Eymen Demir, Umit Bilginer, Murat Soner Balcioglu, Taki Karsli
Since domestication, farm animals have played a key role to increase the prosperity of humankind, while animal welfare (AW) is debated even today. This paper aims to comprehensively review the contributions of developing molecular genetics to farm animal welfare (FAW) and to raise awareness among both scientists and farmers about AW. Welfare is a complex trait affected by genetic structure and environmental factors. Therefore, the best welfare status can be achieved not only to enhance environmental factors such as management and feeding practices, but also the genetic structure of animals must be improved...
November 29, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Paul R Langford, Oliver W Stringer, Yanwen Li, Janine T Bossé
Historically, the MISTEACHING (microbiome, immunity, sex, temperature, environment, age, chance, history, inoculum, nutrition, genetics) framework to describe the outcome of host-pathogen interaction, has been applied to human pathogens. Here, we show, using Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as an exemplar, that the MISTEACHING framework can be applied to a strict veterinary pathogen, enabling the identification of major research gaps, the formulation of hypotheses whose study will lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, and/or improved prevention/therapeutic measures...
July 19, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Gercino Ferreira Virgínio Júnior, Carla Maris Machado Bittar
This review aims to explain how microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in young dairy calves is related to health and, consequently, to the performance of these animals. The review addresses everything from the fundamental aspects of microbial colonization to the current understanding about the microbiota manipulation to improve performance in adult animals. The ruminal microbiota is the most studied, mainly due to the high interest in the fermentative aspects, the production of short-chain fatty acids, and microbial proteins, and its effects on animal production...
June 16, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Pan Yang, Yongxi Ma
Vitamin D (VD) has been reported to play multiple and significant roles in improving pig health via modulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal muscle development and the immune system. Apart from food, photochemical action of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is the main source of this molecule for pigs. The VD from dietary intake or photosynthesized via skin can be absorbed into the liver for hydroxylation, and further hydroxylated into the hormone form of VD (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3) in the kidney...
June 2, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Luís Dionísio, Francisco Medeiros, Manuel Pequito, Ana I Faustino-Rocha
Influenza is an extremely contagious respiratory disease, which predominantly affects the upper respiratory tract. There are four types of influenza virus, and pigs and chickens are considered two key reservoirs of this virus. Equine influenza (EI) virus was first identified in horses in 1956, in Prague. The influenza A viruses responsible for EI are H7N7 and H3N8. Outbreaks of EI are characterized by their visible and rapid spread, and it has been possible to isolate and characterize H3N8 outbreaks in several countries...
June 2, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Zaharaddeen Lawan, Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Alhaji Modu Bukar, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Hassana Kyari Mangga, Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah, Mustapha Mohamed Noordin, Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi
Contagious ecthyma (CE) is an infectious disease of small ruminants caused by a parapoxvirus of family Poxviridae subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. The disease is obviously distinguished by an establishment of scabby lesions and ulcerative formation on less hairy areas including muzzle, ears, nostril, and sometimes on genitalia. The disease is endemic in sheep and goats. The virus is transmissible to other ruminants and is a public health concern in humans. Although the disease is known as self-limiting, it may cause a significant economic threat and financial losses due to lower productivity in livestock production...
May 21, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Elisabeth Rajala, Hu Suk Lee, Nguyen Hoai Nam, Chu Thị Thanh Huong, Hoang Minh Son, Barbara Wieland, Ulf Magnusson
Livestock production has increased in many emerging economies, but productivity is often substantially impaired by infectious diseases. The first step towards improved livestock health and productivity is to map the presence of livestock diseases. The objective of this review was to summarize studies conducted on such diseases in an emerging economy, Vietnam, and thereby identifying knowledge gaps that may inform the design of surveillance and control programs. Few studies were found to evaluate the distribution of infectious livestock diseases other than avian influenza...
May 10, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Ian Tizard, Loren Skow
Odors may be pleasant or unpleasant and in practice, pleasant odors are attractive while unpleasant odors are repellent. However, an odor that is noxious to one species may be attractive to another. Plants, predators, and pathogens may enhance their transmission by manipulating these signals. This may be especially significant when odors attract arthropod disease vectors. Odor detection may also be important in small prey species for evasion of macropredators such as large carnivores. Conversely, pleasant odors may identify family members, parents, or sexual partners...
April 30, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Hyun-Eui Park, Han Sang Yoo
Mycobacterial infections are widely distributed in animals and cause considerable economic losses, especially in livestock animals. Bovine paratuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis, which are representative mycobacterial infections in cattle, are difficult to diagnose using current-generation diagnostics due to their relatively long incubation periods. Thus, alternative diagnostic tools are needed for the detection of mycobacterial infections in cattle. A biomarker is an indicator present in biological fluids that reflects the biological state of an individual during the progression of a specific disease...
December 28, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Peter F Surai, Ivan I Kochish
In recent years, nanoparticles have become a fashionable subject of research due to their sizes, shapes, and unique intrinsic physicochemical properties. In particular for the last 5 years, nano-Se has received tremendous attention in terms of its production, characteristic, and possible application for poultry/animal science and medical sciences. Indeed, Nano-Se is shown to be a potential source of Se for poultry/animal nutrition. However, there is an urgent need to address the questions related to nano-Se absorption, assimilation, and metabolism...
