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European Cells & Materials

C Knuth, C Kiernan, E Wolvius, R Narcisi, E Farrell
Endochondral ossification (EO) is the process by which the long bones of the body form and has proven to be a promising method in tissue engineering for achieving cell-mediated bone formation. The present review centred on state-of-the-art research pertaining to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated endochondral bone formation, focusing on the role of donor cells, extracellular matrix and host immune cells during tissue-engineered bone formation. Possible research avenues to improve graft outcome and bone output were highlighted, as well as emerging research that, when applied to tissue-engineered bone grafts, offers new promise for improving the likelihood of such grafts transition from bench to bedside...
April 10, 2019: European Cells & Materials
C Herrera-Vizcaíno, E Dohle, S Al-Maawi, P Booms, R Sader, C J Kirkpatrick, J Choukroun, S Ghanaati
Different tissue engineering techniques are used to support rapid vascularisation. A novel technique is the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an autologous source of growth factors. This study was the first to investigate the influence of PRF matrices, isolated following different centrifugation protocols, on human dermal vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in mono-culture and co-culture with human primary fibroblasts (HFs) as an in vitro model for tissue regeneration. Focus was placed on vascular structure formation and growth factor release...
April 9, 2019: European Cells & Materials
Z Ferrell, D W Grainger, K D Sinclair
Periprosthetic infection in total knee arthroplasty is a difficult-to-treat complication. Current implant revision procedures use non-degradable, antibiotic-loaded bone cement for local antimicrobial delivery. As a permanent foreign body, antibiotic-loaded bone cement is susceptible to bacterial colonisation after antibiotic release. In this first step, of a multi-study approach, an infection prevention model assessed a resorbable, antibiotic-eluting bone-void filler for preventing infection in a large animal model...
April 8, 2019: European Cells & Materials
M A Martin-Piedra, C A Alfonso-Rodriguez, A Zapater, D Durand-Herrera, J Chato-Astrain, F Campos, M C Sanchez-Quevedo, M Alamino, I Garzon
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate toward epithelial cells and may be used as an alternative source for generation of heterotypical artificial human skin substitutes, thus, enhancing their development and translation potential to the clinic. The present study aimed at comparing four types of heterotypical human bioengineered skin generated using MSCs as an alternative epithelial cell source. Adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), Wharton's jelly stem cells (WJSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were used for epidermal regeneration on top of dermal skin substitutes...
March 29, 2019: European Cells & Materials
M H Gay, A Mehrkens, M Rittmann, M Haug, A Barbero, I Martin, S Schaeren
Nasal chondrocytes (NCs) have gained increased recognition for cartilage tissue regeneration. To assess NCs as a source for cell therapy treatment of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, tissue-forming properties of NCs under physiological conditions mimicking the degenerated IVD were compared to those of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs), two cell sources presently used in clinical trials. Cells were cultured in a combination of low glucose, hypoxia, acidity and inflammation for 28 d...
March 22, 2019: European Cells & Materials
E López-Ruiz, G Jiménez, L Álvarez de Cienfuegos, C Antic, R Sabata, J A Marchal, P Gálvez-Martín
Hyaluronic acid (HA), as one of the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a significant role in a multitude of biological processes involving cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, wound healing and inflammation. Thanks to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and hygroscopic properties, HA has been used in its natural form for joint lubrication and ocular treatment. The chemical structure of HA can be easily modified by direct reaction with its carboxyl and hydroxyl groups...
March 19, 2019: European Cells & Materials
I Iezzi, P Pagella, M Mattioli-Belmonte, T A Mitsiadis
Stem cells are essential for tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout the lifespan of multicellular organisms. The decline in stem cell function during advanced age is associated with a reduced regenerative potential of tissues that leads to an increased frequency of diseases. Age-related changes also occur in the dental pulp that represents a reliable model tissue, with high regenerative capability, for studying senescence mechanisms. However, little information is available concerning the effects of ageing on dental stem-cell function...
