Alberto Gonçalves Evangelista, Jessica Audrey Feijó Corrêa, Anne Caroline Marques Schoch Pinto, Francieli Dalvana Ribeiro Gonçalves, Fernando Bittencourt Luciano
Animal husbandry is increasingly under pressure to meet world food demand. Thus, strategies are sought to ensure this productivity increment. The objective of this review was to gather advances in the use of bacterial probiotics in animal production. Lactobacilli correspond to the most used bacterial group, with several beneficial effects already reported and described, as well as the Enterococcus and Pediococcus genera - being the latter expressively used in aquaculture. Research on the Bifidobacterium genus is mostly focused on human health, which demonstrates great effects on blood biochemical parameters...
December 11, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Bárbara Cristina Félix Nogueira, Elaine da Silva Soares, Andrés Mauricio Ortega Orozco, Leandro Abreu da Fonseca, Artur Kanadani Campos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Eduardo Henrique Custódio Matté, Fernando Bittencourt Luciano, Alberto Gonçalves Evangelista
Several countries have shown an increased prevalence of drug resistance in animal production due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and antiparasitics in human and veterinary medicine. This article aims to review existing methods using naturally occurring essential oils (EOs) and their isolated compounds (EOCs) as alternatives to antimicrobials and antiparasitic compounds in animal production and, consequently, to avoid resistance. The most-reported mechanism of action of EOs and EOCs was cell membrane damage, which leads to the leakage of cytoplasmic content, increased membrane permeability, inhibition of metabolic and genetic pathways, morphologic changes, antibiofilm effects, and damage to the genetic material of infections...
July 4, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Laura M O'Connell, Aidan Coffey, Jim M O'Mahony
Antibiotic resistance has become a major health concern globally, with current predictions expecting deaths related to resistant infections to surpass those of cancer by 2050. Major efforts are being undertaken to develop derivative and novel alternatives to current antibiotic therapies in human medicine. What appears to be lacking however, are similar efforts into researching the application of those alternatives, such as (bacterio)phage therapy, in veterinary contexts. Agriculture is still undoubtedly the most prominent consumer of antibiotics, with up to 70% of annual antibiotic usage attributed to this sector, despite policies to reduce their use in food animals...
June 16, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Mohamed T El-Saadony, Muhammad Umar Yaqoob, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Mahmoud Alagawany, Muhammad Arif, Ayman E Taha, Shaaban S Elnesr, Khaled A El-Tarabily, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Ł Grześkowiak, E-M Saliu, B Martínez-Vallespín, J R Aschenbach, G A Brockmann, M Fulde, S Hartmann, B Kuhla, R Lucius, C C Metges, H J Rothkötter, W Vahjen, A G Wessels, J Zentek
Dietary fiber (DF) is receiving increasing attention, and its importance in pig nutrition is now acknowledged. Although DF for pigs was frowned upon for a long time because of reductions in energy intake and digestibility of other nutrients, it has become clear that feeding DF to pigs can affect their well-being and health. This review aims to summarize the state of knowledge of studies on DF in pigs, with an emphasis on the underlying mode of action, by considering research using DF in sows as well as suckling and weaned piglets, and fattening pigs...
January 23, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
C Bernal-Córdoba, R Branco-Lopes, L Latorre-Segura, M de Barros-Abreu, E D Fausak, N Silva-Del-Río
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature evaluating the efficacy and comparative efficacy of antimicrobials (AMs) for the treatment of diarrhea in calves. Eligible studies were non- and randomized controlled trials evaluating an AM intervention against a positive and negative control, with at least one of the following outcomes: fecal consistency score, fever, dehydration, appetite, attitude, weight gain, and mortality. Four electronic databases were searched...
January 13, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Amélie Mugnier, Sylvie Chastant, Faouzi Lyazrhi, Claude Saegerman, Aurélien Grellet
In people and animals, low birth weight (LBW) is recognized as highly predictive of health trajectory from the neonatal period to elderly ages. Regarding the neonatal period, although LBW is recognized as a major risk factor for neonatal mortality, there does not appear to be a clear definition of 'when a birth weight should be considered low' in all species. The aim of this work was to use the scientific literature available to map the various thresholds proposed to define LBW in domestic mammals. Using a standardized methodology, a scoping review was conducted through a literature search in three different bibliographic databases...
January 13, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Parul Puri, Jai Gopal Sharma, Ram Singh
Nutrition demands in aquaculture can be realized through quality aquafeeds as compounded diets that contribute to the growth and health of aquaculture species. Functional additives in feed, notably probiotics, prebiotics, and their admixture synbiotics, have been recently recognized for their biotherapeutic role as immunostimulants capable of conferring disease resistance, stress tolerance, and gastrointestinal health; counteracting the negative effects of anti-nutrients, pathogenic prevalence, and antimicrobials in finfish aquaculture...
January 4, 2023: Animal Health Research Reviews
Mohamed T El-Saadony, Muhammad Umar, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Mahmoud Alagawany, Muhammad Arif, Ayman E Taha, Shaaban S Elnesr, Khaled A El-Tarabily, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack
Due to the increasing demand for antibiotic-free livestock products from the consumer side and the ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters, the poultry feed industry is increasingly interested in developing more alternatives to cope with this problem. Organic acids (butyric acid) have many beneficial effects on poultry health, performance, and egg quality when used in their diet, thus they can be considered for the replacement of antibiotics in livestock production systems. Butyric acid is most efficacious against pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp...
