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BMC Immunology

Ping Yang, Yongqing Guo, Yao Sun, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Xianghui Yu, Hui Wu, Wei Kong
BACKGROUND: Active immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) is a promising treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials demonstrated that a safe and effective AD vaccine should induce high titers of anti-Aβ antibodies while avoiding the activation of T cells specific to Aβ. RESULTS: An untagged Aβ1-6 chimeric protein vaccine against AD based on norovirus (NoV) P particle was expressed in Escherichia coli and obtained by sequential chromatography...
February 12, 2019: BMC Immunology
Alexandra Tremblay-McLean, Sita Coenraads, Zahra Kiani, Franck P Dupuy, Nicole F Bernard
BACKGROUND: Natural killer cell responses to virally-infected or transformed cells depend on the integration of signals received through inhibitory and activating natural killer cell receptors. Human Leukocyte Antigen null cells are used in vitro to stimulate natural killer cell activation through missing-self mechanisms. On the other hand, CEM.NKr.CCR5 cells are used to stimulate natural killer cells in an antibody dependent manner since they are resistant to direct killing by natural killer cells...
January 29, 2019: BMC Immunology
Zhifang Zhang, Deirdre La Placa, Tung Nguyen, Maciej Kujawski, Keith Le, Lin Li, John E Shively
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and the fever response to pathogens are coordinately regulated by IL-6 and IL-1β. We previously showed that CEACAM1 regulates the LPS driven expression of IL-1β in murine neutrophils through its ITIM receptor. RESULTS: We now show that the prompt secretion of IL-6 in response to LPS is regulated by CEACAM1 expression on bone marrow monocytes. Ceacam1-/- mice over-produce IL-6 in response to an i.p. LPS challenge, resulting in prolonged surface temperature depression and overt diarrhea compared to their wild type counterparts...
January 23, 2019: BMC Immunology
Yaoming Li, Jie Yu, Xiuwen Qi, Huimin Yan
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus A 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that may lead to acute flaccid paralysis, encephalitis, cardiopulmonary failure or even death. No vaccine and defensive drug controlling EV71 is currently available, novel and efficient antiviral drug or vaccine is therefore urgently needed. 3Dpol (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)) has been an important target for anti-EV71 drug development. METHODS: A panel of monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) against EV71 3Dpol were generated by traditional cell fusion methods...
January 22, 2019: BMC Immunology
Adriana Navas, Lina Giraldo-Parra, Miguel Darío Prieto, Juliana Cabrera, María Adelaida Gómez
BACKGROUND: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are extensively used for research of immune cell functions, identification of biomarkers and development of diagnostics and therapeutics for human diseases, among others. The assumption that "old blood samples" are not appropriate for isolation of PBMCs for functional assays has been a dogma in the scientific community. However, partial data on the impact of time after phlebotomy on the quality and stability of human PBMCs preparations impairs the design of studies in which time-controlled blood sampling is challenging such as field studies involving multiple sampling centers/sites...
January 18, 2019: BMC Immunology
Xiaosheng Wang, Mengyuan Li
BACKGROUND: Tumor mutation burden (TMB) has been associated with cancer immunotherapeutic response and cancer prognosis. Although many explorations have revealed that high TMB may yield many neoantigens to incite antitumor immune response, a systematic exploration of the correlation between TMB and immune signatures in different cancer types is lacking. RESULTS: We classified cancer into the lower-TMB subtype and the higher-TMB subtype for each of 32 cancer types based on their somatic mutation data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and compared the expression levels of immune-related genes and gene-sets between both subtypes of cancers in each cancer type...
January 11, 2019: BMC Immunology
Cody Poe, Cheyanne Youngblood, Karissa Hodge, Kyeorda Kemp
BACKGROUND: T cell activation induces ER stress and upregulates Inositol Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α), an activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Inhibition of IRE1α RNase activity in activated CD4+ splenocytes from naïve mice, via treatment of the cells with the commercially available drug 4μ8c upon activation, results in the reduction of the secretion of proteins IL-5, IL-4, and IL-13. Prior to this work, it was unknown if 4μ8c could inhibit TH2 cytokines in established TH2 cells, cells that are crucial in promoting disease in severe asthma...
