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FEMS Yeast Research

Ruben Hohnholz, Tilman Achstetter
Flp-mediated site specific intramolecular recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered responsible for amplification of the endogenous 2µm plasmid. For YEp-type vectors, a similar mechanism can be imagined by which such plasmids achieve high copy numbers, a trait desired for many research applications and necessary for industrial production. We have cultivated yeast carrying one of six isomeric YEp-type model expression plasmids under two different conditions and back transformed the shuttle vectors into Escherichia coli...
February 11, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Jitka Kocendová, Eva Vanková, Andrea Volejníková, Ondrej Nešuta, Miloš Budešínský, Ondrej Socha, Miroslav Hájek, Romana Hadravová, Václav Cerovský
Candida albicans is the main causative agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis, a common mycosis in women, relapses of which are difficult to manage due to biofilm formation. This study aimed to develop novel non-toxic compounds active against Candida spp. biofilms. We synthesized analogues of natural antifungal peptides LL-III (LL-III/43) and HAL-2 (peptide VIII) originally isolated from bee venoms and elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The haemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal and anti-biofilm activities of LL-III/43 and peptide VIII were then tested...
February 11, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Fumikazu Takahashi, Kazuaki Igarashi, Yasushi Takimura, Takashi Yamamoto
The yeast Starmerella bombicola NBRC10243 is an excellent producer of sophorolipids, which are among the most useful biosurfactants. The primary alcoholic metabolic pathway of S. bombicola has been elucidated using alcohol oxidase FAO1, but the secondary alcohol metabolic pathway remains unknown. Although the FAO1 mutant was unable to grow with secondary alcohols and seemed to be involved in the secondary alcohol metabolism pathway of S. bombicola, it had very low activity toward secondary alcohols. By analyzing the products of secondary alcohol metabolism, alkyl polyglucosides hydroxylated at the ω position in the alkyl chain of the secondary alcohol were observed in the FAO1 mutant, but not in the wild-type yeast...
February 11, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Duygu Dikicioglu, Daniel J H Nightingale, Valerie Wood, Kathryn S Lilley, Stephen G Oliver
Topological analysis of large networks, which focus on a specific biological process or on related biological processes, where functional coherence exists among the interacting members, may provide a wealth of insight into cellular functionality. This work presents an unbiased systems approach to analyze genetic, transcriptional regulatory, and physical interaction networks of yeast genes possessing such functional coherence to gain novel biological insight. The present analysis identified only a few transcriptional regulators amongst a large gene cohort associated with the protein metabolism and processing in yeast...
February 11, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Marta Avramova, Paul Grbin, Anthony Borneman, Warren Albertin, Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarède, Cristian Varela
Recent studies have suggested a strong niche adaptation for Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains according to human-related fermentation environments, including beer, wine and bioethanol. This is further supported by a correlation between B. bruxellensis genetic grouping and tolerance to SO2, the main antimicrobial used in wine. The allotriploid AWRI1499-like cluster, in particular, shows high SO2 tolerance suggesting that the genetic configuration observed for these strains may confer a selective advantage in winemaking conditions...
February 5, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Jonas Johannes Christ, Lars Mathias Blank
Currently, inorganic polyphosphate is chemically synthesized from phosphate rock and added directly to food products. Yeast extract is a concentrate of soluble fractions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is, as a food additive, generally regarded as safe. The aim of this study was to biotechnologically produce a naturally polyphosphate-rich yeast extract. Polyphosphate-rich cells were produced with a wild type (non-GMO) S. cerevisiae by orthophosphate-starvation and subsequent orthophosphate-feeding, and contained 28% (w/w) polyphosphate (as KPO3) in cell dry weight, which is the highest content reported so far...
February 4, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Lucia Paulovicová, Ema Paulovicová, Pavol Farkaš, Alžbeta Cížová, Peter Bystrický, Viera Jancinová, Jaroslav Turánek, Eva Pericolini, Elena Gabrielli, Anna Vecchiarelli, Martin Hrubiško
Candida glabrata is a second most common human opportunistic pathogen which causes superficial but also life-threatening systemic candidiasis. According to the localization of mannans and mannoproteins in the outermost layer of the cell wall, mannan detection could be one of the first steps in the cell recognition of Candida cells by the host innate immune system. Mannans from the cell wall provide important immunomodulatory activities, compromising stimulation of cytokine production, induction of dendritic cells maturation and T-cell immunity...
