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Urban Studies

Huub Ploegmakers, Pascal Beckers, Erwin Van der Krabben
There has been a growing research interest in measuring the impact of planning and land-use regulations on housing market outcomes, but parallel development of the evidence base for the business sector has yet to occur. This article examines the impact of planning intervention on the amount of building investment taking place at sites allocated for industrial and business development. Measures that capture different dimensions of planning intervention are incorporated into models of industrial building investment...
November 2018: Urban Studies
Barend Wind, Lina Hedman
Housing wealth is the largest component of wealth for a majority of Swedish households. Whereas investments in housing are merely defined by income, the returns on this investment (capital gains) are dependent on local housing market dynamics. Since the 1990s, local housing market dynamics in Swedish cities have been altered by the upswing in levels of socio-spatial inequality. The simultaneous up- and downgrading of neighbourhoods is reflected in house price developments and exacerbates the magnitude of capital gains and losses...
September 2018: Urban Studies
Caroline Dewilde
The private rented sector (PRS) recently enjoyed a revival, in particular in the years before and after the Great Financial Crisis (GFC). At the same time however, affordability concerns have come to the fore. The main aim of this paper is to explain trends in housing affordability for lower-income households in the PRS across Western European countries, from a supply versus demand perspective. To this end we: (1) related trends in housing affordability to wider changes in housing systems, welfare regimes, demographic indicators and housing market financialisation; and (2) decomposed affordability trends in terms of rents and incomes, controlling for compositional shifts...
September 2018: Urban Studies
Nanke Verloo
Cities have become stages for (inter)national conflicts over political and religious identity, democratic values and ownership of place. These 'glocal urban conflicts' challenge local actors to respond immediately and effectively in ways that prevent escalation and strengthen democratic relations. The theory of agonistic democracy provides a valuable model that celebrates difference and inclusiveness to foster democracy. There is, however, little understanding of how these agnostic ideals are practiced in rapidly unfolding situations...
August 2018: Urban Studies
Wouter van Gent, Cody Hochstenbach, Justus Uitermark
The Dutch government introduced the Act on Extraordinary Measures for Urban Problems in 2006 to bolster local regeneration efforts. The act enables local governments to stop specific groups of deprived households from moving into designated neighbourhoods. More specifically, the Act allows local governments to refuse a residence permit to persons who have lived in the metropolitan region for less than six years and who do not receive an income from work, pensions or student loans. The policy is based on the idea that reducing the influx of poor newcomers improves liveability by providing a temporary relief of the demand for public services and by making neighbourhoods demographically 'balanced' or 'socially mixed'...
August 2018: Urban Studies
Michael C Lens
The effects of the Great Recession on housing equity and homeownership have been well-documented. However, we know little about how rental households fared and the efficacy of housing subsidies in addressing affordability gaps. This paper examines the extent to which rental housing became less affordable for Extremely Low-Income (ELI) households - those earning less than 30% of the Area Median Income (AMI). I then run regression models to determine the local characteristics most strongly associated with larger affordability gaps, with a focus on whether housing subsidies are effective at combating such gaps...
June 2018: Urban Studies
Femke van Noorloos, Marjan Kloosterboer
New private property investments in Africa's cities are on the rise, and they often take the form of entirely new cities built up from scratch as comprehensively planned self-contained enclaves. As these new city-making trajectories are expanding and empirical research is emerging, there is a need to provide more conceptual clarity. We systematically examine the diversity of new cities in Africa; elicit their financial trajectories; and set an agenda for critically examining their actual and expected implications, by learning transnational lessons from debates on gated communities, peri-urban land governance and displacement, and older waves of new city building...
May 2018: Urban Studies
Halleh Ghorashi
Since the early 2000s there has been an undeniable global escalation of negative othering discourses concerning migrants and refugees. The fixation on ethnic difference in these discourses blinds us toward possible sources of connection. To unsettle this essentialist discourse of othering, we need to consider practices that denormalise the taken-for-granted taxonomies of the Self and the Other at their cores and rethink conditions for connection. Urban relational initiatives, experiences and narrations could provide interesting perspectives for exploring new possibilities for connection in liquid modern times, where old-fashioned collective categories lost their function...
February 2018: Urban Studies
Richard Phillips, Bethan Evans
The city is not just a context for friendships or a problem to be solved through them; it can be a catalyst for these relationships, sparking and strengthening connections between individuals and groups. Shared experiences of and curiosity in cities - expressed through practices that include revisiting familiar places and exploring others for the first time - can draw people together in beneficial ways. These principles underpin a health and wellbeing agenda, pioneered in Liverpool, which encourages people to 'take notice' and 'connect' - two of five 'ways to wellbeing' promoted through the Liverpool Decade of Health and Wellbeing...
