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BMC Psychiatry

Kirsten Evenblij, H Roeline W Pasman, Rosalie Pronk, Bregje D Onwuteaka-Philipsen
BACKGROUND: The medical-ethical dilemmas related to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in psychiatric patients are highly relevant in an international context. EAS in psychiatric patients appears to become more frequent in the Netherlands. However, little is known about the experiences of psychiatrists with this practice. This study aims to estimate the incidence of EAS (requests) in psychiatric practice in The Netherlands and to describe the characteristics of psychiatric patients requesting EAS, the decision-making process and outcomes of these requests...
February 19, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Andrea Galova, Patricia Berney, Jules Desmeules, Ioannis Sergentanis, Marie Besson
BACKGROUND: Rebound cholinergic syndrome is a rare, but well known unwanted phenomenon occurring after abrupt clozapine discontinuation. There have been previous reported cases of cholinergic rebound in the literature; however, these reports described cholinergic rebound following cessation of high doses of clozapine in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Here, we report a case of rebound cholinergic syndrome and catatonia in a male patient three days after abrupt discontinuation of 50 mg of clozapine prescribed for type I bipolar affective disorder...
February 19, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
F Matcham, C Barattieri di San Pietro, V Bulgari, G de Girolamo, R Dobson, H Eriksson, A A Folarin, J M Haro, M Kerz, F Lamers, Q Li, N V Manyakov, D C Mohr, I Myin-Germeys, V Narayan, Penninx Bwjh, Y Ranjan, Z Rashid, A Rintala, S Siddi, S K Simblett, T Wykes, M Hotopf
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature highlighting the role that wearable and mobile remote measurement technology (RMT) can play in measuring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Outcomes assessment typically relies on self-report, which can be biased by dysfunctional perceptions and current symptom severity. Predictors of depressive relapse include disrupted sleep, reduced sociability, physical activity, changes in mood, prosody and cognitive function, which are all amenable to measurement via RMT...
February 18, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Jamie Berry, Isabella Jacomb, Jo Lunn, Antoinette Sedwell, Anthony Shakeshaft, Peter J Kelly, Pooria Sarrami, Megan James, Skye Russell, Talia Nardo, Daniel Barker, Jennifer Holmes
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning impairment is common in substance use disorder and is a major risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, including treatment drop-out and relapse. Cognitive remediation interventions seek to improve executive functioning and offer a promising approach to increase the efficacy of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatments and improve long-term therapeutic outcomes. This protocol describes a study funded by the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation that assesses the effectiveness of delivering a six-week group-based intervention of cognitive remediation in an ecologically valid sample of people attending residential AOD treatment services...
February 13, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Febe E van der Flier, Caroline M B Kwee, Danielle C Cath, Neeltje M Batelaan, Lucianne Groenink, Puck Duits, Date C van der Veen, Anton J L M van Balkom, Johanna M P Baas
BACKGROUND: Phobic anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and are burdensome in terms of loss of quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatments are relatively successful in the majority of patients, especially exposure therapy. However, a substantial subset of patients fails to achieve or stay in remission. Preclinical and genetic research have yielded evidence that the cannabinoid system is involved in the extinction of fear, presumed to underlie the beneficial effects of exposure therapy in phobic disorders...
February 13, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Tadis Brhane Tesfahunegn, Etsay Hailu Gebremariam
BACKGROUND: Mental distress is becoming a common health problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mental distress is higher among university students than the general population. However, there is inadequate information in this regard in Ethiopia situations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among regular undergraduate students in Aksum University, North Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was carried out among 919 students from May 10 to 20, 2016...
