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Monash Bioethics Review

Alexis Paton
In this article I discuss the little examined relationship between time and patient autonomy. Using the findings from a study on the experience of premenopausal cancer patients making fertility preservation decisions during their treatment, I focus on how the patients in the study understood time, and how this understanding interacted with and influenced their decision-making. I then analyse in more depth the importance of time in patient decision-making, and the relationship of time to concepts of patient autonomy and decision-making in the field of bioethics more generally...
January 8, 2019: Monash Bioethics Review
Di Zhang, Reidar K Lie
The ethical issues associated with germline gene modification and embryo research are some of the most contentious in current international science policy debates. In this paper, we argue that new genetic techniques, such as CRISPR, demonstrate that there is an urgent need for China to develop its own regulatory and ethical framework governing new developments in genetic and embryo research. While China has in place a regulatory framework, it needs to be strengthened to include better compliance oversight and explicit criteria for how different types of research should be reviewed by regulatory authorities...
December 28, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
David B Resnik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Roberto Cippitani
The paper relates to the actual extent of the "margin of appreciation" of national law-making power in Europe when it takes ethical issues into consideration. This occurs when the use of technoscience may affect fundamental interests. The discretion of the legislature is limited, particularly by the transnational system arising from the European legal integration within both the European Union and the Council of Europe. The two schemes of integration, although there are differences between them, converge to put national legislation under pressure, particularly when it considers ethical matters...
December 19, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Giulia Cavaliere
Eugenics is often referred to in debates on the ethics of reproductive technologies and practices, in relation to the creation of moral boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable technologies, and acceptable and unacceptable uses of these technologies. Historians have argued that twentieth century eugenics cannot be reduced to a uniform set of practices, and that no simple lessons can be drawn from this complex history. Some authors stress the similarities between past eugenics and present reproductive technologies and practices (what I define throughout the paper as 'the continuity view') in order to condemn the latter...
December 7, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Julian Koplin
In their recent paper in this journal, Zümrüt Alpinar-Şencan and colleagues review existing dignity-based objections to organ markets and outline a new form of dignity-based objection they believe has more merit: one grounded in a social account of dignity. This commentary clarifies some aspects of the social account of dignity and then shows how this revised account can be applied to other perennial issues in bioethics, including the ethics of human embryo research and the ethics of creating part-human chimeras...
December 7, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Thaddeus Metz
I address the question of what makes addiction morally problematic, and seek to answer it by drawing on values salient in the sub-Saharan African philosophical tradition. Specifically, I appeal to life-force and communal relationship, each of which African philosophers have at times advanced as a foundational value, and spell out how addiction, or at least salient instances of it, could be viewed as unethical for flouting them. I do not seek to defend either vitality or community as the best explanation of when and why addiction is immoral, instead arguing that each of these characteristically African values grounds an independent and plausible account of that...
November 12, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Justin Oakley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Jonathan Anomaly
For most of human history children have been a byproduct of sex rather than a conscious choice by parents to create people with traits that they care about. As our understanding of genetics advances along with our ability to control reproduction and manipulate genes, prospective parents have stronger moral reasons to consider how their choices are likely to affect their children, and how their children are likely to affect other people. With the advent of cheap and effective contraception, and the emergence of new technologies for in vitro fertilization, embryo selection, and genetic engineering, it is becoming increasingly difficult to justify rolling the genetic dice by having children without thinking about the traits they will have...
July 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Ryan Tonkens
Current law in Victoria, Australia requires that all prospective assisted reproduction patients provide a criminal background check and child protection order check prior to being eligible for treatment. These presumptions against treatment stipulated in the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act ($FILE/08-076a.pdf , 2008) are discriminatory against all people that are infertile...
July 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Victoria Saigle, Eric Racine
For each one of the approximately 800,000 people who die from suicide every year, an additional twenty people attempt suicide. Many of these attempts result in hospitalization or in contact with other healthcare services. However, many personal, educational, and institutional barriers make it difficult for healthcare professionals to care for suicidal individuals. We reviewed literature that discusses suicidal patients in healthcare settings in order to highlight common ethical issues and to identify knowledge gaps...
July 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Dominic Wilkinson, Stavros Petrou, Julian Savulescu
In intensive care, disputes sometimes arise when patients or surrogates strongly desire treatment, yet health professionals regard it as potentially inappropriate. While professional guidelines confirm that physicians are not always obliged to provide requested treatment, determining when treatment would be inappropriate is extremely challenging. One potential reason for refusing to provide a desired and potentially beneficial treatment is because (within the setting of limited resources) this would harm other patients...
July 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Diego S Silva, Maxwell J Smith, Cameron D Norman
Systems thinking has emerged as a means of conceptualizing and addressing complex public health problems, thereby challenging more commonplace understanding of problems and corresponding solutions as straightforward explanations of cause and effect. Systems thinking tries to address the complexity of problems through qualitative and quantitative modeling based on a variety of systems theories, each with their own assumptions and, more importantly, implicit and unexamined values. To date, however, there has been little engagement between systems scientists and those working in bioethics and public health ethics...
June 13, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Barak Hermesh, Anat Rosenthal, Nadav Davidovitch
One Health, as an international movement and as a research methodology, aspires to cross boundaries between disciplines. However, One Health has also been viewed as "reductionist" due to its overemphasize on physicians-veterinarians cooperation and surveillance capacity enhancement, while limiting the involvement with socio-political preconditioning factors that shape the impact of diseases, and the ethical questions that eventually structure interventions. The current article draws on a qualitative study of Brucellosis control in Israel, to address the benefits of broadening the One Health perspective to include ethical considerations and the socio-political aspects of health...
June 5, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Chris G Buse, Maxwell Smith, Diego S Silva
Accelerated changes to the planet have created novel spaces to re-imagine the boundaries and foci of environmental health research. Climate change, mass species extinction, ocean acidification, biogeochemical disturbance, and other emergent environmental issues have precipitated new population health perspectives, including, but not limited to, one health, ecohealth, and planetary health. These perspectives, while nuanced, all attempt to reconcile broad global challenges with localized health impacts by attending to the reciprocal relationships between the health of ecosystems, animals, and humans...
June 4, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Michael J Selgelid, Justin Oakley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
Tatiana Patrone
The paper asks the question whether Kant's ethical theory can be applied to issues in assisted reproductive technology (ART). It argues against three objections to applying Kant's ethics to ART: (i) the non-identity objection, (ii) the gen-ethics objection, and (iii) the care-ethics objection. After showing that neither of the three objections is sufficiently persuasive the paper proposes a reading of Kant's 'formula of humanity,' and especially its negative clause (i.e., the 'merely as means' clause), that can be of some guidance in ART...
November 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
Zohar Lederman, Shmuel Lederman
In 2015, the Israeli Knesset passed the force-feeding act that permits the director of the Israeli prison authority to appeal to the district court with a request to force-feed a prisoner against his expressed will. A recent position paper by top Israeli clinicians and bioethicists, published in Hebrew, advocates for force-feeding by medical professionals and presents several arguments that this would be appropriate. Here, we first posit three interrelated questions: 1. Do prisoners have a right to hunger-strike? 2...
November 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
Zümrüt Alpinar-Şencan, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved...
November 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
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