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Ginevra Zanni, P De Magistris, M Nardella, E Bellacchio, S Barresi, A Sferra, A Ciolfi, M Motta, H Lue, D Moreno-Andres, M Tartaglia, E Bertini, Wolfram Antonin
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the gateways of the nuclear envelope mediating transport between cytoplasm and nucleus. They form huge complexes of 125 MDa in vertebrates and consist of about 30 different nucleoporins present in multiple copies in each complex. Here, we describe pathogenic variants in the nucleoporin 93 (NUP93) associated with an autosomal recessive form of congenital ataxia. Two rare compound heterozygous variants of NUP93 were identified by whole exome sequencing in two brothers with isolated cerebellar atrophy: one missense variant (p...
February 11, 2019: Cerebellum
Christopher J Alexander, John A Hammer
While mixed primary cerebellar cultures prepared from embryonic tissue have proven valuable for dissecting structure-function relationships in cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs), this technique is technically challenging and often yields few cells. Recently, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have been successfully differentiated into PNs, although the published methods are very challenging as well. The focus of this study was to simplify the differentiation of mESCs into PNs. Using a recently described neural differentiation media, we generate monolayers of neural progenitor cells from mESCs and differentiate them into PN precursors using specific extrinsic factors...
February 7, 2019: Cerebellum
Karla Tercero-Pérez, Hernán Cortés, Yessica Torres-Ramos, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, César M Cerecedo-Zapata, Oscar Hernández-Hernández, Nelson Pérez-González, Rigoberto González-Piña, Norberto Leyva-García, Bulmaro Cisneros, Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Jonathan J Magaña
Today, neurorehabilitation has become in a widely used therapeutic approach in spinocerebellar ataxias; however, there are scarce powerful clinical studies supporting this notion, and these studies require extension to other specific SCA subtypes in order to be able to form conclusions concerning its beneficial effects. Therefore, in this study, we perform for the first time a case-control pilot randomized, single-blinded, cross-sectional, and observational study to evaluate the effects of physical neurorehabilitation on the clinical and biochemical features of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) in 18 patients diagnosed with SCA7...
January 30, 2019: Cerebellum
Pietro B Azevedo, Anastácia G Rocha, Leda M N Keim, Daniel Lavinsky, Gabriel V Furtado, Eduardo P de Mattos, Fernando R Vargas, Vanessa B Leotti, Maria-Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Laura B Jardim
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a polyglutamine disease that progressively affects the cerebellum, brainstem, and retina. SCA7 is quite rare, and insights into biomarkers and pre-clinical phases are still missing. We aimed to describe neurologic and ophthalmological findings observed in symptomatic and pre-symptomatic SCA7 subjects. Several neurologic scales, visual acuity, visual fields obtained by computer perimetry, and macular thickness in optical coherence tomography (mOCT) were measured in symptomatic carriers and at risk relatives...
January 14, 2019: Cerebellum
Lisa Bruckert, Katie Shpanskaya, Emily S McKenna, Lauren R Borchers, Maya Yablonski, Tal Blecher, Michal Ben-Shachar, Katherine E Travis, Heidi M Feldman, Kristen W Yeom
Cerebellum-cerebrum connections are essential for many motor and cognitive functions and cerebellar disorders are prevalent in childhood. The middle (MCP), inferior (ICP), and superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) are the major white matter pathways that permit communication between the cerebellum and the cerebrum. Knowledge about the microstructural properties of these cerebellar peduncles across childhood is limited. Here, we report on a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography study to describe age-dependent characteristics of the cerebellar peduncles in a cross-sectional sample of infants, children, and adolescents from newborn to 17 years of age (N = 113)...
January 14, 2019: Cerebellum
Jong Hyeon Ahn, Ah Reum Kim, Chung Lee, Nayoung K D Kim, Nam-Soon Kim, Woong-Yang Park, Minkyeong Kim, Jinyoung Youn, Jin Whan Cho, Ji Sun Kim
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have uncovered the genetic backgrounds of various diseases. Type 1 sialidosis (OMIM#256550) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the NEU1 (OMIM * 608272) gene. In this study, we aimed to review the previous reports of type 1 sialidosis and compare those with the first case of type 1 sialidosis in Korea. A 36-year-old woman presented with progressive ataxia, myoclonus, and seizure since the age of 12. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a pathogenic missense variant c...