November 14, 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
Ting-Yu Cheng, Jeffrey J Zimmerman, Luis G Giménez-Lirola
In basic research, testing of oral fluid specimens by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been used to evaluate changes in gene expression levels following experimental treatments. In diagnostic medicine, qPCR has been used to detect DNA/RNA transcripts indicative of bacterial or viral infections. Normalization of qPCR using endogenous and exogenous reference genes is a well-established strategy for ensuring result comparability by controlling sample-to-sample variation introduced during sampling, storage, and qPCR testing...
November 4, 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
Sigfredo Fuentes, Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Eden Tongson, Frank R Dunshea
Livestock welfare assessment helps monitor animal health status to maintain productivity, identify injuries and stress, and avoid deterioration. It has also become an important marketing strategy since it increases consumer pressure for a more humane transformation in animal treatment. Common visual welfare practices by professionals and veterinarians may be subjective and cost-prohibitive, requiring trained personnel. Recent advances in remote sensing, computer vision, and artificial intelligence (AI) have helped developing new and emerging technologies for livestock biometrics to extract key physiological parameters associated with animal welfare...
June 9, 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
Luke A J Haydock, R Kent Fenton, Lauren Sergejewich, E James Squires, Jeff L Caswell
Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of cattle has been recognized for many decades. While the pathogenesis and risk factors for this condition in pastured cattle are relatively well characterized, there remains a poor understanding of the disease as it occurs in intensively fed cattle such as in beef feedlots. Specifically, in pastured cattle, AIP results from excessive ruminal production of the pneumotoxicant 3-methylindole (3-MI). In feedlot cattle, the evidence to substantiate the role of 3-MI is comparatively deficient and further investigations into the cause, pathogenesis, and control are sorely needed...
June 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
M J López-Martínez, L Franco-Martínez, S Martínez-Subiela, J J Cerón
Sepsis is a complex clinical syndrome triggered by an inflammatory host response to an infection. It is usually complicated to detect and diagnose, and has severe consequences in human and veterinary health, especially when treatment is not started early. Therefore, efforts to detect sepsis accurately are needed. In addition, its proper diagnosis could reduce the misuse of antibiotics, which is essential fighting against antimicrobial resistance. This case is a particular issue in farm animals, as antibiotics have been traditionally given massively, but now they are becoming increasingly restricted...
June 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
Anna Cecília Trolesi Reis Borges Costa, Raisa Abreu Bragança Colocho, Carine Rodrigues Pereira, Andrey Pereira Lage, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the prevalence of leptospirosis among stray and sheltered dogs worldwide. Six databases were searched, which resulted in the retrieval of 476 articles. Sixty articles were selected for analysis according to 10 quality criteria. Among the selected papers, 26 papers [43.4% (26/60)] met five of the 10 quality criteria established, 10 papers [16.7% (10/60)] met three criteria, nine papers [15.0% (9/60)] met four criteria, six papers [10.0% (6/60)] met six criteria, four papers [6...
June 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
Tácio de Mendonça Lima, Nathania Rodrigues Santiago, Elaine Cristina Ramos Alves, Douglas Siqueira de Almeida Chaves, Marília Berlofa Visacri
Cannabis is used in the treatment of several human conditions; however, its use is still less explored in veterinary medicine. This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of efficacy and safety of the use of cannabis for the treatment of animal disease. A literature search was performed for studies published until 16 March 2021 in five databases. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that reported the efficacy or safety of cannabis in the treatment of animal disease were included. The RoB 2 Tool was used to assess the risk of bias...
June 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
Diana M A Dewsbury, Natalia Cernicchiaro, Michael W Sanderson, Andrea L Dixon, Pius S Ekong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to summarize peer-reviewed literature on the prevalence and concentration of non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) serogroups and virulence genes ( stx and eae ) in fecal, hide, and carcass samples in pre- and peri-harvest cattle worldwide, using a systematic review of the literature and meta-analyses. DATA SYNTHESIS: Seventy articles were eligible for meta-analysis inclusion; data from 65 articles were subjected to random-effects meta-analysis models to yield fecal prevalence estimates...
June 2022: Animal Health Research Reviews
Angela Baysinger, Sherrie R Webb, Jennifer Brown, Johann F Coetzee, Sara Crawford, Ashley DeDecker, Locke A Karriker, Monique Pairis-Garcia, Mhairi A Sutherland, Abbie V Viscardi
Castration of male piglets in the United States is conducted without analgesics because no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved products are labeled for pain control in swine. The absence of approved products is primarily due to a wide variation in how pain is measured in suckling piglets and the lack of validated pain-specific outcomes individually indistinct from other biological responses, such as general stress or inflammation responses with cortisol. Simply put, to measure pain mitigation, measurement of pain must be specific, quantifiable, and defined...
December 3, 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Carmen Iscaro, Valentina Cambiotti, Stefano Petrini, Francesco Feliziani
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), is a disease of cattle responsible for significant economic losses worldwide. IBR is under certain communitarian regulations. Every member state can approve its own national IBR control program for the entire territory - or part of it - and can demand additional guarantees for bovids destined to its territory; therefore, every member state can be officially declared as entirely or partly IBR-free. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of IBR control and eradication programs in European countries...
December 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
Mohammadali Alizadeh, Bahram Shojadoost, Nitish Boodhoo, Jake Astill, Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Douglas C Hodgins, Raveendra R Kulkarni, Shayan Sharif
Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens (CP), is one of the most common of poultry diseases, causing huge economic losses to the poultry industry. This review provides an overview of the pathogenesis of NE in chickens and of the interaction of CP with the host immune system. The roles of management, nutrition, probiotics, and vaccination in reducing the incidence and severity of NE in poultry flocks are also discussed.
December 2021: Animal Health Research Reviews
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