Diego N Barbosa, Marcos Fianco
A remarkable characteristic of katydids (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) is the elongated ovipositor, which is associated with oviposition behavior. The high degree of complexity of both sclerites and muscles arrangement of the ovipositor, is only similar to the ovipositor of Hymenoptera. Here we describe the morphology of the ovipositor within Tettigoniidae, and add descriptions of known oviposition behavior. Fifteen skeletal structures can be recognized, of these, three pairs of muscles are new while nine pairs were already described in the literature...
February 9, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
Fábio G L Oliveira, Adrian A Smith
Springtails are notable for their jumping apparatus and latch-mediated spring mechanism. The challenge, in the light of the tiny size and rapid movement of these organisms, has been to understand the morphological intricacies of this spring system. This study takes an approach that integrates SEM, MicroCT, cLSM and high-speed video recordings to understand the composition and functionality of the jumping apparatus in Megalothorax minimus (Neelipleona), Dicyrtomina ornata and Dicyrtomina minuta (Symphypleona)...
February 9, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
Andrey B Shatrov, Elena V Soldatenko, Anatoly A Petrov
The mouth apparatus in larvae of the freshwater mite Limnochares aquatica (L., 1758) (Acariformes, Limnocharidae), belonging to the lower Hydrachnidia, was studied with light microscopy, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, as well as with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to reveal its main morphological and functional characteristics. The gnathosoma, functioning as a mouth organ takes a prognathous position, and inclines to the body axial line at the angle of around 30°...
January 22, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
Anita Giglio, David Mercati, Pietro Lupetti, Pietro Brandmayr, Romano Dallai
The systematic position and the phylogenetic relationship of Rhysodidae members is still debated, with some authors considering the group as a separate family of Adephaga, while for others they could be a subfamily of Carabidae. The group have morphological traits quite different from Carabidae and an aberrant behaviour compared to ground beetles being not predaceous. The sperm ultrastructure of C. canaliculatum was studied comparatively with other species of beetles, Carabidae in particular. The results indicate that the sperm structure of this species is similar to that of the Carabinae species...
January 11, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
Marco Pezzi, Cristina Munari, Michele Mistri, Chiara Scapoli, Milvia Chicca, Marilena Leis, Carmen Scieuzo, Antonio Franco, Rosanna Salvia, Chiara Ferracini, Alberto Alma, Patrizia Falabella, Davide Curci, Teresa Bonacci
The parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) has been successfully used in Italy since 2005 for biological control of the invasive cynipid Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), highly destructive for the economically relevant Castanea sativa (Fagales: Fagaceae). In order to investigate the morphological aspects related to sensorial behavior, a fine morphology study of the antennae and their sensilla was conducted by scanning electron microscopy on both sexes of T. sinensis. The antennae, composed of a scape, a pedicel and a flagellum with ten flagellomeres, had chaetic sensilla of six subtypes, placoid sensilla of three subtypes, trichoid sensilla, sensilla with a roundish grooved tip, and coeloconic sensilla...
January 3, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
Wenxu Yang, Yan Lu, Xiaohui He, Lu Wang, Jinjuan Nie, Noor Us Saba, Xiaohong Su, Lianxi Xing, Chenxu Ye
In lower termites, which exhibit a high degree of compound eye degradation or absence, antennae play a pivotal role in information acquisition. This comprehensive study investigates the olfactory system of Reticulitermes aculabialis, spanning five developmental stages and three castes. Initially, we characterize the structures and distribution of antennal sensilla across different developmental stages. Results demonstrate variations in sensilla types and distributions among stages, aligning with caste-specific division of labor and suggesting their involvement in environmental sensitivity detection, signal differentiation, and nestmate recognition...