February 26, 2019: European Cells & Materials
S Nürnberger, C Lindner, J Maier, K Strohmeier, C Wurzer, P Slezak, S Suessner, W Holnthoner, H Redl, S Wolbank, E Priglinger
The prerequisite for a successful clinical use of autologous adipose-tissue-derived cells is the highest possible regenerative potential of the applied cell population, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Current isolation methods depend on high enzyme concentration, lysis buffer, long incubation steps and mechanical stress, resulting in single cell dissociation. The aim of the study was to limit cell manipulation and obtain a derivative comprising therapeutic cells (microtissue-SVF) without dissociation from their natural extracellular matrix, by employing a gentle good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade isolation...
February 22, 2019: European Cells & Materials
A Islam, I Urbarova, J A Bruun, I Martinez-Zubiaurre
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), given their regenerative potential, are being investigated as a potential therapeutic tool for cartilage lesions. MSCs express several bioactive molecules which act in a paracrine fashion to modulate the tissue microenvironment. Yet, little is known about the divergence of these signalling molecules in different MSC populations. The present study investigated secretomes of stromal cells harvested from Hoffa's fat pad (HFPSCs), synovial membrane (SMSCs), umbilical cord (UCSCs) and cartilage (ACs) by quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics...
February 20, 2019: European Cells & Materials
S M Naqvi, J Gansau, D Gibbons, C T Buckley
Priming towards a discogenic phenotype and subsequent cryopreservation of microencapsulated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may offer an attractive therapeutic approach for disc repair. It potentially obviates the need for in vivo administration of exogenous growth factors, otherwise required to promote matrix synthesis, in addition to providing 'off-the-shelf' availability. Cryopreserved and primed BMSC microcapsules were evaluated in an in vitro surrogate co-culture model system with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells under intervertebral disc (IVD)-like culture conditions and in an ex vivo bovine organ culture disc model...
February 15, 2019: European Cells & Materials
A R Pereira, D Trivanović, M Herrmann
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are an essential element of most modern tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches due to their multipotency and immunoregulatory functions. Despite the prospective value of MSCs for the clinics, the stem cells community is questioning their developmental origin, in vivo localization, identification, and regenerative potential after several years of far-reaching research in the field. Although several major progresses have been made in mimicking the complexity of the MSC niche in vitro, there is need for comprehensive studies of fundamental mechanisms triggered by microenvironmental cues before moving to regenerative medicine cell therapy applications...
February 11, 2019: European Cells & Materials
R M Aspden, F R Saunders
Considered for decades as a cartilage disease, recent studies of osteoarthritis (OA) take us back to the concepts discussed at the naming of the disorder as "bone-joint-inflammation". By describing the joint as an organ, can OA be called an organ disease - similar to heart disease? Is there a systemic (which system?) involvement? Would this help with diagnosis or therapy? Hyperplasia of the joint tissues is one of the most notable early features of the disease: articular cartilage thickens, chondrocytes proliferate and increase matrix biosynthesis, but not its incorporation; the subchondral bone densifies but is hypomineralised and there is an increase in bone marrow fat content...
January 30, 2019: European Cells & Materials
J M McKinney, T N Doan, L Wang, J Deppen, D S Reece, K A Pucha, S Ginn, R D Levit, N J Willett
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a great therapeutic promise in pre-clinical models of osteoarthritis (OA), but many questions remain as to their therapeutic mechanism of action: engraftment versus paracrine action. Encapsulation of human MSCs (hMSCs) in sodium alginate microspheres allowed for the paracrine signaling properties of these cells to be isolated and studied independently of direct cellular engraftment. The objective of the present study was to quantitatively assess the efficacy of encapsulated hMSCs as a disease-modifying therapeutic for OA, using a medial meniscal tear (MMT) rat model...
January 29, 2019: European Cells & Materials
R Duan, L A van Dijk, D Barbieri, F de Groot, H Yuan, J D de Bruijn
Osteoinductive calcium phosphate (CaP) bone grafts have equivalent performance to autografts in repairing critical-size bone defects. The osteoinductive potential of CaP is linked to the size of the surface topographical features. In the present study, two novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bone grafts were synthesised with either sub-micron- (BCP<µm) or micron-scale (BCPµm) needle-shaped surface topography and compared to dimensionally similar tricalcium phosphate (TCP) with grain-shaped surface structures (TCP<µm and TCPµm)...
