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Respiratory Research

Kelan Tantisira, Oliver Schildgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2019: Respiratory Research
Mary N Brown, Rainard Fuhr, Jutta Beier, Hong-Lin Su, Yingxue Chen, Henrik Forsman, Ulrika Wählby Hamrén, Helen Jackson, Ajay Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids reduce inflammation in asthma but chronic use may cause adverse effects. AZD7594, an inhaled non-steroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, has the potential of an improved risk-benefit profile. We investigated the safety and efficacy of AZD7594 in asthma. METHODS: This phase 2a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled adults with asthma aged 18 to 75 years. Patients were treated with budesonide 200 μg twice daily for 2-3 3 weeks (run in part one)...
February 18, 2019: Respiratory Research
Xiaowei Xie, Jingan Zhao, Lixin Xie, Haiyan Wang, Yan Xiao, Yingjia She, Lingyun Ma
BACKGROUND: Lung injury due to zinc chloride smoke inhalation is very common in military personnel and leads to a high incidence of pulmonary complications and mortality. The aim of this study was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of lung injury due to zinc chloride smoke inhalation using a rat model. METHODS: Histopathology analysis of rat lungs after zinc chloride smoke inhalation was performed by using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Mallory staining...
February 15, 2019: Respiratory Research
Sung Woo Moon, Ji Soo Choi, Sang Hoon Lee, Kyung Soo Jung, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Song Yee Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia can contribute to negative outcomes in patients with various lung diseases. However, whether sarcopenia affects prognosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been reported. Simple measures of muscle mass, derived from chest computed tomography (CT), are increasingly being used to identify patients with sarcopenia. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle mass could be a predictor of prognosis in IPF patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 180 patients diagnosed with IPF between January 2010 and December 2015 at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea...
February 15, 2019: Respiratory Research
Claudia Flexeder, Jan-Paul Zock, Deborah Jarvis, Giuseppe Verlato, Mario Olivieri, Geza Benke, Michael J Abramson, Torben Sigsgaard, Cecilie Svanes, Kjell Torén, Dennis Nowak, Rain Jõgi, Jesús Martinez-Moratalla, Pascal Demoly, Christer Janson, Thorarinn Gislason, Roberto Bono, Mathias Holm, Karl A Franklin, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Valérie Siroux, Bénédicte Leynaert, Sandra Dorado Arenas, Angelo Guido Corsico, Antonio Pereira-Vega, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Isabel Urrutia Landa, Holger Schulz, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years. METHODS: We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys...
February 14, 2019: Respiratory Research
Angelo G Corsico, Andrea M D'Armini, Valentina Conio, Antonio Sciortino, Maurizio Pin, Valentina Grazioli, Giulia Di Vincenzo, Rita Di Domenica, Anna Celentano, Benedetta Vanini, Amelia Grosso, Erica Gini, Federica Albicini, Vera N Merli, Vanessa Ronzoni, Stefano Ghio, Catherine Klersy, Isa Cerveri
BACKGROUND: After successful pulmonary endoarterectomy (PEA), patients may still suffer from exercise limitation, despite normal pulmonary vascular resistance. We sought to assess the proportion of these patients after the extension of PEA to frail patients, and the determinants of exercise limitation. METHODS: Out of 553 patients treated with PEA from 2008 to 2016 at our institution, a cohort of 261 patients was followed up at 12 months. They underwent clinical, haemodynamic, echocardiographic, respiratory function tests and treadmill exercise testing...
February 14, 2019: Respiratory Research
Farhan Shah, Karl A Franklin, Thorbjörn Holmlund, Eva Levring Jäghagen, Diana Berggren, Sture Forsgren, Per Stål
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of obstruction and swallowing dysfunction in snores and sleep apnea patients remains unclear. Neuropathy and to some extent myopathy have been suggested as contributing causes. Recently we reported an absence and an abnormal isoform of two cytoskeletal proteins, desmin, and dystrophin, in upper airway muscles of healthy humans. These cytoskeletal proteins are considered vital for muscle function. We aimed to investigate for muscle cytoskeletal abnormalities in upper airways and its association with swallowing dysfunction and severity of sleep apnea...
February 14, 2019: Respiratory Research
Valentino Bezzerri, Francesco Piacenza, Nicole Caporelli, Marco Malavolta, Mauro Provinciali, Marco Cipolli
Pulmonary disease is the main cause of the morbidity and mortality of patients affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). The lung pathology is dominated by excessive recruitment of neutrophils followed by an exaggerated inflammatory process that has also been reported to occur in the absence of apparent pathogenic infections. Airway surface dehydration and mucus accumulation are the driving forces of this process. The continuous release of reactive oxygen species and proteases by neutrophils contributes to tissue damage, which eventually leads to respiratory insufficiency...
February 14, 2019: Respiratory Research
Sarah Marietta von Siemens, Rudolf A Jörres, Jürgen Behr, Peter Alter, Johanna Lutter, Tanja Lucke, Sandra Söhler, Tobias Welte, Henrik Watz, Claus F Vogelmeier, Franziska Trudzinski, Winfried Rief, Britta Herbig, Kathrin Kahnert
The diagnosis of depression, a frequent comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is often supported by questionnaires, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). It is unknown to which extent its single questions are affected by the clinical characteristics of COPD patients.We addressed this question in 2255 GOLD grade 1-4 patients from the COSYCONET (COPD and Systemic Consequences - Comorbidities Network) COPD cohort. The dependence on COPD severity was assessed using symptoms, exacerbation risk (GOLD A-D; modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale (mMRC)), and frequent comorbidities as predictors of PHQ-9 results, while including age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits as covariates...
