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Animal Health Research Reviews

Anthony W Confer, Sahlu Ayalew
Mannheimia haemolytica is the major cause of severe pneumonia in bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Early M. haemolytica bacterins were either ineffective or even enhanced disease in vaccinated cattle, which led to studies of the bacterium's virulence factors and potential immunogens to determine ways to improve vaccines. Studies have focused on the capsule, lipopolysaccharide, various adhesins, extracellular enzymes, outer membrane proteins, and leukotoxin (LKT) resulting in a strong database for understanding immune responses to the bacterium and production of more efficacious vaccines...
December 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
E F Flores, J F Cargnelutti, F L Monteiro, F V Bauermann, J F Ridpath, R Weiblen
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), 2 (BVDV-2), and HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) are endemic among Brazilian cattle, the world's largest commercial bovine herd. In the last two decades (1998-2018) over 300 bovine pestiviruses have been partially or fully sequenced in Brazil, including viruses from different regions, different epidemiological backgrounds, and associated with diverse clinical presentations. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses demonstrated a predominance of BVDV-1 (54.4%), with subgenotypes -1a (33...
December 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Haitham Mohamed Amer
Coronaviruses (CoVs) produce a wide spectrum of disease syndromes in different mammalian and avian host species. These viruses are well-recognized for their ability to change tissue tropism, to hurdle the interspecies barriers and to adapt ecological variations. It is predicted that the inherent genetic diversity of CoVs caused by accumulation of point mutations and high frequency of homologous recombination is the principal determinant of these competences. Several CoVs (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) have been recorded to cross the interspecies barrier, inducing different disease conditions in variable animal hosts...
December 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Radmila Marković, Jelena Ćirić, Marija Starčević, Dragan Šefer, Milan Ž Baltić
Today, a few differing sources of selenium (Se), i.e. inorganic, organic, and nano forms of Se, are used as feed supplements for poultry. Published research indicates that nano-Se and organic Se possess comparable efficiency to inorganic Se in increasing GSH-Px activity of plasma and various tissues, but they deposit at higher rates in various tissues. However, there are principal differences in absorption mechanisms, metabolism, and efficiency of these three forms of Se. The aim of this review was to analyze the available literature on the effects of different Se sources and levels in the diet on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, tissue Se distribution and growth performance in poultry...
December 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
K Slivinska, G Karbowiak, J Gawor, Z Wróblewski, Z Jaworski, E Jastrzębska, V Demeshkant
The influence of internal and external parasites on the health of Polish konik horses housed in different types of management strategies in Poland is discussed. This study includes consolidated data of different authors from the past 50 years, supplemented by results of more recent research. A total of 38 species of helminths (i.e., 37 Nematoda and one Cestoda) and five Diptera species were recorded from the horses. Protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium spp. and Theileria equi, and the Rickettsiales, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, were observed for the first time in Poland...
December 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
C I Muñoz-García, E Berriatua, C Martínez-Carrasco
The continual rise of anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems has been associated with an increasing incidence of emerging diseases. The largest amount of data on emerging diseases relates to bacterial and viral pathogens, but there is a lack of parasite data, especially from wildlife. Monitoring wildlife parasitic diseases should be considered a priority, especially in high biodiversity regions with strong anthropogenic impacts, like Mexico, where the wildlife/livestock/human interface is associated with increased risk of disease transmission...
December 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
N K Van Engen, J F Coetzee
The goal of this review is to present a concise and critical assessment of the literature related to physiologic responses in cattle that are subjected to transportation. Over two-thirds of US cattle are transported. Understanding trends in circulating physiologic parameters is an important part of mitigating the negative effects of transportation. For the producer, linking these effects after transportation to morbidity outcomes within the first 45 days on feed (i.e. especially development of bovine respiratory disease) is critical...
November 21, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Mauro Larghi
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important infectious agent affecting herd productivity and reproduction, and leading to massive economic losses. As such, BVD is the subject of a number of control and eradication schemes globally. The key elements of such schemes are: diagnosis and removal of persistently infected animals from herds; implementation of biosecurity practices aimed at preventing the introduction or re-introduction of BVDV in free herds; and ongoing surveillance to monitor the progress of the program and to detect new infections...
October 23, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Korakrit Poonsuk, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) remains an important pathogen of livestock more than 120 years after it was identified, with annual costs from production losses and vaccination estimated at €5.3-€17 billion (US$6.5-US$21 billion) in FMDV-endemic areas. Control and eradication are difficult because FMDV is highly contagious, genetically and antigenically diverse, infectious for a wide variety of species, able to establish subclinical carriers in ruminants, and widely geographically distributed. For early detection, sustained control, or eradication, sensitive and specific FMDV surveillance procedures compatible with high through-put testing platforms are required...
