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Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS

Tianyi Wang, Conghe Liu, Lili Jia, Jun Ding
INTRODUCTION: Apelin plays an important part in regulating blood pressure, metabolism, and the development of cancer. Recent studies have investigated the association of apelin polymorphisms and hypertension risk, but no meta-analysis has been conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five studies were included in this meta-analysis in total. The pooled odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated by the random-effect model. RESULTS: The overall pooled odds ratio of the distribution of rs3761581 G allelic frequency was 0...
January 2019: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Tomasz Pizoń, Marek Rajzer, Wiktoria Wojciechowska, Małgorzata Wach-Pizoń, Tomasz Drożdż, Katarzyna Wróbel, Krystian Gruszka, Marta Rojek, Tomasz Kameczura, Artur Jurczyszyn, Janusz Kąkol, Danuta Czarnecka
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical and biochemical differences between patients with low-renin and high-renin primary arterial hypertension (AH), mainly in reference to serum lipids, and to identify factors determining lipid concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In untreated patients with AH stage 1 we measured plasma renin activity (PRA) and subdivided the group into low-renin (PRA < 0.65 ng/mL/h) and high-renin (PRA ⩾ 0.65 ng/mL/h) AH...
October 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Monique Tan, Feng J He, Graham A MacGregor
The latest Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study claims that salt reduction should be confined to settings where its intake exceeds 12.7 g/day and that eating less than 11.1 g/day of salt could increase cardiovascular risk. More specifically, Mente et al. suggested that (a) salt intake was positively associated with stroke only when it exceeded 12.7 g/day, (b) salt intake was inversely associated with myocardial infarction and total mortality, and (c) these associations were largely independent of blood pressure...
October 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Marine Lallemant, Sarah Prévost, François Nobili, Didier Riethmuller, Rajeev Ramanah, Marie-France Seronde, Nicolas Mottet
We report a case of prenatal exposure to angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II) from the beginning of pregnancy in a patient with a hypokinetic dilated cardiomyopathy. This case report emphasizes the fetal renal impact of prolonged intrauterine exposure to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, and highlights that this exposure can cause severe prenatal hypocalvaria. This delayed ossification can be reversible after birth, but the presence of anhydramnios indicates an early and irreversible block of RAS blockers in the fetus that is responsible for fetal kidney development abnormalities...
October 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Adrian Drapała, Klaudia Bielińska, Piotr Konopelski, Leszek Pączek, Marcin Ufnal
INTRODUCTION: The dipeptide histidine-leucine (His-Leu) is formed in the process of converting angiotensin I into angiotensin II. Several studies show that short peptides containing His-Leu may produce significant haemodynamic effects; however, to the best of our knowledge, data on haemodynamic effects of His-Leu are not available in medical databases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated acute haemodynamic effects of intravenous administration of either 0.9% NaCl (vehicle) or His-Leu at a dose of 3-15 mg/kg body weight in anaesthetized 15-16-week-old, male, normotensive Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats...
October 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Fan Shunan, Yuan Jiqing, Dong Xue
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in reducing cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and overt nephropathy is still a controversial issue. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials. RESULTS: Thirteen trials containing 4638 patients with diabetes and overt nephropathy were included. Compared with controls, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker treatment did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events (odds ratio 0...
October 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Lin Liu, Yumei Zhang, Fangting Fu, Li Zhuo, Yamei Wang, Wenge Li
INTRODUCTION: Bilateral nephrectomy leads to a short-term reduction in blood pressure. This is mainly due to a sharp change in the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), but data on the long-term outcomes of their clinical status and further changes in circulating RAS are rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled four Chinese patients who had both of their kidneys removed two (1), six (1) and eight (2) years prior to this study, respectively. Their clinical data were collected retrospectively and circulating RAS was evaluated by radioimmunoassay...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Chung-Ming Chen, Shu-Hui Juan, Hsiu-Chu Chou
INTRODUCTION: The renin-angiotensin system and epithelial-mesenchymal transition play crucial roles in the development of kidney fibrosis. The connection between the renin-angiotensin system and transforming growth factor-β in epithelial-mesenchymal transition remains largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed oxidative stress, cytokine levels, renal morphology, profibrotic growth factor and renin-angiotensin system component expression, and cell-specific E- and N-cadherin expression in the kidneys of gerbils with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Qing-Guang Wang, Xiao Xue, Yang Yang, Peng-Yu Gong, Teng Jiang, Ying-Dong Zhang
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of central angiotensin IV (Ang IV) infusion on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-related neuropathological changes including amyloid-β (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) and the inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats with CCH received central infusion of Ang IV, its receptor AT4 R antagonist divalinal-Ang IV or artificial cerebrospinal fluid for six weeks. During this procedure, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored, and the levels of Aβ42 , p-tau and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain were detected...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Michael A Weber, Peter Sever, Attila Juhasz, Andrew Roberts, Charlie Cao
INTRODUCTION: We measured the effects of azilsartan medoxomil co-administered with chlorthalidone 25 mg in stage 2 hypertension. METHODS: Azilsartan medoxomil 40 or 80 mg plus chlorthalidone were compared with placebo plus chlorthalidone once daily in a randomized, double-blind, 6-week trial. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in 24-hour mean systolic blood pressure by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. RESULTS: Patients ( N=551; mean age 59 years; 51...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Fang-Da Li, Zhi-Gang Ji, Chang-Wei Liu, Jiang Shao, Yi Xie, Yue-Hong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: In this article, we aim to prove the safety and effectiveness of orthotopic renal autotransplantation using ex vivo repair for the treatment of complex renovascular hypertension (RVH). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients (three women, two men) with young-onset RVH from January 2009 to August 2014. Orthotopic renal autotransplantation using ex vivo repair was performed and perioperative data were collected for statistical analysis...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Yukari Takasago, Kazuyuki Hirooka, Yuki Nakano, Mamoru Kobayashi, Aoi Ono