January 3, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
Isabel C Aksamit, Felipe Dorigão-Guimarães, Wulfila Gronenberg, R Keating Godfrey
Factors regulating larval growth and determinants of adult body size are described for several holometabolous insects, but less is known about brain size scaling through development. Here we use the isotropic fractionation ("brain soup") method to estimate the number of brain cells and cell density for the whitelined sphinx moth (Lepidoptera: Hyles lineata) from the first instar through the adult stage. We measure mass and brain cell number and find that, during the larval stages, body mass shows an exponential relationship with head width, while the total number of brain cells increases asymptotically...
January 2, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
Darya D Golubinskaya, Olga M Korn
The complete larval development of Peltogaster lineata Shiino, 1943 (Rhizocephala: Peltogastridae), including five nauplii and one cypris stage, is described and illustrated using SEM. The development took 3.5-4 days at a water temperature of 22-23 °C. Peltogaster lineata has the peltogastrid type of development. Nauplii possess a large and clearly reticulated flotation collar, six pairs of dorsal shield setae with the U-shaped second pair, long segmented frontolateral horns each with two subterminal setae, and a long seta at the antennal basis...
January 1, 2024: Arthropod Structure & Development
José J Orengo-Green, Antonio Ricarte, Martin Hauser, Dominique Langlois, Mª Á Marcos-García
The genera Eumerus and Merodon (Syrphidae: Merodontini) form together the most speciose grouping of hoverflies in the Palaearctic Region. However, little is known about the morphology and biology of their larvae. The few larvae of Eumerus and Merodon that have been uncovered are phytophagous in underground organs of plants (some Eumerus and all Merodon) or saprophagous in a variety of plants' parts (the reminder of Eumerus). In this study, the second larval stage (L2) of Eumerus lyneborgi Ricarte & Hauser, 2020 and both the larva (L2) and puparium of Merodon constans (Rossi, 1794) are described for the first time...
December 30, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Gengwang Hu, Chao Liu, Runze Zhang, Liangliang Li, Shipeng Shao, Ruonan Zhang, Yundi Gao, Yi Guo, Ya Yang, Yu Wang, Luyang Tao
The genera Omosita and Nitidula from the family Nitidulidae, are often reported to be associated with rotten animal carcasses. However, morphological descriptions of their larval stages are limited and are usually only from the third instar larvae, which does not provide enough systematic data. In this study, the overall structure of three instar larvae from the four Nitidulidae species was compared using optical microscopy, and the resolution was not satisfactory. To compensate, a large number of structures and organs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
December 18, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yi-Fan Wang, Qing-Xiao Chen
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is one of the most destructive lepidopteran pests affecting maize in Asia. Previous research on the feeding behavior of O. furnacalis has mostly focused on larvae, but the adult feeding preference has been unclear hitherto. In this study, we investigated the ultramorphology of the proboscis and sensilla of O. furnacalis using scanning electron microscopy and made morphological comparisons between the sexes, attempting to make predictions on the food preference and feeding behavior of the adults...
December 16, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
María Dina Estrada-Marroquín, Jorge Cancino, Daniel Sánchez-Guillén, Pablo Montoya, Pablo Liedo
The morphology of the immature stages of Utetes anastrephae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a native parasitoid of larvae of flies of the Neotropical genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), is shown. This study aimed to characterize the immature stages and morphological changes in the development of the koinobiont endoparasitoid in two species of larval hosts, Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens. The definition of structures and morphological changes during development was made through daily microscopic observations and photographs of dissected hosts...
November 3, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Marco Molfini, Maurizio Muzzi, Emiliano Mancini, Marco A Bologna, Andrea Di Giulio
Some Pyrochroidae species are known as "canthariphilous" for their attraction to cantharidin (CTD), a toxic terpene with anti-predatory effects, produced in nature by only two beetle families (Meloidae and Oedemeridae). It has been demonstrated that males of Neopyrochroa flabellata ingesting CTD are positively selected by females. Indeed, the compound is re-emitted from a glandular cranial apparatus as secretions that are licked up by females during courtship behaviour, inducing copulation. Herein, we provide the first description of the glands associated to the cranial apparatus of male Pyrochroinae using the European species Pyrochroa coccinea as a model...
