Barsa Sahebnazar, Javad Saberynejad, Mohammad Reza Atashzar
Interferon epsilon (IFN-ε) belongs to the type I IFN group and exhibits various biological properties. IFN-ε exhibits different regulation mechanisms and expression via other type I IFNs. Its hormonal regulation suggests that this INF can have different functions and pathways from other type I IFNs. Although IFN-ε exhibits lower antiproliferative, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities compared to IFN-α, it has been identified to contribute to mucosal immunity, combat bacterial infections, and aid in the prevention of specific sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV, Zika virus, etc...
June 7, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Mahshid Shahverdi, Vahab Alamdari-Palangi, Shiva Alipour, Amir Ghaffari Jolfayi, Javad Masoumi, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Arman Rostamlou, Behzad Baradaran
Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) technology has provided forceful therapeutic modalities to specific knockdown of the genes' expression related to diseases. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can start a process that specifically degrades and silences the expression of cognate mRNAs. These RNA interference processes could effectively adjust many biological processes, including immune responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialist antigen-presenting cells with potent functions in regulating innate and adaptive immunity...
June 7, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Mahrokh Abouali Gale Dari, Vahid Vahedian, Bartosz Kempisty, Olanrewaju B Morenikeji, Maryam Farzaneh, Amir Anbiyaiee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as crucial regulators of gene expression, playing pivotal roles in various biological processes, including cancer development and progression. Among them, miR-125b has garnered significant attention due to its multifaceted functional roles in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Extensive research has revealed that miR-125b plays a dual role in HCC, acting as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene depending on the context. As a tumor suppressor, miR-125b exerts its inhibitory effects on HCC by targeting key oncogenic pathways and genes involved in cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis...
June 7, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Wenlong Hu, Weiyi Huang, Wei Ji, Jun Sun
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious subtype of stroke with high mortality and disability. The rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the main cause. However, in recent years, with the popularization of CT, MRI, and cerebral angiography, the detection rate of unruptured aneurysms has increased, and the incidence of aneurysm rupture and hemorrhage has gradually decreased. However, there are still some patients who fail to detect aneurysms in time and receive treatment, resulting in the occurrence of aneurysm rupture and bleeding, and these patients usually have a poor prognosis and leave a lasting disability...
June 6, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Deepanjan Datta, Afeefa Noor, Anjali Rathee, Snigdha Singh, Kanchan Kohli
Pregabalin and diclofenac diethylamine are anti-inflammatory molecules that are effective in relieving inflammation and pain associated with musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and post-traumatic pain, among others. Intravenous and oral delivery of these two molecules has their limitations. However, the transdermal route is believed to be an alternate viable option for the delivery of therapeutic molecules with desired physicochemical properties. To this end, it is vital to understand the physicochemical properties of these drugs, dosage, and strategies to enhance permeation, thereby surmounting the associated constraints and concurrently attaining a sustained release of these therapeutic molecules when administered in combination...
June 5, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Mina Afrashteh, Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad Shimia, Bahman Yousefi, Maryam Majidinia
Glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] is a highly aggressive grade IV central nervous system tumor with a dismal prognosis. Factors such as late detection, treatment limitations due to its aggressive nature, and, notably, drug resistance significantly affect clinical outcomes. Despite the effectiveness of Temozolomide [TMZ], a potent chemotherapy agent, the development of drug resistance remains a major challenge. Given the poor survival rates and chemoresistance, there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies...
June 4, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Yun You, Guoliang Wang, Qi Cui, Xiangfu Sun, Li Wan, Quanchao Sun
INTRODUCTION: The major complication of Obliterative Bronchiolitis (OB) is characterized by epithelial cell loss, fibrosis, and luminal occlusion of the terminal small airways, which limits the long-term survival of the recipient after lung transplantation. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully clarified. This research aims to investigate whether iron overload-induced ferroptosis is involved in OB development and provide a new target for OB prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allograft orthotopic tracheal transplantation in mice was applied in our study...