October 22, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Mohamed Afifi, Fidèle Kabera, Henrik Stryhn, Jean-Philippe Roy, Luke C Heider, Sandra Godden, William Montelpare, Javier Sanchez, Simon Dufour
In dairy herds, application of antimicrobials at drying-off is a common mastitis control measure. This article describes a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to address three crucial points regarding antimicrobial usage at drying-off: (1) comparative efficacy of antimicrobials used for preventing new and eliminating existing intramammary infections (IMI); (2) comparison of selective and blanket dry cow therapy approaches in preventing new and eliminating existing IMI; and (3) assessment of the extra prevention against new IMI that can be gained from using antimicrobial-teat sealant combinations versus antimicrobials alone...
June 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Benjamin Uberti, Gabriel Morán
Neutrophilic bronchiolitis is the primary lesion in asthma-affected horses. Neutrophils are key actors in host defense, migrating toward sites of inflammation and infection, where they act as early responder cells toward external insults. However, neutrophils can also mediate tissue damage in various non-infectious inflammatory processes. Within the airways, these cells likely contribute to bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, and pulmonary remodeling by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17, neutrophil elastase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
June 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Marisa L Rotolo, Rodger G Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
All sectors of livestock production are in the process of shifting from small populations on many farms to large populations on fewer farms. A concurrent shift has occurred in the number of livestock moved across political boundaries. The unintended consequence of these changes has been the appearance of multifactorial diseases that are resistant to traditional methods of prevention and control. The need to understand complex animal health conditions mandates a shift toward the collection of longitudinal animal health data...
June 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Leon J Broom, Michael H Kogut
The intestine performs the critical roles of nutrient acquisition, tolerance of innocuous and beneficial microorganisms, while retaining the ability to respond appropriately to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing their translocation to more sterile body compartments. Various components contribute to antimicrobial defenses in the intestine. The mucus layer(s), antimicrobial peptides and IgA provide the first line of defense, and seek to trap and facilitate the removal of invading microbes...
June 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
June 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Skander Hathroubi, Abraham Loera-Muro, Alma L Guerrero-Barrera, Yannick D N Tremblay, Mario Jacques
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is responsible for major economic losses in the global pork industry. The disease may present itself as a chronic or an acute infection characterized by severe pathology, including hemorrhage, fibrinous and necrotic lung lesions, and, in the worst cases, rapid death. A. pleuropneumoniae is transmitted via aerosol route, direct contact with infected pigs, and by the farm environment...
June 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Chitrita DebRoy, Pina M Fratamico, Elisabeth Roberts
O-antigens present on the surface of Escherichia coli provide antigenic specificity for the strain and are the main components for O-serogroup designation. Serotyping using O-group-specific antisera for the identification of E. coli O-serogroups has been traditionally the gold-standard for distinguishing E. coli strains. Knowledge of the O-group is important for determining pathogenic lineage, classifying E. coli for epidemiological studies, for determining virulence, and for tracing outbreaks of diseases and sources of infection...
February 22, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Jun Lin
The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to animal agriculture and human health. To summarize and update current and emerging AMR issues that are significant for animal health and food safety, this issue presents a virtual AMR symposium consisting of seven review papers. These reviews cover a newly described AMR mechanism in Campylobacter, effects of AMR and microbiome on Campylobacter infection, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in food-producing animals, the impact of point source or antibiotic residues on the environmental resistome, and potential factors influencing horizontal gene transfer in the intestines of food animals...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
Shinji Yamasaki, Tuyen Danh Le, Mai Quang Vien, Chinh Van Dang, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, have become serious problems worldwide. Recent studies conducted in Vietnam revealed that ESBL-producing E. coli are widely distributed in food animals and people. CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-1 are the most prevalent β-lactamases among the identified ESBLs. Furthermore, most of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were multi-drug resistant. Residual antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfadimidine, cephalexin, and sulfadiazine were also detected at a high level in both animal meats and environmental water collected from several cities, including Ho Chi Minh city and Can Tho city...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
Ximin Zeng, Jun Lin
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is ancient. Use of antibiotics is a selective driving force that enriches AR genes and promotes the emergence of resistant pathogens. It also has been widely accepted that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs everywhere and plays a critical role in the transmission of AR genes among bacteria. However, our understanding of HGT processes primarily build on extensive in vitro studies; to date, there is still a significant knowledge gap regarding in situ HGT events as well as the factors that influence HGT in different ecological niches...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
Jian Sun, Ximin Zeng, Xing-Ping Li, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jun Lin
Colistin, a peptide antibiotic belonging to the polymyxin family, is one of the last effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections. Recent discovery of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, from people and food animals has caused a significant public health concern and drawn worldwide attention. Extensive usage of colistin in food animals has been proposed as a major driving force for the emergence and transmission of mcr-1; thus, there is a worldwide trend to limit colistin usage in animal production...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
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