January 28, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Priscilla Romina De Gregorio, Jessica Alejandra Silva, Antonella Marchesi, María Elena Fátima Nader-Macías
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most frequent infections affecting women worldwide. Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli, which form a strong defense line against pathogens. In this work, in vitro antimicrobial properties of thirty vaginal Lactobacillus strains were evaluated against eleven Candida vaginal clinical isolates, employing three different methods. Also, the effect of intravaginal ( administrations (preventive, therapeutic and preventive-therapeutic) of L. reuteri CRL1324 or L...
January 24, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Ravinder Kumar, Piyush Kumar
In presently licensed vaccines, killed or attenuated organisms act as a source of immunogens except for peptide-based vaccines. These conventional vaccines required a mass culture of associated or related organisms and long incubation periods. Special requirements during storage and transportation further add to the cost of vaccine preparations. Availability of complete genome sequence, well established genetic, inherent natural adjuvant, and nonpathogenic nature of yeast species viz Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris makes them an ideal model system for the development of vaccines both for public health and for on-farm consumption...
January 21, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Andrey M Yurkov, Cletus P Kurtzman
The present study studied novel basidiomycetous yeasts from maize and northern wild rice plants. From comparisons of ribosomal ITS and LSU (D1 and D2 domains), and subsequent phylogenetic analyses, the following species were resolved and described: Papiliotrema zeae Yurkov & Kurtzman sp. nov. (ex-type cultures DSM 104035, NRRL Y-63980, MB 827356, GenBank MH718306), Solicoccozyma zizaniae Yurkov & Kurtzman sp. nov. (ex-type cultures DSM 104031, NRRL Y-7649, MB 827354, GenBank MH718302) and Vishniacozyma kurtzmanii Yurkov sp...
January 14, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Maëlle Sauvaget, Fraser Hutton, Robert Coull, Stefano Vavassori, Ke Wang, Aleksandra Reznik, Tatsiana Chyker, Chelsea G Newfield, Eloise Euston, Gerrit Benary, Lilian M Schweizer, Michael Schweizer
The five-membered PRS gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of gene duplication allowing the acquisition of novel functions. Each of the five Prs polypeptides is theoretically capable of synthesising PRPP but at least one of the following heterodimers is required for survival: Prs1/Prs3, Prs2/Prs5 and Prs4/Prs5. Prs3 contains a pentameric motif 284KKCPK288 found only in nuclear proteins. Deletion of 284KKCPK288 destabilises the Prs1/Prs3 complex resulting in a cascade of events, including reduction in PRPP synthetase activity and altered CWI as measured by caffeine sensitivity and Rlm1 expression...
January 11, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Yu-Wen Chen, Ying-Chieh Yeh, Hsueh-Fen Chen, Ruei-Ching Chen, Guan-Yu Lin, Yu-Ting Chen, Chung-Yu Lan
Candida albicans is an important fungal pathogen of humans. Rhb1 is a small GTPase of the Ras superfamily and is conserved from yeasts to humans. In C. albicans, Rhb1 regulates the expression of secreted protease 2, low nitrogen-mediated morphogenesis and biofilm formation. Moreover, our previous studies have indicated that Rhb1 is associated with the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway. In this study, we further explored the relationship between Rhb1 and drug susceptibility. The RHB1 deletion mutant exhibited reduced fluconazole susceptibility, and this phenotype occurred mainly through the increased gene expression and activity of efflux pumps...
January 11, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Dmitry S Karpov, Daria S Spasskaya, Nonna I Nadolinskaia, Vera V Tutyaeva, Yuriy P Lysov, Vadim L Karpov
The 26S proteasome participates in cell stress responses via its ability to degrade regulatory and damaged proteins. In yeast, mutations in the subunits of the 19S proteasome regulatory subcomplex cause hyper-resistance to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), a chemical mutagen and carcinogen. These data suggest a negative role for the 19S proteasome complex in the cellular response to 4-NQO, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. We proposed that decreased 19S subcomplex activity leads to the stabilisation of Rpn4, a transcription factor and proteasome substrate...