June 3, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Roghayeh Tofigh, Reza Safaralizadeh, Mohammadali Hosseinpourfeizi, Nima Hemmat, Behzad Baradaran
miRNA-21 is regarded as both an abundant and highly conserved member of the microRNA (miRNA) family. It is expressed in virtually every cell and is responsible for critical regulatory actions that are important in health and disease. This microRNA has been shown to potentially have a role in the pathogenesis of several immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, such as Multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus, as two prominent examples of diseases that might be involved. In the current research, we looked at the role of miRNA-21, regarded as one of the most significant pathogenic miRNAs with a role in the development of autoimmune illness...
May 27, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Huaqiang Liu, Sylvia Annabel Dass, Venugopal Balakrishnan, Fazlina Nordin, Gee Jun Tye
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA, also known as the major histocompatibility complex or MHC) system, is responsible for immune monitoring of the intracellular proteome of all nucleated cells. The presentation of antigen peptides separates malignant or infected cells from their healthy counterparts and forms aberrant cells tagged as the foundation for identification. Therefore, peptide-MHC molecules can give potential diagnostic targets for cancer or infection. TCR-like antibodies recognize specific peptides that bind to MHC molecules, allowing them to target Such inaccessible cytoplasmic or nuclear tumors or virus-associated antigens...
May 27, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Shijie Wu, Kun Wu, Yuqing Yang, Zhiwen Ou, Xiaoyong Lei, Xiaoyan Yang
As lncRNAs have increasingly been investigated, they are no longer simply defined as RNAs with no transcription capability. Studies have identified significant associations between the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and human diseases, particularly the mechanisms by which lncRNAs play a part in cancers, which are of considerable attention to researchers. As a result of the complex spatial structure, the mechanisms of interaction of lncRNAs in cancer cells are also complicated and diversified. Among a series of lncRNAs, TUG1, which is now considered to be a very high-value lncRNA, has recently been identified to express abnormally in some malignancies, leading to different alterations in cancer cells proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and drug resistance, and hence promoting or inhibiting cancer progression...
May 22, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Hong Zhou, Yuqing Xia, Rui Zhu, Yuemei Zhang, Xinming Zhang, Yongjian Zhang, Jun Wang
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is important in the nucleolus and nuclear organization of human cells. Defective rDNA repeat maintenance has been reported to be closely associated with neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, depression, suicide, etc. However, there has not been a comprehensive review on the role of rDNA in these disorders. In this review, we have summarized the role of rDNA in major neurological disorders to sort out the correlation between rDNA and neurological diseases and provided insights for therapy with rDNA as a target...
May 21, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Suman Kumar Ray, Sukhes Mukherjee
Hypoxia, characterized by insufficient oxygen supply to tissues, is a significant factor in tumor growth and resistance to treatment. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway is activated when oxygen levels decline, influencing cell activities and promoting tumor progression. HIF-1α and HIF-2α are the main targets for therapeutic intervention in tumors. Nevertheless, the significance of HIF-2α is often overlooked. This review examines the physiological role of HIF-2α in tumor growth and its involvement in tumor growth...
May 17, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Xiaoting Yangzhong, Shu Hua, Yiqiong Wen, Xiaoqing Bi, Min Li, Yuanyuan Zheng, Shibo Sun
Obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] is widespread in the population and affects as many as one billion people worldwide. OSA is associated with dysfunction of the brain system that controls breathing, which leads to intermittent hypoxia [IH], hypercapnia, and oxidative stress [OS]. The number of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing [NLRP3] inflammasome was increased after IH, hypercapnia, and OS. NLRP3 inflammasome is closely related to inflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome causes a series of inflammatory diseases by activating IL-1β and IL-18...
May 16, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Jinyu Hu, Qinxuan Xu, Yuchang Fei, Zhengwei Tan, Lei Pan
Gastric Cancer (GC) has become one of the most important causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide due to its intractability. Studying the mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, recurrence, and metastasis, and searching for new therapeutic targets have become the main directions of today's gastric cancer research. Lactate is considered a metabolic by-product of tumor aerobic glycolysis, which can regulate tumor development through various mechanisms, including cell cycle regulation, immunosuppression, and energy metabolism...
