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BMC Infectious Diseases

Claris Shoko, Delson Chikobvu
BACKGROUND: CD4 cell count has been identified to be an essential component in monitoring HIV treatment outcome. However, CD4 cell count monitoring sometimes fails to predict virological failure resulting in unnecessary switch of treatment lines which causes drug resistance and limitations of treatment options. This study assesses the use of both viral load (HIV RNA) and CD4 cell count in the monitoring of HIV/AIDS progression. METHODS: Time-homogeneous Markov models were fitted, one on CD4 cell count monitoring and the other on HIV RNA monitoring...
February 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Irene Galani, Konstantina Nafplioti, Panagiota Adamou, Ilias Karaiskos, Helen Giamarellou, Maria Souli
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the in vitro activities of plazomicin and comparator aminoglycosides and elucidate the underlying aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms among carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates collected during a nationwide surveillance study in Greek hospitals. METHODS: Three hundred single-patient carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were studied, including 200 KPC-, 50 NDM-, 21 VIM-, 14 KPC & VIM-, 12 OXA-48-, two NDM & OXA- and one KPC & OXA-producing isolates...
February 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tomohiro Takehara, Tetsuo Tani, Ken Yajima, Mako Watanabe, Yoshihito Otsuka, Hidefumi Koh
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter cinaedi is a microaerobic Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that causes enteritis, cellulitis, and bacteremia in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. While there have been increasing numbers of reported H. cinaedi infections recently, there has been no thyroid abscess case caused by H. cinaedi presenting with thyroid storm. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old Japanese man presented with a 9-day history of high fever associated with palpitations, dry cough, and chronic diarrhea...
February 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jinjian Fu, Ling Li, Zhuoxin Liang, Shaolin Xu, Nan Lin, Peixu Qin, Xiaohua Ye, Eric McGrath
BACKGROUND: The etiology and epidemiology of acute otitis media (AOM) are poorly understood in China. This study aimed to describe the etiology of AOM and the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of AOM-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pneumoniae) recovered from Chinese children. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to enrol patients younger than 18 years diagnosed as AOM. Middle ear fluid specimens were collected then cultured for bacterial pathogens...
February 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Simon Peter Sebina Kibira, John C Ssempebwa, Ronald Ssenyonga, Scott Radloff, Fredrick Edward Makumbi
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of schistosomiasis is high among children under five years in Uganda. Schistosomiasis control efforts over time have included periodic mass treatments in endemic areas for adults and school going children aged 5 years and above. This study explores behaviour practices of children age 2-4 years that increase the risk of schistosomiasis infection in this age group. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using in-depth interviews with 30 caregivers of children aged 2-4 years who tested positive for schistosomiasis in a national prevalence survey in 2017...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Maha Talaat, Salma Afifi, Erik J Reaves, Hanaa Abu Elsood, Amany El-Gohary, Samir Refaey, Radi Hammad, Mostafa Abdel Fadeel, Amr Kandeel
BACKGROUND: Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt's renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-established during 2014-2017 to describe the current epidemiology and associated risk factors, and changes from surveillance conducted during 2001-2004. METHODS: Patients with suspected AVH were enrolled, completed a questionnaire, and provided blood for testing for hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D, and E (HEV) infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lin Yang, King Pan Chan, Chit Ming Wong, Susan Shui Seng Chiu, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes, Thuan Quoc Thach, Joseph Syrial Malik Peiris, Archie C A Clements, Wenbiao Hu
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake in the older population aged 65 years or over of Hong Kong dramatically increased since the 2003 SARS outbreak. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of increased coverage of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines by comparing the change of disease burden in the older population of Hong Kong, with the burden in the older population of Brisbane with relatively high vaccine coverage in the past fifteen years. METHODS: Time series segmented regression models were applied to weekly numbers of cause-specific mortality or hospitalization of Hong Kong and Brisbane...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Judith A Anesi, Ebbing Lautenbach, Irving Nachamkin, Charles Garrigan, Warren B Bilker, Jacqueline Omorogbe, Lois Dankwa, Mary Wheeler, Pam Tolomeo, Jennifer H Han
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance to first line antibiotics used to treat community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) continues to emerge. We sought to determine the association between extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (ESC-R) and recurrence among Enterobacteriaceae (EB) UTIs. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed. All patients presenting to the Emergency Departments (EDs) or outpatient practices in a large health system with EB UTIs between 2010 and 2013 were included...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Janneke Evelyne Stalenhoef, Cees van Nieuwkoop, Darius Cameron Wilson, Willize Elizabeth van der Starre, Tanny J K van der Reijden, Nathalie Manon Delfos, Eliane Madeleine Sophie Leyten, Ted Koster, Hans Christiaan Ablij, Johannes Jan Willem van 't Wout, Jaap Tamino van Dissel
BACKGROUND: A reduction in duration of antibiotic therapy is crucial in minimizing the development of antimicrobial resistance, drug-related side effects and health care costs. The minimal effective duration of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infections (fUTI) remains a topic of uncertainty, especially in male patients, those of older age or with comorbidities. Biomarkers have the potential to objectively identify the optimal moment for cessation of therapy. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial among 35 primary care centers and 7 emergency departments of regional hospitals in the Netherlands...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jan Olsson, Jörgen Johansson, Emma Honkala, Bert Blomqvist, Eloise Kok, Bodil Weidung, Hugo Lövheim, Fredrik Elgh
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), establishes life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe a protocol to generate a reliable and discriminative avidity index (AI) for anti-HSV1 IgG content in human sera. METHODS: Human serum from two distinct cohorts; one a biobank collection (Betula) (n = 28), and one from a clinical diagnostics laboratory at Northern Sweden University Hospital (NUS) (n = 18), were assessed for presence of IgG antibodies against HSV1 by a commercially available ELISA-kit...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Miao-Miao Zhao, Jeremy Krebs, Xi Cao, Jing Cui, Dong-Ning Chen, Yu Li, Lin Hua, Jim Mann, Jin-Kui Yang
