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Experimental Biology and Medicine

Anders B Dohlman, Xiling Shen
This review provides a comprehensive description of experimental and statistical tools used for network analyses of the human gut microbiome. Understanding the system dynamics of microbial interactions may lead to the improvement of therapeutic approaches for managing microbiome-associated diseases. Microbiome network inference tools have been developed and applied to both cross-sectional and longitudinal experimental designs, as well as to multi-omic datasets, with the goal of untangling the complex web of microbe-host, microbe-environmental, and metabolism-mediated microbial interactions...
March 16, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Tien S Dong, Jonathan P Jacobs
This invited minireview for the upcoming thematic issue on the microbiome addresses the role of the microbiome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The incidence of NAFLD has increased greatly in recent years in parallel with the rise in obesity and is now believed to have a population prevalence of 20-40%. It is anticipated to soon become the primary cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality, and unfortunately, there are few treatment options. Therefore, there is a critical need for improved understanding of NAFLD pathophysiology to provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kelsey Jensen, David Jasen WuWong, Sean Wong, Mieko Matsuyama, Shigemi Matsuyama
Bax induces mitochondria-dependent programed cell death. While cytotoxic drugs activating Bax have been developed for cancer treatment, clinically effective therapeutics suppressing Bax-induced cell death rescuing essential cells have not been developed. This mini-review will summarize previously reported Bax inhibitors including peptides, small compounds, and antibodies. We will discuss potential applications and the future direction of these Bax inhibitors.
March 5, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Xinping Li, Xin Wang, Liming Bai, Pin Zhao, Mingsheng Zhang
In this study, our experiments confirmed that 50 Hz EMF affected hair follicle regrowth, and 50 Hz EMF enhanced K15+ stem cells proliferation in the hair bulb and follicular outer root sheath of hair follicles. Those results indicated that 50 Hz EMF may be beneficial for functional healing of hair loss.
March 1, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Letícia C Baptista, Camilla O Figueira, Bruno B Souza, Kleber Y Fertrin, Arthur Antolini, Fernando F Costa, Mônica B de Melo, Maria Laura Costa
Environmentally induced changes in placental morphological and molecular phenotypes may provide relevant insight towards pathophysiology of diseases. The rare opportunity to evaluate the same patient, with sickle cell anemia (SCA), in two different pregnancies, of opposite outcomes (one early onset severe preeclampsia (PE) and the other mostly non-complicated) can prove such concept. In addition, the comparison to other conditions of known placental and vascular/inflammatory involvement strengthens such findings...
February 28, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Takashi Namba, Osamu Ichii, Teppei Nakamura, Md Abdul Masum, Yuki Otani, Saori Otsuka-Kanazawa, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon
Bone disease, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis, increases because of the progression of an aging society. Autoimmune disease are important and predisposing factors for the pathogenesis of the bone disease; however, the pathological mechanism is unclear. We have demonstrated that systemic autoimmune disease in BXSB/MpJ- Yaa is closely associated with the morpho-functional abnormalities of bones including bone marrow and has complicated pathology. The abnormalities are characterized by altered regulations of serum calcium, anemia tendency, and hematopoiesis with increased WBCs and decreased PLs, short length and low mass of long bones, imbalance in the populations of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and increased expression of candidate genes for causing and/or exacerbating their phenotypes...
February 28, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Anny Gano, Ricardo M Pautassi, Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Thaddeus M Barney, Andrew S Vore, Terrence Deak
A combined odor and taste cue was paired with a binge-like ethanol exposure (4 g/kg intraperitoneal) using a single-trial learning paradigm. Re-exposure to the CS alone was sufficient to evoke a conditioned Interleukin (IL)-6 elevation in the amygdala in adolescents, an effect that was not observed in young adults. This demonstrates a particular sensitivity of adolescents to alcohol-associated cues and neuroimmune learning, whereas prior work indicated that adults require multiple pairings of ethanol to the CS in order to achieve a conditioned amygdala IL-6 response...
February 26, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Pooja Chaudhari, Lipeng Tian, Zhaohui Ye, Yoon-Young Jang
In this review, we address the potential of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based hepatobiliary differentiation technology as a means to study human liver development and cell fate determination, and to model liver diseases in an effort to develop a new human-relevant preclinical platform for drug development.
February 26, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Filiz Mercantepe, Atilla Topcu, Sema Rakici, Levent Tumkaya, Adnan Yilmaz
Some six million cancer patients currently receive radiotherapy. Radiotherapy eliminates cancer cells by accelerating their death. However, radiotherapy is not selective, and it therefore harms healthy tissues around cancerous tissue. The latest studies have shown that the irradiation of biological materials causes a rapid increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tissue as a result of exposure of the target molecule to direct and indirect ionization. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that permits the elimination of free oxygen radicals and that contributes to glutathione synthesis...
