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BMC Developmental Biology

Lydia K Wooldridge, Alan D Ealy
BACKGROUND: Work in other species suggests that interleukin-6 (IL6) promotes early embryo development. It was unclear whether IL6 serves as an embryokine in cultured bovine embryos. This work was undertaken to elucidate the role of IL6 during in vitro bovine embryo production. RESULTS: Transcripts for IL6 and its two cognate receptor subunits (IL6R, IL6ST) were confirmed in bovine embryos from the 1-cell to blastocyst stages. Supplementing 100 ng/ml recombinant bovine IL6 to in vitro-produced bovine embryos at day 1, 3 or 5 increased (P < 0...
February 1, 2019: BMC Developmental Biology
Scott J Neal, Darin Dolezal, Nisveta Jusić, Francesca Pignoni
BACKGROUND: BMP signaling is involved in myriad metazoan developmental processes, and study of this pathway in Drosophila has contributed greatly to our understanding of its molecular and genetic mechanisms. These studies have benefited not only from Drosophila's advanced genetic tools, but from complimentary in vitro culture systems. However, the commonly-used S2 cell line is not intrinsically sensitive to the major BMP ligand Dpp and must therefore be augmented with exogenous pathway components for most experiments...
January 22, 2019: BMC Developmental Biology
Manishi Srivastava, Anjana James, Vishwanath Varma, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Vasu Sheeba
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have implicated a role for circadian clocks in regulating pre-adult development of organisms. Among them two approaches are most notable: 1) use of insects whose clocks have different free-running periods and 2) imposition of artificial selection on either rate of development, timing of emergence or circadian period in laboratory populations. Using these two approaches, influence of clock on rate of development has been elucidated. However, the contribution of circadian clocks in determining time taken for pre-adult development has remained unclear...
December 22, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Kai-Le Li, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Mei Yang, Qiang Fang, Xue-Fang Yin, Hui-Min Wei, Ting Zhou, Ya-Bin Li, Xue-Lin Chen, Fan Tang, Yong-Hao Li, Jian-Feng Chang, Wei Li, Feng Sun
BACKGROUND: Histone modifications are critical in regulating neuronal processes. However, the impacts of individual histone modifications on learning and memory are elusive. Here, we investigated the contributions of histone H3 lysine modifications to learning and memory in Drosophila by using histone lysine-to-alanine mutants. RESULTS: Behavioural analysis indicated that compared to the H3WT group, mutants overexpressing H3K23A displayed impaired courtship learning...
November 20, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Eiko Kawamura, Gina B Hamilton, Ewa I Miskiewicz, Daniel J MacPhee
BACKGROUND: Integrins are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell adhesion and trophoblast cells undergo changes in integrin expression as they differentiate. However, the mechanism(s) of integrin activation leading to integrin-mediated signaling in trophoblast cell differentiation is unknown. The Fermitin family proteins are integrin activators that help mediate integrin-mediated signaling, but have never been studied in detail within the human placenta...
November 1, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Nina Riddell, Pierre Faou, Sheila G Crewther
BACKGROUND: Myopia (short-sightedness) affects approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide, and prevalence is increasing. Animal models induced by defocusing lenses show striking similarity with human myopia in terms of morphology and the implicated genetic pathways. Less is known about proteome changes in animals. Thus, the present study aimed to improve understanding of protein pathway responses to lens defocus, with an emphasis on relating expression changes to no lens control development and identifying bidirectional and/or distinct pathways across myopia and hyperopia (long-sightedness) models...
August 29, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Naomi Shinotsuka, Yoshifumi Yamaguchi, Kenichi Nakazato, Yudai Matsumoto, Atsushi Mochizuki, Masayuki Miura
BACKGROUND: Mammalian brain is formed through neural tube closure (NTC), wherein both ridges of opposing neural folds are fused in the midline and remodeled in the roof plate of the neural tube and overlying non-neural ectodermal layer. Apoptosis is widely observed from the beginning of NTC at the neural ridges and is crucial for the proper progression of NTC, but its role after the closure remains less clear. RESULTS: Here, we conducted live-imaging analysis of the mid-hindbrain neuropore (MHNP) closure and revealed unexpected collective behavior of cells surrounding the MHNP...