February 13, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Anthony F Jorm, Angela Nicholas, Jane Pirkis, Alyssia Rossetto, Julie-Anne Fischer, Nicola J Reavley
BACKGROUND: Members of the public can potentially take action to assist someone in their social network who is distressed and at risk of suicide. The present study used data from a community survey to examine training experiences and sociodemographic factors associated with the quality of assistance provided in such situations. METHODS: A national telephone survey using random digit dialing was carried out with Australian adults on attitudes and intentions toward helping someone in severe distress or at risk of suicide, as well as actions taken...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Alicia Monreal-Bartolomé, Alberto Barceló-Soler, Adoración Castro, Mª Ángeles Pérez-Ara, Margalida Gili, Fermín Mayoral, Maria Magdalena Hurtado, Esperanza Varela Moreno, Cristina Botella, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa M Baños, Yolanda López-Del-Hoyo, Javier García-Campayo
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has included comorbidity between depression and a chronic disease among the 10 leading global health priorities. Although there is a high prevalence of multimorbidity, health care systems are mainly designed for the management of individual diseases. Given the difficulty in delivering face-to-face psychological treatments, alternative models of treatment delivery have been proposed, emphasizing the role of technologies such as the Internet...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Esther Krijnen-de Bruin, Anna D T Muntingh, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Annemieke van Straten, Neeltje M Batelaan, Otto R Maarsingh, Anton J L M van Balkom, Berno van Meijel
BACKGROUND: Since anxiety and depressive disorders often recur, self-management competencies are crucial for improving the long-term course of anxiety and depressive disorders. However, few relapse prevention programmes are available that focus on improving self-management. E-health combined with personal contact with a mental health professional in general practice might be a promising approach for relapse prevention. In this protocol, the GET READY (Guided E-healTh for RElapse prevention in Anxiety and Depression) study will be described in which a relapse prevention programme is developed, implemented and evaluated...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Barbara Plemeniti Tololeski, Maruša Debeljak, Mirjana Perkovič Benedik, Tristan Rigler, Marinos Kyriakopoulos, Primož Kotnik, Katarina Šurlan Popovič, Maja Drobnič Radobuljac
BACKGROUND: Primary brain calcification (PBC), a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas, typically presents with various neurological and psychiatric symptoms in the fourth or fifth decade of life or later. We present the case of a patient with psychiatric manifestations much earlier than usual, in the second decade of life. CASE PRESENTATION: The case of an adolescent female with acute psychotic symptoms, emotional instability, disorganized and suicidal behavior, stereotypical movements, below average intelligence and a three-year history of headaches is reported...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Sofie Bratberg Jensen, Helle Stentoft Dalum, Lisa Korsbek, Carsten Hjorthøj, John Hagel Mikkelsen, Karin Thomsen, Kristen Kistrup, Mette Olander, Jane Lindschou, Kim T Mueser, Merete Nordentoft, Lene Falgaard Eplov
BACKGROUND: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based rehabilitation program for people with severe mental illness with the short-term aim of improving illness self-management and the long-term aim of helping people achieve clinical and personal recovery. METHOD: Participants with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders were recruited from three community mental health centers in the Capital Region of Denmark and randomized to receive group-based IMR and treatment as usual or only the usual intervention...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
A Sánchez-Villegas, B Cabrera-Suárez, P Molero, A González-Pinto, C Chiclana-Actis, C Cabrera, F Lahortiga-Ramos, M Florido-Rodríguez, P Vega-Pérez, R Vega-Pérez, J Pla, M J Calviño-Cabada, F Ortuño, S Navarro, Y Almeida, J L Hernández-Fleta
BACKGROUND: The role of dietary patterns in the prevention of unipolar depression has been analyzed in several epidemiological studies. The primary aims of this study are to determine the effectiveness of an extra-olive oil-enriched Mediterranean diet in reducing the recurrence of depression and improving the symptoms of this condition. METHODS: Multicenter, two-arm, parallel-group clinical trial. Arm 1, extra-virgin olive oil Mediterranean diet; Arm 2, control group without nutritional intervention...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Fang Liu, Xiaohong Gong, Xudong Yao, Lingling Cui, Zhiyang Yin, Chao Li, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit β2 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. The β2 subunit is an auxiliary protein of voltage-gated calcium channels, which is predominantly expressed in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. A single-nucleotide polymorphism at the CACNB2 gene (rs11013860) has been reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the neural effects of rs11013860 expression are unknown...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Fatch W Kalembo, Garth E Kendall, Mohammed Ali, Angela F Chimwaza
BACKGROUND: Approximately 84,000 children under the age of 15 years are living with HIV in Malawi. Although the survival rate of children living with HIV in Malawi has improved due to the increased availability of antiretroviral medications, these children continue to experience numerous challenges negatively impacting on their mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, emotional and behavioural difficulties in children aged between 6 and 12 years living with HIV in Malawi...