February 20, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Hamed Shoorei, Majid Banimohammad, Maziar M Kebria, Mohammad Afshar, Mohammad Mh Taheri, Majid Shokoohi, Mohammad Sg Farashah, Mina Eftekharzadeh, Omid Akhiani, Robert Gaspar, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi
It has been stated that hesperidin has many pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activity, and anti-carcinogenic activity; but hesperidin and its derivatives have been under investigation as anti-fertility factors for a very long time. However, our results show that hesperidin can improve mice follicular growth and maturation during in vitro 3D culture. Hesperidin as an antioxidant factor could enhance the mRNA expression levels of two important genes involved in folliculogenesis, PCNA, and FSH-R...
February 19, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Se Jin Song, Douglas C Woodhams, Cameron Martino, Celeste Allaband, Andre Mu, Sandrine Javorschi-Miller-Montgomery, Jan S Suchodolski, Rob Knight
Considering the clear effects of microbiota on important aspects of animal biology and development (including in humans), this topic is timely and broadly appealing, as it compels us to consider the possibilities of altering the microbiome (without antibiotics) to positively affect animal health. In this review, we highlight three general approaches to manipulating the microbiome that have demonstrated success and promise for use in animal health. We also point out knowledge gaps where further inquiry would most benefit the field...
February 18, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Vera Hedtke, Marica Bakovic
This review will provide a summary of recent advances in choline transport research and highlight important novel areas of focus in the field.
February 18, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Matthew Saurette, R Todd Alexander
This review summarizes the work on transcellular intestinal phosphate absorption, arguing why this pathway is not the predominant pathway in humans consuming a "Western" diet. We then highlight the recent evidence which is strongly consistent with paracellular intestinal phosphate absorption mediating the bulk of intestinal phosphate absorption in humans.
February 14, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jung Joo Moon, Alexander Lu, Chulso Moon
This review provides various genetic and cell line data previously published in a way to explain how cellular stress can lead into genetic instability.
February 13, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Linda Ren, Robert A Holzknecht, Zoie E Holzknecht, Sanet H Kotzé, Dawn E Bowles, Shu S Lin, Erin A McKenney, William Parker
The composition of the microbiota is of critical importance for health and disease, and is receiving increased scientific and medical scrutiny. Of particular interest is the role of changing diets as a function of agriculture and, perhaps to an even greater extent, modern food processing. To probe the connection between diet and the gut's microbial community, the microbiota from a mole rat, a rodent with a relatively unusual diet, was analyzed in detail, and the microbes found were compared with previously identified organisms...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Roongrit Klinjampa, Chantacha Sitticharoon, Xaynaly Souvannavong-Vilivong, Chanakarn Sripong, Issarawan Keadkraichaiwat, Malika Churintaraphan, Saimai Chatree, Tripop Lertbunnaphong
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been reported as a vasoconstrictive substance which might be associated with preeclampsia. The novel findings of this study were that Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R expressions were significantly lower in the PE than the NP group. Moreover, the NPY receptor expression ratio between the PE/NP groups was lowest for Y2R (0.27) compared to Y1R (0.42) and Y5R (0.40) suggestive of a reduction of this receptor in the preeclampsia group. Our results suggested that decreased Y2R mRNA in the PE group might be associated with abnormalities of placental angiogenesis which probably contributes to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yessica Zamudio-Cuevas, Javier Fernández-Torres, Gabriela Angélica Martínez-Nava, Karina Martínez-Flores, Adriana Ramírez Olvera, Daniel Medina-Luna, Alma Delia Hernández Pérez, Carlos Landa-Solís, Alberto López-Reyes
Gout is distinguished by an inflammatory process that is mediated by phagocytosis of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in synoviocytes by regulation of unknown mechanisms. Here we suggest that the synovial cells play a crucial role in gouty arthritis by activating inflammation by MSU uptake and increasing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1, and the growth factors NGF and HGF. We discuss some co-existing features in synoviocytes, including anomalous morphologies of the cells, and microvesicle formation, dysregulation in VEGF gene expression...
February 10, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
David H Wu, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
By compiling findings from recent studies, this review will garner novel insight on the dynamic and complex role of BMP signaling in diseases of inflammation, highlighting the specific roles played by both individual ligands and endogenous antagonists. Ultimately, this summary will help inform the high therapeutic value of targeting this pathway for modulating diseases of inflammation.
February 7, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Flora S Park, Victoria L Kay, Justin D Sprick, Alexander J Rosenberg, Garen K Anderson, Robert T Mallet, Caroline A Rickards
We characterize the systemic oxidative stress response in young, healthy human subjects with exposure to simulated hemorrhage via application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Prior work has demonstrated that LBNP and actual blood loss evoke similar hemodynamic and immune responses (i.e. white blood cell count), but it is unknown whether LBNP elicits oxidative stress resembling that produced by blood loss. We show that LBNP induces a 29% increase in F2 -isoprostanes, a systemic marker of oxidative stress...
February 6, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
George J Brewer
The work described in this review is very important to scientists working on Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it reveals a cause for the explosive epidemic of this disease. It is also important to the public because it provides a method to avoid this newly revealed cause, and thereby avoid AD. The field is advanced because this review reveals new information about the mechanism of AD pathogenesis, namely copper, and specifically divalent copper, toxicity is important. New information about divalent copper toxicity in the brain affecting cognition is revealed...
February 6, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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