July 31, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Paula Tríbulo, Gulnur Jumatayeva, Khoboso Lehloenya, James I Moss, Veronica M Negrón-Pérez, Peter J Hansen
BACKGROUND: Alterations in maternal environment can sometimes affect embryonic development in a sexually-dimorphic manner. The objective was to determine whether preimplantation bovine embryos respond to three maternally-derived cell signaling molecules in a sex-dependent manner. RESULTS: Actions of three embryokines known to increase competence of bovine embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), activin A, and WNT member 7A (WNT7A), were evaluated for actions on embryos produced in vitro with X- or Y- sorted semen from the same bull...
July 28, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Nazar Ali Korejo, Quanwei Wei, Kaizhi Zheng, Dagan Mao, Rashid Ali Korejo, Atta Hussain Shah, Fangxiong Shi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and hypothyroidism produce adverse effects on body weight and sexual maturity by inhibiting body growth and metabolism. The occurrence of diabetes is always accompanied with thyroid dysfunction. Thus, it is important to take hypo- or hyper-thyroidism into consideration when exploring the adverse effects caused by diabetes. Previous reports have found hypothyroidism inhibits testicular growth by delaying Sertoli cell differentiation and proliferation. Hence, by establishing a mouse model of diabetes combined with hypothyroidism, we provided evidence that poly glandular autoimmune syndrome affected testicular development and spermatogenesis...
June 26, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Rita Alexandra Pinto, José Almeida-Santos, Raquel Lourenço, Leonor Saúde
BACKGROUND: Dmrt2a is a zinc finger like transcription factor with several roles during zebrafish early development: left-right asymmetry, synchronisation of the somite clock genes and fast muscle differentiation. Despite the described functions, Dmrt2a mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, with this work, we propose to identify Dmrt2a downstream genes during zebrafish early development. RESULTS: We generated and validated a heat-shock inducible transgenic line, to timely control dmrt2a overexpression, and dmrt2a mutant lines...
June 19, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Melanie Morris, Ariel Shaw, Madison Lambert, Haley Halperin Perry, Eve Lowenstein, David Valenzuela, Norma Andrea Velazquez-Ulloa
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may be exposed to nicotine if they smoke or use tobacco products, nicotine replacement therapy, or via e-cigarettes. Prenatal nicotine exposure has been shown to have deleterious effects on the nervous system in mammals including changes in brain size and in the dopaminergic system. The genetic and molecular mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. A Drosophila melanogaster model for these effects of nicotine exposure could contribute to faster identification of genes and molecular pathways underlying these effects...
June 14, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Zuzana Kocsisova, Kerry Kornfeld, Tim Schedl
BACKGROUND: The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA or PCN-1 in C. elegans), an essential processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ, has been widely used as a marker of S-phase. In C. elegans early embryos, PCN-1 accumulation is cyclic, localizing to the nucleus during S-phase and the cytoplasm during the rest of the cell cycle. The C. elegans larval and adult germline is an important model systems for studying cell cycle regulation, and it was observed that the cell cycle regulator cyclin E (CYE-1 in C...
May 30, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Xiaofen Hu, Li Ke, Zilong Wang, Zhijiang Zeng
BACKGROUND: Honeybee development consists of four stages: embryo, larva, pupa and adult. Embryogenesis, a key process of cell division and differentiation, takes 3 days in honeybees. However, the embryonic transcriptome and the dynamic regulation of embryonic transcription are still largely uncharacterized in honeybees, especially in the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana). Here, we employed high-quality RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of Asian honeybee embryos at three ages, approximately 24, 48 and 72 h (referred to as Day1, Day2 and Day3, respectively)...
April 13, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Marco Graziano, Raul Benito, Josep V Planas, Arjan P Palstra
BACKGROUND: Male European seabass, already predominant (~ 70%) in cultured stocks, show a high incidence (20-30%) of precocious sexual maturation under current aquaculture practices, leading to important economic losses for the industry. In view of the known modulation of reproductive development by swimming exercise in other teleost species, we aimed at investigating the effects of sustained swimming on reproductive development in seabass males during the first year of life in order to determine if swimming could potentially reduce precocious sexual maturation...