November 2, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Sophie Raspe, Katja Kümmerlen, Steffen Harzsch
Immunohistochemical analyses on the distribution of neuropeptides in the pancrustacean brain in the past have focussed mostly on representatives of the decapod ("ten-legged") pancrustaceans whereas other taxa are understudied in this respect. The current report examines the post-embryogenic and adult brain and ventral nerve cord of the amphipod pancrustacean Parhyale hawaiensis (Dana. 1853; Peracarida, Amphipoda, Hyalide), a subtropical species with a body size of 1.5 cm and a direct post-embryonic development using immunohistochemistry to label the neuropeptide SIFamide and synaptic proteins (synapsins)...
October 23, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Maria Petrova, Ekaterina Bogomolova
Regeneration is widespread across all animal taxa, but patterns of its distribution and key factors determining regeneration capabilities stay enigmatic. A comparative approach could shed light on the problem, but its efficacy is limited by the fact that data is only available on a few species from derived taxa. Pycnogonida are nested basally within the Chelicerata. They can shed and replace their walking legs and have a high regeneration capacity. In this work, we carried careful observation on leg appendotomy and regeneration processes in a sea spider under laboratory settings...
October 20, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Wenjing Xu, Liangliang Zhang, Ruoqing Ma, Johan Billen, Hong He
The mandibular gland is an important exocrine gland connected to the mandibles. In ants, it plays a crucial role in alarm communication and reproduction. While the overall morphology of the mandibular gland does not vary much between ant species, significant differences exist in the ultrastructural characteristics and gland size in some reported cases. However, there have been few systematic comparative studies on this subject. In this paper, we conducted microscopic observations to analyze the morphological and ultrastructural similarities and differences of the mandibular gland in different castes of Camponotus japonicus...
October 20, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Anna Maria Fausto, Anna Rita Taddei, Maria Cristina Belardinelli, Massimo Ceci, Gabriella Gambellini, Romolo Fochetti
Systematic issues regarding Plecoptera are still debated, and the molecular data seem to be unable to definitively clarify the relationships within the order. Spermatozoa are under constant evolutionary pressure, and comparative spermatology can be useful in carrying systematic and phylogenetic information. In the present paper we describe the sperm structure, using light, scanning and transmission electron and immunofluorescence microscopy, of six Euholognatha species belonging to genera not analyzed in our previous studies, i...
October 16, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Chang-Tai Liu, Xin Tong
Psacothea hilaris is an important wood boring beetle that causes significant ecological and economic damage. The mouthparts of P. hilaris contain feeding and sensory structures that play important roles in many behaviors. The study of their functional morphologies provides insight into feeding and sensory mechanisms. The fine structures of the mouthparts and the sensilla of both sexes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, with special attention to quantitative comparisons. The general structures of the mouthparts are similar in males and females...
October 14, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Tae-Yoon S Park
The trilobite hypostome is a biomineralized ventral plate that covers the mouth, but its evolutionary origin remains controversial. The labrum is a lobe-like structure that can take on variety of shapes in front of the mouth in arthropods, while the anterior sclerite refers to a cuticular plate articulated to the anterior margin of the head in some Cambrian arthropods. Here I present a perspective that views the trilobite hypostome as a fusion of the anterior sclerite and the labrum based on anatomical, topological, and developmental evidence...
October 11, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
Xu-Ming Dong, Lu Jiang
Acoustic behaviour plays a significant role in insect communications, but is rarely reported in their immature stages. Larvae of Lucanidae bear paired stridulatory organs on their thoracic legs, which could produce sounds as communicational signals. However, the species-specific differences on stridulatory organs and acoustic signals are far from fully investigated. In this study, the larval acoustic behaviours of three lucanid species, Lucanus dybowski, Prosopocoilus confucius and P. girafa were recorded and compared for the first time...
September 14, 2023: Arthropod Structure & Development
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