December 23, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Danielle A Julien, Jan M Sargeant, Catherine Filejski, Ali M Versluis, Victoria Waind, Sherilee L Harper
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) provide important benefits to human beings but can also transmit pathogens. Information on the breadth of canine zoonoses and vectorborne research in North America is scarce. A scoping review was conducted to examine (1) the number and type of canine zoonoses and vectorborne studies in domestic dogs conducted in North America since the start of the 21st century; (2) the main research methods reported; (3) the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) countries in which research was conducted; and (4) whether collaborative integrated terminology was reported in objectives or methods sections...
December 23, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Sharif S Aly, Betsy M Karle, Deniece R Williams, Gabriele U Maier, Sasha Dubrovsky
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading natural cause of death in US beef and dairy cattle, causing the annual loss of more than 1 million animals and financial losses in excess of $700 million. The multiple etiologies of BRD and its complex web of risk factors necessitate a herd-specific intervention plan for its prevention and control on dairies. Hence, a risk assessment is an important tool that producers and veterinarians can utilize for a comprehensive assessment of the management and host factors that predispose calves to BRD...
December 16, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Ghulam Nabi, Richard W McLaughlin, Suliman Khan, Yujiang Hao, Ming Xian Chang
Anthropogenic activities can lead to several devastating effects on the environment. The pollutants, which include the discharge of effluents, runoffs in the form of different lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants, can harm exposed fauna and flora. The aquatic environment is the ultimate destination for many pollutants which negatively affect aquatic biodiversity and even can cause a species to become extinct. A pollutant can directly affect the behavior of an animal, disrupt cellular systems, and impair the immune system...
December 9, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
R G Helman
Veterinary diagnostic labs (VDLs) are important service agencies providing essential diagnostic testing for a wide variety of domestic animal species as well as wildlife. They serve key roles in disease monitoring and diagnosis as well as surveillance for diseases of consequence. Of the many roles VDLs serve, one is being a member of the larger team of professionals dealing with the management of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. VDLs provide a number of services related to the management of BRD...
December 9, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Brad J White, Bob L Larson
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common and costly diseases of beef cattle. Much research has been conducted to understand prevention, treatment, and economic impacts of this syndrome. Impacts from BRD occur in multiple phases of the beef industry including both pre- and post-weaned calves. This disease causes negative impacts due to production losses, treatment costs, and cattle mortality. The large scope of BRD impacts merits further research on effective prevention and intervention technologies to limit deleterious impacts to the cattle industry...
December 7, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Holly Neibergs
Genomic variation exists in cattle that affects their susceptibility to the complex of pathogens responsible for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Heritability estimates and genome-wide association analyses (GWAA) support the role of host genomic variation in BRD susceptibility. Heritability estimates for BRD susceptibility range from 0.02 to 0.29 depending on the population, the definition of the disease, and the accuracy of diagnosis. GWAA have identified genomic regions (loci) associated with BRD in beef and dairy cattle based on a variety of BRD diagnostic criteria...
December 2, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
John Dustin Loy
Advances in molecular and proteomic technologies and methods have enabled new diagnostic tools for bovine respiratory pathogens that are high-throughput, rapid, and extremely sensitive. Classically, diagnostic testing for these pathogens required culture-based approaches that required days to weeks and highly trained technical staff to conduct. However, new advances such as multiplex hydrolysis probe-based real-time PCR technology have enabled enhanced and rapid detection of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) pathogens in a variety of clinical specimens...
December 2, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Johanna F Lindahl, Florence Mutua, Delia Grace
Livestock interventions can improve nutrition, health, and economic well-being of communities. The objectives of this review were to identify and characterize livestock interventions in developing countries and to assess their effectiveness in achieving development outcomes. A scoping review, guided by a search strategy, was conducted. Papers needed to be written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals, and describe interventions in animal health and production. Out of 2739 publications systematically screened at the title, abstract, and full publication levels, 70 met our inclusion criteria and were considered in the study...
December 2, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Brian V Lubbers
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common indications for antimicrobial therapy in beef cattle production and research trials demonstrate that antibiotic therapy greatly improves clinical outcome for BRD. These trials also show that BRD treatment success rates are less than 100% and that there are opportunities to optimize antimicrobial prescribing and improve clinical outcomes if the underlying cause(s) of BRD treatment failures can be identified and addressed. As the etiology of BRD in an individual animal is frequently multi-factorial in nature; it is likely that BRD treatment failures also result from complex interactions between the drug, drug administrator, animal host, pathogens, and the environment...
December 2, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Catie Cramer, Theresa L Ollivett
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important disease in dairy calves due to its long-lasting effects. Early identification results in better outcomes for the animal, but producers struggle to identify all calves with BRD. Sickness behavior, or the behavioral changes that accompany illness, has been investigated for its usefulness as a disease detection tool. Behavioral changes associated with BRD include decreased milk intake and drinking speed, depressed attitude, and less likelihood of approaching a novel object or stationary human...
December 2, 2020: Animal Health Research Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.