May 9, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Feng Liu, Bowen Han, Deshun Yang, Xiaopeng Ji, Liangliang Yan, Chaoyong Han
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage. Polyphyllin I (PPI) has anti-inflammatory effects in many diseases. However, the mechanism of PPI in OA remains unclear. <P> </P> Methods: HC-a cells treated with IL-1β were identified by immunofluorescence staining and microscopic observation. The expression of collagen II and DAPI in HC-a cells was detected by immunofluorescence. The effects of gradient concentration of PPI on IL-1β-induced cell viability, apoptosis, senescence, and inflammatory factor release were detected by MTT, flow cytometry, SA-β-Gal assay and ELISA, respectively...
May 9, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Jiaping Wang, Zhijuan Xu, Yanli Lai, Yanli Zhang, Ping Zhang, Qitian Mu, Shujun Yang, Lixia Sheng, Guifang Ouyang
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the inhibitory mechanism of anlotinib on human Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) cells through in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: In vitro cellular experiments validate the effects of anlotinib on MCL cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, a subcutaneous xenograft nude mice model of Mino MCL cells was established to assess the anti-tumour effect and tumour microenvironment regulation of anlotinib in vivo. RESULTS: The results indicate that MCL cell proliferation was significantly inhibited upon anlotinib exposure...
April 24, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Yuye Zhu, Chunying Liu, Jamal Hallajzadeh
One of the greatest serious side effects of diabetes is diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is also the key factor in the sometimes-deadly diabetic end-stage renal disease. Progressive renal interstitial fibrosis is closely associated with oxidative stress, and the extracellular matrix is typically a feature of DN. Some RNAs formed by genome transcription that are not translated into proteins are recognized as noncoding RNAs. It has been shown that ncRNAs control apoptosis, inflammatory response, cell proliferation, autophagy, and other pathogenic processes, contributing to the pathogenesis of DN...
April 5, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Zhongcheng Xie, Jimin Yang, Chunmeng Jiao, Hui Chen, Siyu Ouyang, Zhiyang Liu, Qin Hou, Jifeng Liu
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle degeneration is a common effect of chronic muscle injuries, including fibrosis and fatty infiltration, which is the replacement of preexisting parenchymal tissue by extracellular matrix proteins and abnormal invasive growth of fibroblasts and adipocytes. METHOD: This remodeling limits muscle function and strength, eventually leading to reduced quality of life for those affected. Chemokines play a major role in the regulation of immunocyte migration, inflammation, and tissue remodeling and are implicated in various fibrotic and degenerative diseases...
March 15, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Jinfeng Su, Haiyan Wang, Zun Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic inflammatory condition of the human intestine, comprises Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). IBD causes severe gastrointestinal symptoms and increases the risk of developing colorectal carcinoma. Although the etiology of IBD remains ambiguous, complex interactions between genetic predisposition, microbiota, epithelial barrier, and immune factors have been implicated. The disruption of intestinal homeostasis is a cardinal characteristic of IBD. Patients with IBD exhibit intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, impaired epithelial tight junctions, and immune dysregulation; however, the relationship between them is not completely understood...
March 7, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
Reza Afrisham, Ghazal Alasvand, Yasaman Jadidi, Vida Farrokhi, Reza Fadaei, Shaban Alizadeh, Nariman Moradi
INTRODUCTION: Adipokine irregularity leads to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance (IR), and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Previous studies linked NOV/CCN3 to obesity, IR, and inflammation, but no research has explored the connection between CCN3 serum levels and NAFLD. METHODS: This case-control study assessed CCN3, IL-6, adiponectin, and TNF-α serum levels in 80 NAFLD patients and 80 controls using ELISA kits. Biochemical parameters were measured with commercial kits and an auto analyzer...
February 23, 2024: Current Molecular Medicine
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