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Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM

Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Emma Tilston, Stuart Harrad, Chris Collins
An in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CEPBET) which incorporates human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parameters (including pH and chemistry, solid-to-fluid ratio, mixing and emptying rates) was applied for the first time to study the bioaccessibility of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from the 3 main GIT compartments (stomach, small intestine and colon) following ingestion of indoor dust. Results revealed the bioaccessibility of γ-HBCD (72%) was less than that for α- and β-isomers (92% and 80% respectively) which may be attributed to the lower aqueous solubility of the γ-isomer (2 μg L⁻¹) compared to the α- and β-isomers (45 and 15 μg L⁻¹ respectively)...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Jens Petersen, Ruth Grant, Søren E Larsen, Gitte Blicher-Mathiesen
In stream water xenobiotics usually occur as pulses in connection with floods caused by surface run-off and tile drainage following precipitation events. In streams located in small agricultural catchments we monitored herbicide concentrations during flood events by applying an intensive sampling programme of ½ h intervals for 7 h. In contrast to grab sampling under non-flood conditions, clearly elevated concentrations were recorded during the floods, and pulses varying in occurrence, duration and concentration were recorded...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Scott V Angus, Hyuck-Jin Kwon, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Cryptosporidium spp. is an obligate, parasitic protozoan that is difficult to detect and causes diarrhea in healthy adults while potentially causing death in the immunocompromised and children. Its treatment options are few and treat the symptoms, not the actual parasite. Current methods of detection are inefficient and rely too heavily upon laboratory sample preparations and technician skill, including differential staining, negative staining, and immunofluorescence methods [especially U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1623]...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Anne Mette Madsen, Christoffer B Matthiesen, Margit W Frederiksen, Marie Frederiksen, Mika Frankel, Michal Spilak, Lars Gunnarsen, Michael Timm
Selection of sampling device, sampling location and period are important first steps in the measurement of exposure to bioaerosols in indoor air. The steps following the sampling include treatment of samples and laboratory analysis. In this study, settling bacteria, endotoxin, fungi and serine protease have been measured in Danish homes using Electrostatic Dust Fall Collectors (EDCs). The effects of the presence of occupants, sampling on open surfaces versus in bookcases and treatment of samples have been studied...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Frank Rigét, Rune Dietz, Keith A Hobson
Temporal trends of mercury in livers of ringed seals collected from the early 1980s to 2010 from central West, Northwest and central East Greenland were studied. In this period the climate of Greenland warmed and the influences of climate indices such as ice coverage, water temperature and the Atlantic Oscillation Index on mercury concentration were evaluated using multiple regressions and Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) to determine the most parsimonious models. Biological co-variables such as age, sex and trophic position (as determined by stable isotope analysis) of seals were also evaluated...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Sepideh Behinaein, David R Chettle, Lesley M Egden, Fiona E McNeill, Geoff Norman, Norbert Richard, Susan Stever
494 smelter employees from New Brunswick participated in a bone lead survey conducted by McMaster University in 2008, using the four element "clover-leaf" geometry germanium detector system. The employees were measured at two different bone sites, tibia and calcaneus, each measurement lasting 30 minutes. Scattered photons, including Pb X-rays, were collected by the germanium detectors located behind the ¹⁰⁹Cd source. A strong positive correlation was observed between tibia and calcaneus lead concentrations...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Martin Ebert, Dörthe Müller-Ebert, Nathalie Benker, Stephan Weinbruch
The size, morphology and chemical composition of 37,715 individual particles collected over 22 sampling days in the vicinity of a large integrated steel production were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the morphology, chemistry and beam stability the particles were classified into the following fourteen groups: silicates, sea salt, calcium sulfates, calcium carbonates, carbonate-silicate mixtures, sulfate-silicate mixtures, iron oxides, iron mixtures, metal oxide-metals, complex secondary particles, soot, Cl-rich particles, P-rich particles, and other particles...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Hualin Chen, Joselito M Arocena, Jianbing Li, Ronald W Thring, Jiangmin Zhou
Leather tanneries around the world, including China, introduce chromium (Cr) and other metals into the environment. In China, the population pressure compels the utilization of every piece of available land for food production. In this study, we investigated the content, leachability and possible storage sinks for Cr and other metals in soils around facilities of leather industry in southern China. It was found that Cr in soils impacted by tannery can be as high as 2484 mg Cr kg⁻¹ soil, and the mean contents of other metals such as Zn (214 mg Zn kg⁻¹ soil), Cd (5...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
F Henry, I Filipuci, G Billon, L Courcot, E Kerambrun, R Amara
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metal contamination on the biological responses of 0-group juvenile European flounder and to assess and compare the quality of four estuarine habitats located in the Eastern English Channel. Fish otolith growth and condition indices (RNA : DNA ratio, Fulton's K condition index) were measured and found to be significantly lower in individuals from the Seine estuary compared to those of the Canche, Authie and Somme estuaries. No obvious effects of hydrological condition or food availability on the flounder biological responses were observed...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
B G Rawlins, C Scheib, A N Tyler, D Beamish
Regulatory authorities need ways to estimate natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (nGy h⁻¹) across the landscape accurately, to assess its potential deleterious health effects. The primary method for estimating outdoor dose rate is to use an in situ detector supported 1 m above the ground, but such measurements are costly and cannot capture the landscape-scale variation in dose rates which are associated with changes in soil and parent material mineralogy. We investigate the potential for improving estimates of terrestrial gamma dose rates across Northern Ireland (13,542 km²) using measurements from 168 sites and two sources of ancillary data: (i) a map based on a simplified classification of soil parent material, and (ii) dose estimates from a national-scale, airborne radiometric survey...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Gillian Lord, Nick Kim, Neil I Ward
