Xiaoxue Cui, Bo Gao, Yijun Yu, Ye Gu, Liqun Hu
BACKGROUND: It has been observed previously that chronic methamphetamine (METH) administration could upregulate neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression and promote atherosclerotic formation in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed with a normal cholesterol or high diet and NPY might be involved in the pathogenesis of METH-induced atherogenic effects through NPY Y1 receptor pathway. Vulnerable coronary atherosclerotic plaque (VP) is a critical pathological finding responsible for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
March 21, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Forough Kazemi, Hemen Moradi-Sardareh, Reza Arjmand, Mehdi Tavalla, Afshin Amari, Bahman Cheraghian
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is considered the most frequent type of cancer in women with high mortality worldwide, and most importantly, it is the second most common cancer. However, some breast cancer-related risk factors remain unknown. So, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of Toxocara canis on the biomarkers correlated with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice infected with Toxocara canis for the first time. METHODS: Mice were categorized into four groups: A) control, B) treated with 4T1+ Toxocara canis, C) treated with Toxocara canis, and D) treated with 4T1...
March 20, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Asma Rasouli, Nasibeh Zerangian, Mehrnoush Baradaran Hezave, Ava Aghakhani, Masoumeh Saberi Rounkia, Fatemeh Soleimanlou, Arian Alhani, Nasim Sabet Eqlidi, Maryam Pirani, Saba Mehrtabar, Asiyeh Pormehr-Yabandeh, Kimia Keylani, Neda Tizro, Niloofar Deravi
Flavonoids are classified into subclasses of polyphenols, a multipurpose category of natural compounds which comprises secondary metabolites extracted from vascular plants and are plentiful in the human diet. Although the details of flavonoid mechanisms are still not realized correctly, they are generally regarded as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative; anti-mutagenic; anti-neoplastic; anti-aging; anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, etc. The anti-cancer; properties of flavonoids are evident in functions such as prevention of proliferation, metastasis, invasion, inflammation and activation; of cell death...
March 20, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Qi Wang, Aihua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying arsenic-induced liver injury, the Kelch-like epichlorohydrin-related protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is the main regulatory pathway involved in antioxidant protein and phase II detoxification enzyme expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and mechanism of baicalein in the alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in normal human liver cells. METHODS: Normal human liver cells (MIHA cells) were treated with NaAsO2 (0, 5, 10, 20 μM) to observe the effect of different doses of NaAsO2 on MIHA cells...
March 20, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Keshav Bansal, Vanshita Singh, Sakshi Singh, Samiksha Mishra
Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are progressive morbidities that represent a serious health issue in the aging world population. There is a contemporary upsurge in worldwide interest in the area of traditional remedies and phytomedicines are widely accepted by researchers due to their health-promoted effects and fewer side effects. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside present in the peels of citrus fruits, possesses various biological activities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. In various preclinical studies, hesperidin has provided significant protective actions in a variety of brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, depression, neuropathic pain, etc...
March 20, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Murat Ihlamur, Kübra Kelleci, Yağmur Zengin
One of the biggest challenges in the fight against cancer is early detection. Early diagnosis is vital, but there are some barriers such as economic, cultural, and personal factors. Considering the disadvantages of radiological imaging techniques or serological analysis methods used in cancer diagnosis, such as being expensive, requiring expertise, and being time-consuming, there is a need to develop faster, more reliable, and cost-effective diagnostic methods for use in cancer diagnosis. Exosomes, which are responsible for intercellular communication with sizes ranging from 30-120 nm, are naturally produced biological nanoparticles...
March 20, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Simranjeet Kaur, Dilpreet Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Yanan Liu, Lizhi Feng, Lan Yao
BACKGROUND: Sepsis often induces hepatic dysfunction and inflammation, accounting for a significant increase in the incidence and mortality rates. To this end, albiflorin (AF) has garnered enormous interest due to its potent anti-inflammatory activity. However, the substantial effect of AF on sepsis-mediated acute liver injury (ALI), along with its potential mechanism of action, remains to be explored. METHODS: An LPS-mediated primary hepatocyte injury cell model in vitro and a mouse model of CLP-mediated sepsis in vivo were initially built to explore the effect of AF on sepsis...
March 9, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Suman Kumar Ray, Erukkambattu Jayashankar, Ashwin Kotnis, Sukhes Mukherjee
Redox homeostasis is essential for keeping our bodies healthy, but it also helps breast cancer cells grow, stay alive, and resist treatment. Changes in the redox balance and problems with redox signaling can make breast cancer cells grow and spread and make them resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation and the oxidant defense system are out of equilibrium, which causes oxidative stress. Many studies have shown that oxidative stress can affect the start and spread of cancer by interfering with redox (reduction-oxidation) signaling and damaging molecules...
March 9, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Gauri Mishra, Kamakshi Srivastava, Juhi Rais, Manish Dixit, Vandana Kumari Singh, Lokesh Chandra Mishra
The prokaryotic adaptive immune system has clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat. CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) genome editing systems have been harnessed. A robust programmed technique for efficient and accurate genome editing and gene targeting has been developed. Engineered cell therapy, in vivo gene therapy, animal modeling, and cancer diagnosis and treatment are all possible applications of this ground-breaking approach. Multiple genetic and epigenetic changes in cancer cells induce malignant cell growth and provide chemoresistance...
February 13, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Basheer Abdullah Marzoog
Neuron homeostasis is crucial for the organism, and its maintenance is multifactorial, including autophagy. The turnover of aberrant intracellular components is a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism for cell aging. Autophagy is involved in the acceleration of the neurocyte aging process and the modification of cell longevity. Neurocyte aging is a process of loss of cell identity through cellular and subcellular changes that include molecular loss of epigenetics, transcriptomic, proteomic, and autophagy dysfunction...