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between the plasma concentration of aldosterone and changes in the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after systemic administration of aldosterone. METHODS: An osmotic minipump that was subcutaneously implanted into the midscapular region of rats administered 40, 80 or 160 μg/kg/day aldosterone or vehicle. Enzyme immunoassay kits were used to measure the plasma aldosterone concentrations two weeks after the systemic administration of aldosterone or vehicle...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Preenie deS Senanayake, Vera L Bonilha, John W Peterson, Yoshiro Yamada, Sadashiva S Karnik, Firouz Daneshgari, K Bridget Brosnihan, Joe G Hollyfield
HYPOTHESIS: Hyperglycemia decreases angiotensin-(1-7), the endogenous counter-regulator of angiotensin II in the retina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distribution and levels of retinal angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) were evaluated by confocal imaging and quantitative immunohistochemistry during the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. RESULTS: In the nondiabetic eye, Ang II was localized to the endfeet of Müller cells, extending into the cellular processes of the inner plexiform layer and inner nuclear layer; Ang-(1-7) showed a wider distribution, extending from the foot plates of the Müller cells to the photoreceptor layer...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Fabiana P Costa-Fraga, Gleisy K Goncalves, Fernando P Souza-Neto, Adelina M Reis, Luciano As Capettini, Robson As Santos, Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Rafaela F da Silva
The vasodilatory effect of angiotensin-(1-7) seems to vary between sexes, and estradiol (E2) can modulate the magnitude of the Ang-(1-7) vasodilatory response in female rats. However, there are few studies addressing the influence of sex on the age-related vasodilatory effect of Ang-(1-7). Here, we evaluated the vasodilatory response to Ang-(1-7) on vascular ageing. Ang-(1-7) dose-response curves were determined in mice aortic rings from males (old and young) and females (E2 treated/non-treated old and young) mounted in an isolated organ chamber...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Wei-Wei Chang, Wei Liang, Xin-Ming Yao, Liu Zhang, Li-Jun Zhu, Chen Yan, Yue-Long Jin, Ying-Shui Yao
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression profile of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: A total of 126 Chinese subjects were enrolled in this study, including 42 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), 42 patients with DN and 42 healthy controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze levels of TRAIL mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Ya Suo, Zhiwei Zhang, Huaying Fu, Yue Zhang, Meng Yuan, Yuanyuan Wang, Christos A Goudis, Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Guangping Li
AIMS: We examined whether the use of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) inhibitor plays a role in protecting against left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) in patients with hypertension complicated by atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Two observational studies were conducted on patients with diagnoses of hypertension and AF, who were categorized into RAS inhibitor user or nonuser groups. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, echocardiographic parameters and hemostatic markers were examined and the occurrence of LAAT during follow-up were recorded...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Mark Cooke, Richard Cruttenden, Adrian Mellor, Andrew Lumb, Stewart Pattman, Anne Burnett, Chris Boot, Louise Burnip, Christopher Boos, John O'Hara, David Woods
INTRODUCTION: Aldosterone decreases at high altitude (HA) but the effect of hypoxia on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a key step in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is unclear. METHODS: We investigated the effects of exercise and acute normobaric hypoxia (NH, ~11.0% FiO2 ) on nine participants and six controls undertaking the same exercise at sea level (SL). NH exposure lasted 5 hours with 90 minutes of submaximal treadmill walking. Blood samples for aldosterone, ACE and cortisol were taken throughout exposure and at rest during a trek to HA (5140 m) in eight separate participants...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Roberta Fernanda da Silva, Riccardo Lacchini, Lucas Cezar Pinheiro, Thiago José Dionísio, AndréMourão Jacomini, José Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Sandra Lia Amaral, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Anderson Saranz Zago
OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are associated with increases in blood pressure (BP). Physical exercise has been considered the main strategy to prevent this increase. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between estimated training status (TS), BP and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in elderly people classified as low or high risk to develop hypertension according to genetic profile. METHODS: A total of 155 elderly participants performed the following assessments: general functional fitness index (GFFI), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), blood collection for ACE activity and analyses of the RAS polymorphisms...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Jing Dai, Rui Liu, Jinjie Zhao, Aijie Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) on the endothelial function of the aorta in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging rats. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into a D-gal group, a D-gal + SO2 group and a control group, then injected with D-gal, D-gal + SO2 donor or equivalent volumes of saline, respectively, for 8 consecutive weeks. After 8 weeks, the mean arterial pressure was significantly increased in the D-gal group, but was lowered by SO2 . SO2 significantly ameliorated the endothelial dysfunction induced by D-gal treatment...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Guodong Xu, Guohui Fan, Yingtong Sun, Lili Yu, Sinan Wu, Wenquan Niu
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies on the angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as with pulmonary function and circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme changes. METHODS: A literature search, quality assessment and data extraction were completed independently and in duplicate. RESULTS: A total of 16 articles were meta-analysed, including 12 articles (2113 patients and 8786 controls) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and eight articles (11,664 subjects) for pulmonary and circulating phenotypes...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
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