January 10, 2019: BMC Immunology
Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S Joshi, Rolen M Quadros, Donald W Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M Miles, Samuel J Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y Poluektova
BACKGROUND: The use of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells is an accepted approach to study human-specific infectious diseases such as HIV-1 and to investigate multiple aspects of human immune system development. However, mouse and human are different in sialylation patterns of proteins due to evolutionary mutations of the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene that prevent formation of N-glycolylneuraminic acid from N-acetylneuraminic acid...
January 7, 2019: BMC Immunology
Viviane Martha Santos de Morais, Juliana Prado Gonçales, Georgea Gertrudes de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho
BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in the innate immune response by activating the complement system via the lectin pathway, and it has been studied in several viral infections; however, the influence of MBL in PLWHA infected with HHV-8 is unknown. The objective of this study was to verify the association of MBL deficient plasma concentrations in HIV/HHV-8 coinfected and HIV monoinfected patients and to correlate these concentrations with HIV viral load and CD4 counts in both groups...
January 3, 2019: BMC Immunology
Meng Xu, Yanfang Jiang, Jian Zhang, Yan Zheng, Deying Liu, Lishuang Guo, Sirui Yang
OBJECTIVE: Circulating follicular helper T (cTfh) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that express the CXC-chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). These cells exhibit immune activities by inducing B cell differentiation and proliferation via the secretion of interleukin (IL)-21. Multiple studies have demonstrated that cTfh cells are associated with the progression and severity of numerous diseases. To investigate the role of cTfh cells in the development of Kawasaki disease (KD), we analyzed the distinct subpopulations of cTfh cells and serum IL-21 levels in different phases of KD...
December 27, 2018: BMC Immunology
Brittany A Goods, Jacqueline M Vahey, Arthur F Steinschneider, Michael H Askenase, Lauren Sansing, J Christopher Love
It has been highlighted that the original article [1] contained a typesetting mistake in the middle name of Arthur F. Steinschneider.
December 21, 2018: BMC Immunology
Yuta Sugiyama, Yukari Hiraiwa, Yuichiro Hagiya, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro Ogura
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are crucial players in a variety of inflammatory responses to environmental cues. However, it has been widely reported that macrophages cause chronic inflammation and are involved in a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. In this study, we report the suppressive effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), via the HO-1-related system, on the immune response of the LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. RESULTS: RAW264...
December 19, 2018: BMC Immunology
Wenqing Ma, Hongbin He, Hongmei Wang
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic viruses have been proposed to be employed as a potential treatment of cancer. Well targeted, they will serve the purpose of cracking tumor cells without causing damage to normal cells. In this category of oncolytic viral drugs human pathogens herpes simplex virus (HSV) is especially suitable for the cause. Although most viral infection causes antiviral reaction in the host, HSV has multiple mechanisms to evade those responses. Powerful anti-tumor effect can thus be achieved via genetic manipulation of the HSV genes involved in this evading mechanism, namely deletions or mutations that adapt its function towards a tumor microenvironment...
December 18, 2018: BMC Immunology
Lothar Marischen, Anne Englert, Anna-Lena Schmitt, Hermann Einsele, Juergen Loeffler
BACKGROUND: The saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus reproduces by generation of conidia, which are spread by airflow throughout nature. Since humans are inhaling certain amounts of spores every day, the (innate) immune system is constantly challenged. Even though macrophages and neutrophils carry the main burden, also NK cells are regarded to contribute to the antifungal immune response. While NK cells reveal a low frequency, expression and release of immunomodulatory molecules seem to be a natural way of their involvement...
December 18, 2018: BMC Immunology
Gizachew Ayele, Belay Tessema, Anteneh Amsalu, Getachew Ferede, Gizachew Yismaw
BACKGROUND: The initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) plays a significant role in the clinical management of HIV infected people by preventing morbidity and mortality. This benefit becomes, the most terrible when treatment failure develops. Thus, this research aims to assess the prevalence and associated factors of treatment failure among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART attending University of Gondar Referral Hospital Northwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: Patients on ART with a minimum of 6 months and up to 12 years of treatment were being enrolled...