January 11, 2019: Cerebellum
Hirokazu Tanaka, Takahiro Ishikawa, Shinji Kakei
We here provide neural evidence that the cerebellar circuit can predict future inputs from present outputs, a hallmark of an internal forward model. Recent computational studies hypothesize that the cerebellum performs state prediction known as a forward model. To test the forward-model hypothesis, we analyzed activities of 94 mossy fibers (inputs to the cerebellar cortex), 83 Purkinje cells (output from the cerebellar cortex to dentate nucleus), and 73 dentate nucleus cells (cerebellar output) in the cerebro-cerebellum, all recorded from a monkey performing step-tracking movements of the right wrist...
January 9, 2019: Cerebellum
Karin Srulijes, Jochen Klenk, Michael Schwenk, Cornelia Schatton, Lars Schwickert, Kristin Teubner-Liepert, Miriam Meyer, Srijana K C, Walter Maetzler, Clemens Becker, Matthis Synofzik
Falls in patients with neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) have enormous detrimental consequences. A better understanding of the interplay between physical activity (PA) and fall risk might help to reduce fall frequency. We aimed to investigate the association between sensor-based PA and fall risk in NDDs, using "falls per individual PA exposure time" as a novel measure. Eighty-eight subjects (n = 31 degenerative ataxia (DA), n = 14 Parkinson's disease (PD), n = 12 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 31 healthy controls) were included in this pilot study...
January 8, 2019: Cerebellum
Louis F Dell'Osso
To review our studies and "top-down" models of saccadic intrusions and infantile nystagmus syndrome with the aim of hypothesizing areas of cerebellar connections controlling parts of the ocular motor subsystems involved in both types of function and dysfunction. The methods of eye-movement recording and modeling are described in detail in the cited references. Saccadic intrusions, such as square-wave jerks and square-wave oscillations, can be simulated by a single malfunction, whereas staircase saccadic intrusions required two independent malfunctions...
January 8, 2019: Cerebellum
Diana Angelika Olszewska, E M Fallon, G M Pastores, K Murphy, A Blanco, T Lynch, S M Murphy
SCA 17 is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder caused by TBP gene CAG/CAA repeat expansion. Ataxia and dementia are common. The presence of frontal dysfunction at outset of the disease may mimic frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Parkinsonism, chorea, dystonia, and pyramidal signs may occur. We report an Irish family with autosomal dominant partially penetrant frontal dementia with cerebellar atrophy due to SCA17 and present detailed neuropsychological assessment for the first time. A 44-year-old doctor presented with 18-month history of behavioral problems...
January 8, 2019: Cerebellum
Josep Moreno-Rius
Cannabis is the third most used psychoactive drug worldwide. Despite being legally scheduled as a drug with high harm potential and no therapeutic utility in countries like the USA, evidence shows otherwise and legislative changes and reinterpretations of existing ambiguous laws make this drug increasingly available by legal means. Nevertheless, this substance is able to generate clear addiction syndromes in some individuals who use it, which are accompanied by brain alterations resembling those caused by other addictive drugs...
January 4, 2019: Cerebellum
Sung-Hee Kim, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The mechanism of perverted vertical responses during horizontal head impulse tests (HITs) requires further elucidation. A 47-year-old woman with a Chiari malformation showed alternating skew deviation, downbeat nystagmus with an increasing slow phase velocity, impaired smooth pursuit, and upward ocular deviation during horizontal HITs and corrective downward saccades in the presence of normal bithermal caloric tests and intact tilt suppressions of the post-rotatory nystagmus. These findings suggest dysfunction of the inferior cerebellum including the tonsil, nodulus, and uvula...
January 4, 2019: Cerebellum
Jan Cendelin, Annalisa Buffo, Hirokazu Hirai, Lorenzo Magrassi, Hiroshi Mitoma, Rachel Sherrard, Frantisek Vozeh, Mario Manto
Restoration of damaged central nervous system structures, functional recovery, and prevention of neuronal loss during neurodegenerative diseases are major objectives in cerebellar research. The highly organized anatomical structure of the cerebellum with numerous inputs/outputs, the complexity of cerebellar functions, and the large spectrum of cerebellar ataxias render therapies of cerebellar disorders highly challenging. There are currently several therapeutic approaches including motor rehabilitation, neuroprotective drugs, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation, molecularly based therapy targeting pathogenesis of the disease, and neurotransplantation...
