable windows of pediatric exposure and their interaction with other factors influencing asthma development and severity...
May 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Hannah Shin, Jonathan J Lyons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview on the current understanding of genetic variability in human tryptases and summarize the literature demonstrating the differential impact of mature tryptases on mast cell-mediated reactions and associated clinical phenotypes. RECENT FINDINGS: It is becoming increasingly recognized that tryptase gene composition, and in particular the common genetic trait hereditary alpha-tryptasemia (HαT), impacts clinical allergy...
April 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Concepció Marin, Isam Alobid, Mauricio López-Chacón, Camilo R VanStrahlen, Joaquim Mullol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurogenesis occurring in the olfactory epithelium is critical to continuously replace olfactory neurons to maintain olfactory function, but is impaired during chronic type 2 and non-type 2 inflammation of the upper airways. In this review, we describe the neurobiology of olfaction and the olfactory alterations in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (type 2 inflammation) and post-viral acute rhinosinusitis (non-type 2 inflammation), highlighting the role of immune response attenuating olfactory neurogenesis as a possibly mechanism for the loss of smell in these diseases...
March 16, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Scott Pfirrman, Ashley Devonshire, Andrew Winslow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we detail the exposome (consisting of environmental factors such as diet, microbial colonization, allergens, pollutants, and stressors), mechanistic and clinical research supporting its influence on atopic disease, and potentiation from climate change. We highlight contemporary environmental interventions and available evidence substantiating their roles in atopic disease prevention, from observational cohorts to randomized controlled trials, when available...
March 16, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Susan Laubach, Edwin H Kim, Matthew Greenhawt, Sally Bailey, Aikaterini Anagnostou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to highlight key published oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols and post-desensitization strategies for the major food allergens and to cover important concepts to consider when evaluating OIT for food-allergic patients. Shared decision-making should help identify patient and family values which will help influence the type of evidence-based protocol and maintenance strategy to use. RECENT FINDINGS: With food OIT emerging as a treatment option, there is a pressing need for patients, physicians, and other providers to have a nuanced understanding of the management choices available to them...
March 5, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Eugenio De Corso, Carlotta Pipolo, Marco Caminati, Elena Cantone, Veronica Seccia, Lorenzo Cecchi, Eustachio Nettis, Massimiliano Garzaro, Giancarlo Ottaviano, Matteo Gelardi, Carlo Cavaliere, Enrico Heffler, Fabio Pagella, Ernesto Pasquini, Matteo Trimarchi, Stefania Gallo, Ignazio La Mantia, Sara Torretta, Davide Mattavelli, Cristiano Caruso, Andrea Matucci, Alessandra Vultaggio, Gianluca Bellocchi, Matteo Alicandri Ciufelli, Passali Fm, Gianenrico Senna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aimed to reach an Italian multidisciplinary consensus on some crucial aspects of treatment decision making in CRSwNP, following 2 years of clinical experience in order to support specialists in the management of CRSwNP in clinical practice. We addressed issues relating to therapeutic decision-making and shared criteria for the treatment choice, as well as appropriate timing and criteria for evaluating treatment response, and highlighted the need for repeated multidisciplinary assessments...
March 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Peter Valent, Cem Akin, Michel Arock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mast cell (MC) activation syndromes (MCAS) are conditions defined by recurrent episodes of severe systemic anaphylaxis or similar systemic events triggered by MC-derived mediators that can be measured in biological fluids. Since some symptoms of MC activation may occur due to other, non-MC etiologies and lead to confusion over diagnosis, it is of crucial importance to document the involvement of MC and their products in the patients´ symptomatology. RECENT FINDINGS: The most specific and generally accepted marker of severe systemic MC activation is an event-related, transient increase in the serum tryptase level over the individual baseline of the affected individual...
March 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Akilah A Jefferson, Lauren Davidson, Amy M Scurlock, Jessica Stern
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intersection of food insecurity among those with food allergy is a growing public health concern. Both food allergy and food insecurity have profound implications on health, social, and economic outcomes. The interaction of social determinants of health, poverty, racism, housing insecurity, and access to care has direct impact on individuals with food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing evidence that universal screening for food insecurity is vital in the routine care of patients with food allergy...
February 29, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Eric C K Lee, Brit Trogen, Kathryn Brady, Lara S Ford, Julie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review explores food allergy prevalence and natural history stratified by life stages, especially in context of evolving knowledge over the last few decades. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of food allergy remains highest in early childhood with common food triggers being cow's milk, soy, hen's egg, wheat, peanut, tree nuts, sesame, fish, and shellfish. This correlates with certain risk factors especially pertinent in the postnatal period which appear to predispose an individual to developing a food allergy...
February 28, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Idil D Ezhuthachan, Michele Beaudoin, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn, Brian P Vickery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current and future treatment options for IgE-mediated food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent years have seen major developments in both allergen-specific and allergen-non-specific treatment options, with the first FDA-approved peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) product becoming available in 2020. In addition to OIT, other immunotherapy modalities, biologics, adjunct therapies, and novel therapeutics are under investigation. Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with a significant psychosocial impact...
February 23, 2024: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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