December 17, 2018: BMC Immunology
Qiongyi Hu, Yue Sun, Yuan Li, Hui Shi, Jialin Teng, Honglei Liu, Xiaobing Cheng, Junna Ye, Yutong Su, Yufeng Yin, Mengru Liu, Jiucun Wang, Chengde Yang
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the presence of specific autoantibodies in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), an immune-mediated inflammatory disease. The object of this study was to explore potential autoantibody profiles in AS patients. RESULTS: Levels of anti-SIRT1 autoantibodies were significantly higher in AS (P < 0.001) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) (P < 0.01) patients but not rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with healthy controls. Additionally, titers of anti-NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1(SIRT1) antibodies were significantly higher in AS patients than in RA (P < 0...
December 17, 2018: BMC Immunology
Minna Hietikko, Outi Koskinen, Kalle Kurppa, Kaija Laurila, Päivi Saavalainen, Teea Salmi, Tuire Ilus, Heini Huhtala, Katri Kaukinen, Katri Lindfors
BACKGROUND: In coeliac disease, ingestion of gluten induces the production of transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-targeted autoantibodies by TG2-specific plasma cells present at high frequency in the small intestinal mucosa in untreated disease. During treatment with a gluten-free diet (GFD), the number of these cells decreases considerably. It has not been previously investigated whether the cells are also present prior to development of villous atrophy, or in non-responsive patients and those with dietary lapses...
December 6, 2018: BMC Immunology
Qin Chen, Shengping Qiu, Huanhuan Li, Chaolong Lin, Yong Luo, Wenfeng Ren, Yidi Zou, Yale Wang, Ninghshao Xia, Chenghao Huang
BACKGROUND: Most monoclonal antibodies against mouse antigens have been derived from rat spleen-mouse myeloma fusions, which are valuable tools for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs, and yet selecting and expressing them remains a time-consuming and inefficient process. Here, we report a novel approach for the rapid high-throughput selection and expression of recombinant functional rat monoclonal antibodies with different isotypes. RESULTS: We have developed a robust system for generating rat monoclonal antibodies through several processes involving simultaneously immunizing rats with three different antigens expressing in a mixed cell pools, preparing hybridoma cell pools, in vitro screening and subsequent cloning of the rearranged light and heavy chains into a single expression plasmid using a highly efficient assembly method, which can decrease the time and effort required by multiple immunizations and fusions, traditional clonal selection and expression methods...
December 4, 2018: BMC Immunology
L E Amoah, H B Abagna, K Akyea-Mensah, A C Lo, K A Kusi, B A Gyan
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against Region III-V of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) 175 (EBA175RIII-V) have been suggested to provide protection from malaria in a natural infection. However, the quality and quantity of naturally induced antibodies to EBA175RIII-V has not been fully characterized in different cohorts of Ghanaians. This study sought to determine the characteristics of antibodies against EBA175RIII-V in asymptomatic adults and children living in two communities of varying P...
November 19, 2018: BMC Immunology
Elaheh Movahed, Yi Ying Cheok, Grace Min Yi Tan, Chalystha Yie Qin Lee, Heng Choon Cheong, Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Sun Tee Tay, Pei Pei Chong, Won Fen Wong, Chung Yeng Looi
BACKGROUND: IL-17A has emerged as a key player in the pathologies of inflammation, autoimmune disease, and immunity to microbes since its discovery two decades ago. In this study, we aim to elucidate the activity of IL-17A in the protection against Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungus that causes fatal meningoencephalitis among AIDS patients. For this purpose, we examined if C. neoformans infection triggers IL-17A secretion in vivo using wildtype C57BL/6 mice. In addition, an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter and a knockout (KO) mouse models were used to track the source of IL-17A secretion and explore the protective function of IL-17A, respectively...
November 8, 2018: BMC Immunology
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