January 3, 2019: Cerebellum
M Schesny, F Joncourt, Alexander A Tarnutzer
Here we describe the case of a patient with episodic dizziness and gait imbalance for 7 years and a negative family history. On clinical examination, interictally, the patient presented with gaze-evoked nystagmus and rebound nystagmus and slight dysarthria. MRI of the brain was normal and peripheral-vestibular function was bilaterally intact. Based on genetic testing (episodic ataxia panel), a heterozygote splice site variant in intron 1 of the FGF14 gene was identified. This report adds important new evidence to previous observations that pathogenic variants in the FGF14 gene may result in variable phenotypes, either in progressive spinocerebellar ataxia (type 27) or in episodic ataxia as in our case...
January 3, 2019: Cerebellum
Abhishek Lenka, Elan D Louis
Tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movement of a body part. It is a central feature of a range of diseases resulting from pathological changes in the cerebellum. Interestingly, in modern times, the terms "cerebellar tremor" and "intention tremor" are often used synonymously and interchangeably. However, "cerebellar tremor" (i.e., tremors of cerebellar origin) do not always present exclusively as intention tremor. In this article, we comprehensively revisit the clinical phenomenology of tremors observed in various diseases that are based in the cerebellum...
December 18, 2018: Cerebellum
Katharina Feil, Ralf Strobl, Alexander Schindler, Siegbert Krafczyk, Nicolina Goldschagg, Claudia Frenzel, Miriam Glaser, Florian Schöberl, Andreas Zwergal, Michael Strupp
The differential diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness as a result of cerebellar disorders can be difficult as many patients with a cerebellar pathology do not present with the full spectrum of cerebellar signs. The main goal of this study was to describe the typical clinical features of these patients with vertigo or dizziness of a cerebellar origin. We reviewed the medical records of 5400 patients with vertigo and dizziness from our tertiary outpatient clinic for vertigo and balance disorders. In 459 the diagnosis of "cerebellar vertigo or dizziness" was made; 90 patients were excluded from further analysis due to evident structural changes in MRI...
December 14, 2018: Cerebellum
Aasef G Shaikh, Mario Manto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Cerebellum
Sherry Y Tang, Aasef G Shaikh
Ataxia-telangiectasia is the second most common autosomal recessive hereditary ataxia, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 100,000 births. Besides ataxia and ocular telangiectasias, eye movement abnormalities have long been associated with this disorder and is frequently present in almost all patients. A handful of studies have described the phenomenology of ocular motor deficits in ataxia-telangiectasia. Contemporary literature linked their physiology to cerebellar dysfunction and secondary abnormalities at the level of brainstem...
December 6, 2018: Cerebellum
G P D Argyropoulos, K E Watkins, E Belton-Pagnamenta, F Liégeois, K S Saleem, M Mishkin, F Vargha-Khadem
Bilateral volume reduction in the caudate nucleus has been established as a prominent brain abnormality associated with a FOXP2 mutation in affected members of the 'KE family', who present with developmental orofacial and verbal dyspraxia in conjunction with pervasive language deficits. Despite the gene's early and prominent expression in the cerebellum and the evidence for reciprocal cerebellum-basal ganglia connectivity, very little is known about cerebellar abnormalities in affected KE members. Using cerebellum-specific voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and volumetry, we provide converging evidence from subsets of affected KE members scanned at three time points for grey matter (GM) volume reduction bilaterally in neocerebellar lobule VIIa Crus I compared with unaffected members and unrelated controls...
November 20, 2018: Cerebellum
Tomoo Hirano
Cerebellar Purkinje neurons are arguably some of the most conspicuous neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system. They have characteristic planar fan-shaped dendrites which branch extensively and fill spaces almost completely with little overlap. This dendritic morphology is well suited to receiving a single or a few excitatory synaptic inputs from each of more than 100,000 parallel fibers which run orthogonally to Purkinje cell dendritic trees. In contrast, another type of excitatory input to a Purkinje neuron is provided by a single climbing fiber, which forms some hundreds to thousands of synapses with a Purkinje neuron...
December 2018: Cerebellum
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