April 12, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Katarzyna Stadnicka, Anna Sławińska, Aleksandra Dunisławska, Bertrand Pain, Marek Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: In this work we have determined molecular signatures of oviduct epithelial and progenitor cells. We have proposed a panel of selected marker genes, which correspond with the phenotype of oviduct cells of a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) and quail (Coturnix japonica). We demonstrated differences in characteristics of those cells, in tissue and in vitro, with respect to different anatomical and functional parts of the oviduct (infundibulum (INF), distal magnum (DM, and proximal magnum (PM))...
April 4, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Joost M Woltering, Michaela Holzem, Ralf F Schneider, Vasilios Nanos, Axel Meyer
BACKGROUND: The experimental approach to the evolution and development of the vertebrate skeleton has to a large extent relied on "direct-developing" amniote model organisms, such as the mouse and the chicken. These organisms can however only be partially informative where it concerns secondarily lost features or anatomical novelties not present in their lineages. The widely used anamniotes Xenopus and zebrafish are "indirect-developing" organisms that proceed through an extended time as free-living larvae, before adopting many aspects of their adult morphology, complicating experiments at these stages, and increasing the risk for lethal pleiotropic effects using genetic strategies...
April 3, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
George Ghartey-Kwansah, Zhongguang Li, Rui Feng, Liyang Wang, Xin Zhou, Frederic Z Chen, Meng Meng Xu, Odell Jones, Yulian Mu, Shawn Chen, Joseph Bryant, Williams B Isaacs, Jianjie Ma, Xuehong Xu
BACKGROUND: FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) have become the subject of considerable interest in several fields, leading to the identification of several cellular and molecular pathways in which FKBPs impact prenatal development and pathogenesis of many human diseases. MAIN BODY: This analysis revealed differences between how mammalian and Drosophila FKBPs mechanisms function in relation to the immunosuppressant drugs, FK506 and rapamycin. Differences that could be used to design insect-specific pesticides...
March 27, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Jennifer M Maurer, Charles G Sagerström
BACKGROUND: Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation. Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function...
March 15, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Tzu-Chun Tsai, Chun-Che Shih, Hsin-Ping Chien, An-Hang Yang, Jenn-Kan Lu, Jen-Her Lu
BACKGROUND: Tbx5 deficiency in zebrafish causes several abnormal phenotypes of the heart and pectoral fins. It has been reported that exogenous human growth hormone can enhance expression of downstream mediators in the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) pathway and partially restore dysmorphogenesis in tbx5 morphants. This study aimed to further evaluate the effects of IGF-I on cell apoptosis and dysmorphogenesis in zebrafish embryos deficient for tbx5. RESULTS: Among the five studied groups of zebrafish embryos (wild-type embryos [WT], tbx5 morphants [MO], mismatched tbx5 morpholino-treated wild-type embryos [MIS], IGF-I-treated wild-type embryos [WTIGF1], and IGF-I-treated tbx5 morphants [MOIGF1]), the expression levels of the ifg1, igf1-ra, ifg-rb, erk1, and akt2 genes as well as the ERK and AKT proteins were significantly reduced in the MO group, but were partially restored in the MOIGF1 group...
March 5, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Lisbeth Charlotte Olsen, Ioannis Kourtesis, Henriette Busengdal, Marit Flo Jensen, Harald Hausen, Daniel Chourrout
BACKGROUND: Germ cell formation has been investigated in sessile forms of tunicates. This process involves the release of a subset of maternal transcripts from the centrosome-attracting body (CAB) in the progenitor cells of the germ line. When germ-soma segregation is completed, CAB structures are missing from the newly formed primordial germ cells (PGCs). In free-swimming tunicates, knowledge about germ cell formation is lacking. In this investigation, comparative gene expression and electron microscopy studies were used to address germ cell formation in Oikopleura dioica (O...
February 27, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
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