January 9, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Cullen Horstmann, Chelsea Campbell, Daniel Sungwhi Kim, Kyoungtae Kim
Engineered Nano Materials (ENMs) are commercially used in everyday products including zinc sunscreens and water resistant fabrics and surfaces. Therefore, understanding the effects of ENMs on the environment is crucial for the responsible use of these technologies. We investigated the effects of 20 nm spherical citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our growth assay showed that AgNPs have an inhibitory effect in yeast growth with concentrations above 5 μg/mL...
January 9, 2019: FEMS Yeast Research
Christoph S Börlin, Nevena Cvetesic, Petter Holland, David Bergenholm, Verena Siewers, Boris Lenhard, Jens Nielsen
One of the fundamental processes that determine cellular fate is regulation of gene transcription. Understanding these regulatory processes is therefore essential for understanding cellular responses to changes in environmental conditions. At the core promoter, the regulatory region containing the transcription start site (TSS), all inputs regulating transcription are integrated. Here, we used Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) to analyze the pattern of transcription start sites at four different environmental conditions (limited in ethanol, limited in nitrogen, limited in glucose and limited in glucose under anaerobic conditions) using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN...
December 22, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Rosemary A Cripwell, Shaunita H Rose, Marinda Viljoen-Bloom, Willem H van Zyl
Amylases are used in a variety of industries that have a specific need for alternative enzymes capable of hydrolysing raw starch. Five α-amylase and five glucoamylase-encoding genes were expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 laboratory strain to select for recombinant strains that best hydrolysed raw corn starch. Gene variants of four amylases were designed using codon optimisation and different secretion signals. The significant differences in activity levels among the gene variants confirms that codon optimisation of fungal genes for expression in S...
December 10, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
J A Granados-Arvizu, L A Madrigal-Perez, M Canizal-Garcia, J C González-Hernández, B E García-Almendárez, C Regalado-González
Scheffersomyces stipitis shows a high capacity to ferment xylose, with a strong oxygen dependence to allow NAD+ regeneration. However, without oxygen regeneration of NADH occurs by other metabolic pathways like alcoholic fermentation. There are few reports about inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration and their effects on growth and fermentation. This work aimed to explore the effect of cytochrome bc1 complex inhibition by antimycin A (AA), on growth and fermentation of S. stipitis using glucose, xylose, and arabinose as carbon sources, at three agitation levels (0, 125 and 250 rpm)...
November 30, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Teeratas Kijpornyongpan, Hector Urbina, Sung-Oui Suh, Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Marie Aime, Meredith Blackwell
Candida tanzawaensis clade members are now placed in Suhomyces. The group was virtually unknown until the early 2000 s. Here we review progress made on Suhomyces over the last two decades and provide data from reports of new members of the group from distant localities worldwide, their habitats and a new study of mating loci that helps explain earlier failed compatibility tests. Phylogenetic studies indicate early diverging members are mostly associated with plants, but later diverging species are usually fungus-feeding insect associates...
November 28, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Shan Gunasegar, Wan Harun Himratul-Aznita
Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 HWP1 (hyphal-wall protein 1) are involved in hyphae formation and pathogenesis. The transcriptional ALS3 (agglutinin-like sequence 3) gene in both species are responsible for the development of biofilm and colonization on tooth surfaces. Therefore, we investigated the expression of HWP1 and ALS3 quantitatively in C. albicans and C. parapsilosis and examined the biofilm structure upon exposure to various nicotine concentrations. In vitro, biofilms of Candida species were developed directly on slides using the Lab-Tek Chamber Slide System and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy...
November 21, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Laura Cabello, Estefanía Gómez-Herreros, Jordan Fernández-Pereira, Sergi Maicas, María Concepción Martínez-Esparza, Piet W J de Groot, Eulogio Valentín
Candida albicans is a predominant cause of fungal infections in mucosal tissues as well as life-threatening bloodstream infections in immunocompromised patients. Within the human body, C. albicans is mostly embedded in biofilms, which provides increased resistance to antifungal drugs. The glyoxalase Glx3 is an abundant proteomic component of the biofilm extracellular matrix. Here, we document phenotypic studies of a glx3Δ null mutant concerning its role in biofilm formation, filamentation, antifungal drug resistance, cell wall integrity, and virulence...
November 21, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
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