February 2018: Urban Studies
Donald Houston, Darja Reuschke
In developed countries, microbusinesses (those employing fewer than 10 people) and home-based businesses have been systematically overlooked in urban economic development thinking. This article assesses the influence of city location and being run from the business owner's home on microbusiness growth, based on empirical analysis of panel firm-level data over a four-year period during the UK's long boom. The analysis reveals that cities provide benefits to microbusinesses for turnover growth but not for employment growth - suggesting that the additional growth induced by cities for microbusinesses may be jobless growth...
November 2017: Urban Studies
Michelle Kondo, Bernadette Hohl, SeungHoon Han, Charles Branas
The Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation initiated a 'Lots of Green' programme to reuse vacant land in 2010. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of the effects of this programme on crime in and around newly treated lots, in comparison to crimes in and around randomly selected and matched, untreated vacant lot controls. The effects of two types of vacant lot treatments on crime were tested: a cleaning and greening 'stabilisation' treatment and a 'community reuse' treatment mostly involving community gardens...
November 2016: Urban Studies
Walid Oueslati, Seraphim Alvanides, Guy Garrod
This paper provides empirical evidence that helps to answer several key questions relating to the extent of urban sprawl in Europe. Building on the monocentric city model, this study uses existing data sources to derive a set of panel data for 282 European cities at three time points (1990, 2000 and 2006). Two indices of urban sprawl are calculated that, respectively, reflect changes in artificial area and the levels of urban fragmentation for each city. These are supplemented by a set of data on various economic and geographical variables that might explain the variation of the two indices...
July 2015: Urban Studies
Gill Valentine, Joanna Sadgrove
This paper is located within work in urban studies about the significance of contact with difference as a means for reducing prejudice and achieving social change. Recent approaches, influenced by theories of affect, have emphasised non-conscious everyday negotiations of difference in the city. In this paper it is argued that such approaches lose sight of the significance of the subject: of the reflective judgements of 'others' made by individuals; of our ability to make decisions around the control of our feelings and identifications; and of the significance of personal pasts and collective histories in shaping the ways we perceive and react to encounters...
July 2014: Urban Studies
Chunni Zhang, Yu Xie
The localistic enclave is a special kind of enclave in urban China, which is characterized by high concentration of rural migrants from the same place of origin. Prior research has documented that rural migrants work in these localistic enclaves, but the significance of participation in them for labor market outcomes among migrant workers has yet to be determined. In this article, we argue that localistic economic enclaves may improve the labor force outcomes of rural-to-urban migrants. We report results from a study of the social determinants and consequences of working in localistic enclaves, based on data from a 2010 survey of migrant workers in the Pearl River and the Yangzi River Deltas...
October 2, 2013: Urban Studies
Katherine King
Jacobs argued that grand planning schemes intending to redevelop large swaths of a city according to a central theoretical framework fail because planners do not understand that healthy cities are organic, spontaneous, messy, complex systems that result from evolutionary processes. She argued that a gradual pace of redevelopment would facilitate maintenance of existing interpersonal ties. This paper operationalizes the concept of pace of development within a cross-sectional framework as the "age diversity of housing...
September 2013: Urban Studies
Catherine Crawford, Sarah Bell
This paper explores the role played by water infrastructure in urban livelihoods. It is based on a study of three settlements in Cusco, Peru, and shows that different modes of organising infrastructure co-exist within the same city, despite national policy prescriptions for urban water provision. Further, unequal access of households to these services exists within the same settlements and amplifies household vulnerability which, in turn, feeds back to undermine local, autonomous governance of water. This paper draws on the work of van Vliet et al...
2012: Urban Studies
Nelarine Cornelius, Miguel Martínez Lucio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Urban Studies
Man Wang, Rachel Garshick Kleit, Jane Cover, Christopher S Fowler
Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise...
2012: Urban Studies
Laure Blévis, Eric Pezet
This paper, which is based on the detailed analysis of the post-war archives of the French Christian union Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens (CFTC), which became the Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (CFDT) in 1964, highlights the difficulties, both from a practical and ideological point of view, for a militant organisation to embrace the cause of immigrant workers and to give them a voice. The CFDT had to ‘construct’ immigrant workers as a group they could represent, which means as a group that relates to French workers, despite possible xenophobia...
2012: Urban Studies
Jeroen Klink, Rosana Denaldi
In this paper, the Curitiba-centred narrative on the success of its urban planning experience will be qualified in light of the complexities of its metropolitan development trajectory. It will be claimed that the institutional vacuum that surrounds Brazilian metropolitan areas in general, and Greater Curitiba in particular, has been intensified by the emergence of a competitive and decentralised state spatial regime, which has consolidated a fragmented and neo-localist system of governance. Preliminary empirical evidence will be provided on the challenges that are being faced within the new regime in articulating socio-spatial, economic and environmental strategies in the direction of a more sustainable metropolitan future...
2012: Urban Studies
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