February 8, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Shan Hui Lai, Tung Tsoi, Chao Tian Tang, Richard Jor Yeong Hui, Kim Kiat Tan, Yehudi Wee Shung Yeo, Ee Heok Kua
BACKGROUND: The number of dementia cases is expected to rise exponentially over the years in many parts of the world. Collaborative healthcare partnerships are envisaged as a solution to this problem. Primary care physicians form the vanguard of early detection of dementia and influence clinical care that these patients receive. However, evidence suggests that they will benefit from closer support from specialist services in dementia care. An interdisciplinary, collaborative memory clinic was established in 2012 as a collaborative effort between a large family medicine based service and a specialist geriatric psychiatry service in Singapore...
February 8, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Vera E Heininga, Egon Dejonckheere, Marlies Houben, Jasmien Obbels, Pascal Sienaert, Bart Leroy, Joris van Roy, Peter Kuppens
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The cardinal features of MDD are depressed mood and anhedonia. Anhedonia is defined as a "markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities of the day", and has generally been investigated on group-level using retrospective data (e.g. via questionnaire/interview). However, inferences based on group-level findings not necessarily generalize to daily life experiences within individuals...
February 8, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Bekele Belayihun, Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi
BACKGROUND: The surgical repair of fistula can address the physical symptoms, but may not end the psychological challenges that women with fistula face. There are a few studies that focus on women with this condition in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of surgical repair of obstetric fistula on the severity of depression and anxiety in women with obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. METHOD: The study employed a longitudinal study design to investigate the changes in 219 women with obstetric fistula admitted to six fistula management hospitals in Ethiopia...
February 7, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Quinn M Biggs, Robert J Ursano, Jing Wang, David S Krantz, Russell B Carr, Gary H Wynn, Deborah Probe Adams, Nicole M Dacuyan, Carol S Fullerton
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the extent to which post traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) vary from day to day in individuals with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the variation of PTSS by day of the week, and whether daily or day of week variation differs between individuals with and without probable PTSD. METHODS: Subjects (N = 80) were assessed for probable PTSD at enrollment. Using an ecological momentary assessment methodology, PTSS were assessed four times daily by self-report for 15 days...
February 4, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Charlie Albert Smith, Ann McNeill, Loren Kock, Lion Shahab
BACKGROUND: Smoking has played a significant role in the historical culture of mental healthcare settings. Mental health professionals (MHPs) often hold dismissive attitudes regarding the importance of smoking cessation in the context of mental healthcare. In 2007, English mental health inpatient buildings were required by law to become smoke-free, and healthcare trusts have more recently begun to implement comprehensive policies (i.e. smoke-free grounds and buildings) and staff training in response to national guidance...
February 4, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Stephen Parker, Gordon Hopkins, Dan Siskind, Meredith Harris, Gemma McKeon, Frances Dark, Harvey Whiteford
BACKGROUND: Clinically operated community-based residential rehabilitation units (Community Rehabilitation Units) are resource intensive services supporting a small proportion of the people with severe and persisting mental illness who experience difficulties living in the community. Most consumers who engage with these services will be diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder. This review seeks to: generate a typology of service models, describe the characteristics of the consumers accessing these services, and synthesise available evidence about consumers' service experiences and outcomes...
February 4, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
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