Total arsenic and four arsenic species; arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), are reported in 28 geothermal features from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Waikato region of New Zealand. Samples were collected for arsenic speciation analysis via a solid phase extraction (SPE) kit allowing the separation, stabilisation and pre-concentration of the species at the time of sample collection in the field. This is the first research to present data for arsenic species collected by this technique in geothermal waters from New Zealand...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Ahmed H YoussefAgha, Wasantha P Jayawardene, David K Lohrmann, Gamal S El Afandi
Objectives of this study are to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children in industrialized countries (with climatic seasons) and exposure to daily air pollution with particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone, when controlled for potential confounders; and, if so, to derive a statistical model that predicts variation of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Using an ecological study design, health records of 168,25 students from elementary schools in 49 Pennsylvania counties employing "Health eTools for Schools" were analyzed...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Halyna Tkachenko, Natalia Kurhaluk
This paper aimed to illustrate the most reliable biomarkers to detect pollution-related oxidative stress in white stork nestlings in polluted (from copper manufacture), suburban and Odra meadows (as a control area) areas . Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, TBARS) and oxidative modified protein levels (stable 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine derivates of the carbonyl groups) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress, as well as other selected biochemical parameters, which are used as diagnostic tools in avian medicine (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase activities, lactate and pyruvate concentrations)...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Manas Ranjan Gartia, Björn Braunschweig, Te-Wei Chang, Parya Moinzadeh, Barbara S Minsker, Gul Agha, Andrzej Wieckowski, Laura L Keefer, Gang Logan Liu
Quantitative monitoring of water conditions in a field is a critical ability for environmental science studies. We report the design, fabrication and testing of a low cost, miniaturized and sensitive electrochemical based nitrate sensor for quantitative determination of nitrate concentrations in water samples. We have presented detailed analysis for the nitrate detection results using the miniaturized sensor. We have also demonstrated the integration of the sensor to a wireless network and carried out field water testing using the sensor...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
S Mogo, V E Cachorro, A de Frutos, A Rodrigues
A field campaign was conducted from October 2009 to July 2010 at Covilhã, a small town located in the region of Beira Interior (Portugal) in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. The ambient light-absorption coefficient, σ(a) (522 nm), obtained from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), presented a daily mean value of 12.1 Mm⁻¹ (StD = 7.3 Mm⁻¹). The wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption is investigated through the Ångström parameter, α(a). The α(a) values for the pair of wavelengths 470-660 nm ranged from 0...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
M S I Aziz, Andrew J Orr-Ewing
An automated near infra-red (IR) continuous wave cavity ring down spectrometer with sample preconcentration has been developed for the measurement of ethene (C₂H₄) in air. The spectrometer incorporated a distributed feedback diode laser operating at wavelengths λ∼ 1.6 μm and a pre-concentration system containing an adsorbent, molecular sieve 4A (MS4A). An absorption line located at 6148.58 cm⁻¹, and free from spectral overlap with other atmospheric molecules, was used for ethene detection. The spectrometer has a capacity for determination of atmospheric ethene mixing ratios at half hour time intervals, with a detection limit (2 SD above baseline noise) of 280 ppt...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Faridah Othman, Alaa Eldin M E, Ibrahim Mohamed
Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Ting Zhang, Ye-Ru Huang, She-Jun Chen, Ai-Min Liu, Peng-Jun Xu, Nan Li, Li Qi, Yue Ren, Zhi-Guang Zhou, Bi-Xian Mai
Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in Taizhou, a large electronic equipment waste (e-waste) recycling area in East China. The mean concentrations (in summer and winter) of PCDD/Fs (0.45 and 0.39 pg WHO-TEQ m⁻³, where WHO-TEQ is the toxic equivalent set by the World Health Organisation), PBDD/Fs (0.22 and 0.18 pg WHO-TEQ m⁻³), and PBDEs (270 and 225 pg m⁻³) in this region have declined compared with those in 2005, due to regulations on primitive e-waste recycling activities...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Y Inomata, M Aoyama, D Tsumune, T Motoi, H Nakano
¹³⁷Cs is one of the conservative tracers applied to the study of oceanic circulation processes on decadal time scales. To investigate the spatial distribution and the temporal variation of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in surface seawater in the North Pacific Ocean after 1957, a technique for optimum interpolation (OI) was applied to understand the behaviour of ¹³⁷Cs that revealed the basin-scale circulation of Cs ¹³⁷Cs in surface seawater in the North Pacific Ocean: ¹³⁷Cs deposited in the western North Pacific Ocean from global fallout (late 1950s and early 1960s) and from local fallout (transported from the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during the late 1950s) was further transported eastward with the Kuroshio and North Pacific Currents within several years of deposition and was accumulated in the eastern North Pacific Ocean until 1967...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
Jagoš R Radović, Carmen Domínguez, Karine Laffont, Sergi Díez, James W Readman, Joan Albaigés, Josep M Bayona
Oil spills relating to shipping incidents remain of substantial concern with respect to marine pollution. Whilst most frequently a reactive approach is adopted in post-incident monitoring (for the specific product involved), this paper reports important physical and compositional characteristics of commonly transported oils and oil products to afford pro-active assessments. These properties include specific gravity, viscosity, elemental composition and, of particular relevance, the relative class compositions between aliphatics, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
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