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several extragastric conditions including dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate additional metabolic parameters associated with H. pylori infection in a Chinese population. METHODS: Using a case-control approach we studied 617 subjects with 13 C-urea breath test (13 C-UBT) values ≥10‰ who were defined as being positive for H. pylori (cases), while 617 sex and age- matched subjects with 13 C-UBT values ≤1‰ were defined as H...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yanyan Zhou, Li Yu, Zheng Nan, Pingping Zhang, Biao Kan, Donghui Yan, Jianrong Su
BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics (taxonomy, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance ) of Aeromonas in isolated from extra-intestinal and intestinal infections were investigated to describe epidemiology, associated virulence factors and optimal therapy options. METHODS: Clinical samples (n = 115) of Aeromonas were collected from a general hospital in Beijing between the period 2015 and 2017. Taxonomy was investigate by Multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA), 10 putative virulence factors by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antimicrobial resistance to 15 antibiotics by use of the microbroth dilution method...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Martina Havlickova, Sophie Druelles, Helena Jirincova, Radomira Limberkova, Alexander Nagy, Anvar Rasuli, Jan Kyncl
BACKGROUND: To improve national influenza vaccination recommendations, additional data on influenza A and B virus circulation are needed. Here, we describe the circulation of influenza A and B in the Czech Republic during 16 seasons. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from the 2000-2001 to 2015-2016 influenza seasons by the Czech Republic national influenza surveillance network. Influenza was confirmed and viral isolates subtyped by virological assays followed by antigen detection or by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yoonki Hong, Youngmi Kim, Jae Jun Lee, Myung Goo Lee, Chang Youl Lee, Youlim Kim, Jeongwon Heo, Seon-Sook Han, Seung-Joon Lee, Woo Jin Kim, Ji Young Hong
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D levels are associated with the extent of mycobactericidal activity. Interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-32 play roles in the vitamin D-mediated tuberculosis (TB) defense mechanism. Vitamin D induces IL-1β, which plays an important role in terms of resistance to TB. We evaluated whether the levels of vitamin D-related cytokines distinguished between those with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). METHODS: In total, 50 TB-infected patients (25 with active TB and 25 with LTBI following a TB outbreak in a high school) were enrolled...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yuan Liang Woon, Mei Fong Lim, Tg Rogayah Tg Abd Rashid, Ravindran Thayan, Suresh Kumar Chidambaram, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Rose Nani Mudin, Sheamini Sivasampu
BACKGROUND: A major outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been reported in Brazil in 2015. Since then, it spread further to other countries in the Americas and resulted in declaration of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by World Health Organization. In 2016, Singapore reported its first minor ZIKV epidemic. Malaysia shares similar ecological environment as Brazil and Singapore which may also favor ZIKV transmission. However, no ZIKV outbreak has been reported in Malaysia to date...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Etienne E Muller, Mahlape P Mahlangu, David A Lewis, Ranmini S Kularatne
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium is rising globally with resultant clinical treatment failure. We investigated the prevalence of mutations in the macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-determining regions of M. genitalium in Johannesburg, South Africa, and ascertained their association with HIV serostatus. METHODS: Stored M. genitalium positive specimens, collected from STI and HIV patients enrolled in the Gauteng STI National Microbiological Surveillance programme (2007-2014) and a large HIV outpatient clinic-based study (2007) in Johannesburg, were tested for antimicrobial resistance...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Aude E Mogoung-Wafo, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, André Domche, Floribert Fossuo-Thotchum, Jean Bopda, Steve Mbickmen-Tchana, Honoré Djomo-Kamga, Joseph Kamgno
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease due to Loa loa and transmitted to humans by tabanids of the genus Chrysops. Loiasis has been historically considered as the second or third most common reason for medical consultation after malaria, and a recent study has reported an excess mortality associated with the infection. However, the clinical impact of this filarial disease is yet to be elucidated, and it is still considered a benign disease eliciting very little attention...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lorenz Weidhase, Daniel Wellhöfer, Gero Schulze, Thorsten Kaiser, Tim Drogies, Ulrike Wurst, Sirak Petros
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Interleukin-6 (IL-6) could be a faster indicator of treatment success in adults with severe sepsis and septic shock compared to procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: Data from adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock managed at the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of the University Hospital Leipzig between September 2009 and January 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Values for CRP, PCT and IL-6 on admission as well as after 24 and 48-72 h were collected...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fiona C C Chan, Phillip Chan, Iris Chan, Andrew Chan, Tommy H C Tang, Wilson Lam, W C Fong, M P Lee, Patrick Li, Germaine H F Chan
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains prevalent in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The prevalence of HAND in Hong Kong is not known. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, 98 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals were referred to and screened by the AIDS Clinical Service, Queen Elizabeth Hospital with (1) the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), a screening tool that targets moderate to severe HAND, (2) the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a frequently used cognitive screening test and (3) the Patient Health Questionnare-9 (PHQ-9), a 9-item questionnaire that evaluates depression symptoms...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Helena Kornfält Isberg, Eva Melander, Katarina Hedin, Sigvard Mölstad, Anders Beckman
BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uUTI) is common and a majority of patients are prescribed antibiotics. There is little knowledge about antibiotic resistance in urine samples from patients with uUTI in primary health care (PHC). The aim was to describe antibiotic treatment, bacterial findings, the prevalence of resistant E.coli and factors associated with antibiotic resistance. The aim was also to compare the prevalence of resistant E.coli in clinical practice with the prevalence of resistant E...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
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