January 20, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Ajay Kumar Raj, Kiran Bharat Lokhande, Tanay K Prasad, Rasika Nandangiri, Sumitra Choudhary, Jayanta K Pal, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Background Dietary chemicals and their gut-metabolized products are explored for their anti-proliferative and pro-cell death effects. Dietary and metabolized chemicals are different from ruminants such as goats over humans. Methods Loss of cell viability and induction of death due to goat urine DMSO fraction (GUDF) derived chemicals were assessed by routine in vitro assays upon MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Intracellular metabolite profiling of MCF-7 cells treated with goat urine DMSO fraction (GUDF) was performed using an in-house designed vertical tube gel electrophoresis (VTGE) assisted methodology, followed by LC-HRMS...
January 13, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Wu Xiong, Jian-da Zhou, Mei-Xin Tan, Yu Liu, Yu Yan, Hua-Juan Lei, Jia-Rui Peng, Wei Liu, Pei Tan, Xi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is widespread in the world's population, increasing the risk of many diseases. This study aimed to explore the regulatory effect and mechanism of astragaloside IV (ASIV)-mediated endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) exosomal LINC01963 in endothelial cells (HUVECs) impaired by high glucose. METHODS: Morphologies of exosomes were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Immunofluorescence was used to identify EPCs and detect the expressions of caspase-1...
January 11, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Sahar Mazloomi, Vahide Mousavi, Esmat Aghadavod, Alireza Mafi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine/metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary morphology, and ovulatory dysfunction/anovulation. It involves multiple effects in patients, including granulosa/theca cell hyperplasia, menstrual disturbances, infertility, acne, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disorders. Biochemical analyses and the results of RNA sequencing studies in recent years have shown a type of non-coding RNAs as a splicing product known as circular RNAs (circRNAs)...
January 10, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Azadeh Hasanzadeh, Molouk Beiromvand, Abdollah Rafiei, Mohammad Kazemi, Amin Bahreini, Hossein Khanahmad
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the Echinococcus granulosus senso lato (E. granulosus s.l.) larval stages. Parasite-derived products have been shown to regulate host matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), contributing to CE pathogenesis and progressive liver fibrosis in intermediate hosts. The current study aimed to investigate the potential role of MMP1, 7, 8, and 13 in E. granulosus s.l-¬induced liver fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty CE patients with active, transitional, or inactive hydatid cysts were enrolled in this study using qRT-PCR to determine the inductive effects of E...
January 6, 2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Bingqing Zhang, Hong Di, Yun Zhang, Xinxin Han, Yue Yin, Yingdong Han, Yu Cao, Xuejun Zeng
BACKGROUND: Gout could result in irreversible bone erosion, and chondrocyte might be involved in the process. Increased soluble urate is the early stage of gout and is strongly oxidative. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of intracellular urate on the oxidative status of chondrocytes Methods: A chondrocyte model was used. Serial concentrations of exogenous urate were incubated with chondrocytes for increasing amounts of time. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidant, and anti-oxidant molecules were measured with biochemical assays, rt-PCR, and western blot...
December 27, 2022: Current Molecular Medicine
Xiaoxiao Dong, Yimin Mao, Pengfei Gao
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a multifunctional secretory protein that belongs to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. BMPs transduce their signaling to the cytoplasm by binding to membrane receptors of the serine/threonine kinase family, including BMP type I and type II receptors. BMP4 participates in various biological processes, such as embryonic development, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. The interaction between BMP4 and the corresponding endogenous antagonists plays a key role in the precise regulation of BMP4 signaling...
2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Idris Zubairu Sadiq
Free radicals contain one or more unpaired electrons in their valence shell, thus making them unstable, short-lived, and highly reactive species. Excessive generation of these free radicals ultimately leads to oxidative stress causing oxidation and damage to significant macromolecules in the living system and essentially disrupting signal transduction pathways and antioxidants equilibrium. At lower concentrations, ROS serves as "second messengers," influencing many physiological processes in the cell. However, higher concentrations beyond cell capacity cause oxidative stress, contributing to human pathologies such as diabetes, cancer, Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular diseases, cataract, asthma, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease...
2023: Current Molecular Medicine
Shahram Taeb, Davood Rostamzadeh, Sahar Mafi, Mohammad Mofatteh, Ali Zarrabi, Kiavash Hushmandi, Arash Safari, Ehsan Khodamoradi, Masoud Najafi
The idea of cancer immunotherapy has spread, and it has made tremendous progress with the advancement of new technology. Immunotherapy, which serves to assist the natural defenses of the body in eradicating cancerous cells, is a remarkable achievement that has revolutionized both cancer research and cancer treatments. Currently, the use of stem cells in immunotherapy is widespread and shares a special characteristic, including cancer cell migration, bioactive component release, and immunosuppressive activity...
December 26, 2022: Current Molecular Medicine
Amit K Maiti
SARS-CoV2 is a novel respiratory coronavirus and, understanding its molecular mechanism is a prerequisite to developing effective treatment for covid-19. This RNA genome-carrying virus has a protein coat with spikes (S) that attaches to the ACE2 receptor at the cell surface of human cells. Several repurposed drugs are used to treat covid-19 patients that are proven to be largely unsuccessful or have limited success in reducing mortalities. Several vaccines are in use to reduce the viral load to prevent developing symptoms...
December 22, 2022: Current Molecular Medicine
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