January 28, 2019: European Cells & Materials
A Levillain, R A Rolfe, Y Huang, Y C Iatridis, N C Nowlan
Congenital spine deformities may be influenced by movements in utero, but the effects of foetal immobility on spine and rib development remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) critical time-periods when rigid paralysis caused the most severe disruption in spine and rib development and (2) how the effects of an early, short-term immobilisation were propagated to the different features of spine and rib development. Chick embryos were immobilised once per single embryonic day (E) between E3 and E6 and harvested at E9...
January 15, 2019: European Cells & Materials
S Karbysheva, L Grigoricheva, V Golnik, S Popov, N Renz, A Trampuz
Microorganisms' ability to adhere and form a biofilm differs among biomaterials; however, clinical data are conflicting. Microbial adherence and biofilm formation on different biomaterials of explanted joint prosthesis components were investigated. Consecutive patients with explanted joint prosthesis were prospectively included. The bacterial load dislodged from retrieved prosthetic components was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively in sonication-fluid cultures. For comparison between groups, one-way ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used...
January 14, 2019: European Cells & Materials
A Hannoun, G Ouenzerfi, L Brizuela, S Mebarek, C Bougault, M Hassler, Y Berthier, A-M Trunfio-Sfarghiu
In the context of shoulder surgical replacement, a new generation of spherical interposition implants has been developed, with the implant being a mobile spacer rubbing against the glenoid cartilage and humeral bone cavity. The aim of the present study was to compare pyrocarbon (PyC) versus cobalt-chromium (CoCr) implants, regarding preservation and regeneration of the surrounding tissues. The effect of the biomaterials on chondrocytes was analysed in vitro. Murine primary chondrocytes were grown on discs made of PyC or CoCr using two culture media to mimic either cartilage-like or bone-like conditions (CLC or BLC)...
January 7, 2019: European Cells & Materials
A Sadowska, T Kameda, O Krupkova, K Wuertz-Kozak
Intervertebral disc (IVD) cells are naturally exposed to high osmolarity and complex mechanical loading, which drive microenvironmental osmotic changes. Age- and degeneration-induced degradation of the IVD's extracellular matrix causes osmotic imbalance, which, together with an altered function of cellular receptors and signalling pathways, instigates local osmotic stress. Cellular responses to osmotic stress include osmoadaptation and activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. This review summarises the current knowledge on how IVD cells sense local osmotic changes and translate these signals into physiological or pathophysiological responses, with a focus on inflammation...
November 19, 2018: European Cells & Materials
S Khatab, G J van Osch, N Kops, Y M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, P K Bos, J A Verhaar, M R Bernsen, G M van Buul
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising biological therapeutic option as an osteoarthritis (OA)-modifying treatment. MSCs secrete factors that can counteract inflammatory and catabolic processes and attract endogenous repair cells. The effects of intra-articular injection of MSC secretome on OA-related pain, cartilage damage, subchondral bone alterations and synovial inflammation were studied in a mouse collagenase-induced OA model. The MSC secretome was generated by stimulating human bone-marrow-derived MSCs with interferon gamma (IFNγ) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)...
November 6, 2018: European Cells & Materials
D H Rosenzweig, R Fairag, A P Mathieu, L Li, D Eglin, M D'Este, T Steffen, M H Weber, J A Ouellet, L Haglund
Numerous studies show promise for cell-based tissue engineering strategies aiming to repair painful intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, clinical translation to human IVD repair is slow. In the present study, the regenerative potential of an autologous nucleus pulposus (NP)-cell-seeded thermoresponsive hyaluronic acid hydrogel in human lumbar IVDs was assessed under physiological conditions. First, agarose-encased in vitro constructs were developed, showing greater than 90 % NP cell viability and high proteoglycan deposition within HA-pNIPAM hydrogels following 3 weeks of dynamic loading...
October 25, 2018: European Cells & Materials
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