February 11, 2019: Respiratory Research
Anup Das, Luigi Camporota, Jonathan G Hardman, Declan G Bates
BACKGROUND: Recent analyses of patient data in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) showed that a lower ventilator driving pressure was associated with reduced relative risk of mortality. These findings await full validation in prospective clinical trials. METHODS: To investigate the association between driving pressures and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), we calibrated a high fidelity computational simulator of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology against a clinical dataset, capturing the responses to changes in mechanical ventilation of 25 adult ARDS patients...
February 11, 2019: Respiratory Research
Sheng-Wen Sun, Long Chen, Mei Zhou, Jiang-Hua Wu, Zhao-Ji Meng, Hong-Li Han, Shuai-Ying Miao, Chen-Chen Zhu, Xian-Zhi Xiong
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by continuous flow limitation and the immune system including macrophages and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) is involved in COPD pathogenesis. In our previous study, we investigated that TGF-β/BAMBI pathway was associated with COPD by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg. However, the role of bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), a pseudoreceptor of TGF-β signalling pathway, in regulating the immune system of COPD patients has not been fully studied...
February 6, 2019: Respiratory Research
Sanjana Mahadev Bhat, Nyzil Massey, Locke A Karriker, Baljit Singh, Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath
BACKGROUND: Animal production workers are persistently exposed to organic dust and can suffer from a variety of respiratory disease symptoms and annual decline in lung function. The role of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in inflammatory airway diseases is emerging. Hence, we tested a hypothesis that organic dust exposure of airway epithelial cells induces nucleocytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 and blocking this translocation dampens organic dust-induced lung inflammation. METHODS: Rats were exposed to either ambient air or swine barn (8 h/day for either 1, 5, or 20 days) and lung tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry...
February 6, 2019: Respiratory Research
Ascanio Tridente, Lucia De Martino, Daniele De Luca
BACKGROUND: Bovine surfactants are known to be clinically equivalent but it is unclear if porcine or bovine surfactants at their licensed dose should be preferred to treat respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of biochemical and pharmacological features of surfactants to understand the biological plausibility of any clinical effect. We then performed a pragmatic meta-analysis comparing internationally marketed porcine and bovine surfactants for mortality and respiratory outcomes...
February 6, 2019: Respiratory Research
Arif Ahmad Pandit, Ravi Kumar Gandham, C S Mukhopadhyay, Ramneek Verma, R S Sethi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Respiratory Research
Nantaka Kiranantawat, Shaunagh McDermott, Florian J Fintelmann, Sydney B Montesi, Melissa C Price, Subba R Digumarthy, Amita Sharma
BACKGROUND: To determine the clinical role, safety, and diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy in the evaluation of pulmonary consolidation. METHODS: A retrospective review of all computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsies (PTNB) at a tertiary care hospital over a 4-year period was performed to identify all cases of PTNB performed for pulmonary consolidation. For each case, CT Chest images were reviewed by two thoracic radiologists...
January 31, 2019: Respiratory Research
Qi Guo, Wei-Dong Song, Hai-Yan Li, Yi-Ping Zhou, Ming Li, Xiao-Ke Chen, Hui Liu, Hong-Lin Peng, Hai-Qiong Yu, Xia Chen, Nian Liu, Zhong-Dong Lü, Li-Hua Liang, Qing-Zhou Zhao, Mei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) minor criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are of unequal weight in predicting mortality, but the major problem associated with IDSA/ATS minor criteria might be a lack of consideration of weight in prediction in clinical practice. Would awarding different points to the presences of the minor criteria improve the accuracy of the scoring system? It is warranted to explore this intriguing hypothesis...
January 31, 2019: Respiratory Research
Jordan Smoothy, Alexander N Larcombe, Emily K Chivers, Vance B Matthews, Shelley Gorman
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have identified strong relationships between maternal obesity and offspring respiratory dysfunction; however, the causal direction is not known. We tested whether maternal obesity alters respiratory function of offspring in early life. METHODS: Female C57Bl/6 J mice were fed a high or low fat diet prior to and during two rounds of mating and resulting pregnancies with offspring lung function assessed at 2 weeks of age. The lung function of dams was measured at 33 weeks of age...
January 30, 2019: Respiratory Research
Li Huang, Shuyin Duan, Hua Shao, Aihua Zhang, Shuang Chen, Peng Zhang, Na Wang, Wei Wang, Yongjun Wu, Jing Wang, Hong Liu, Wu Yao, Qiao Zhang, Feifei Feng
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory micro-environment has been proposed to play a critical role in lung tumorigenesis. NLRP3 is known as an intracellular receptor involving inflammation and has been reported which is increasingly associated with tumor development, but the role in inflammation-driven lung cancer has not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation could contribute to lung tumorigenesis induced by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)p] in C57BL/6J mice and the role of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis...
January 29, 2019: Respiratory Research
M T Driessen, J Whalen, B Seewoodharry Buguth, L A Vallejo-Aparicio, I P Naya, Y Asukai, B Alcázar-Navarrete, M Miravitlles, F García-Río, N A Risebrough
Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified of the below corrections to the 5th paragraph in the Discussion section.
January 28, 2019: Respiratory Research
Ting Zhou, Xiji Huang, Jixuan Ma, Yun Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Lili Xiao, Jing Yuan, Jungang Xie, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Soluble CD14 (sCD14) shedding from CD14 could regulate T lymphocyte activation and function, which has implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The level of sCD14 expression is obviously increased in asthmatic patients during acute asthma attacks. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma sCD14 level and asthma severity in adults. METHODS: The plasma sCD14 level in asthma patients (n = 910) and healthy controls (n = 881) was quantified by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
January 28, 2019: Respiratory Research
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