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BMC Cell Biology

Zhi Lan Guo, Jing Zhe Li, Yan Yan Ma, Dan Qian, Ju Ying Zhong, Meng Meng Jin, Peng Huang, Lu Yang Che, Bing Pan, Yi Wang, Zhen Xiao Sun, Chang Zhen Liu
BACKGROUND: TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, can selectively kill cancer cells with little or no cytotoxicity toward normal human cells and is regarded as a potential relatively safe antitumor drug. However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, reagents that potentiate TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity are needed. Herein, we investigated whether shikonin, a natural compound from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, can sensitize TRAIL-resistant cells to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity...
December 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Luxi Chen, Rosemary E Barnett, Martin Horstmann, Verena Bamberger, Lea Heberle, Nina Krebs, John K Colbourne, Rocío Gómez, Linda C Weiss
BACKGROUND: Diapause is a form of dormancy that is genetically predetermined to allow animals to overcome harsh environmental conditions. It is induced by predictive environmental cues bringing cellular activity levels into a state of suspended animation. Entering diapause requires organismal, molecular and cellular adaptation to severely reduced energy flows. Cells must therefore have evolved strategies that prepare them for periods with limited metabolic resources. However, changes that occur on the (sub-)cellular level have not been thoroughly described...
December 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Josip Skoko, Jan Rožanc, Emilie M Charles, Leonidas G Alexopoulos, Markus Rehm
BACKGROUND: Dasatinib (Sprycel) was developed as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting Bcr-Abl and the family of Src kinases. Dasatinib is commonly used for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Previous clinical studies in melanoma returned inconclusive results and suggested that patients respond highly heterogeneously to dasatinib as single agent or in combination with standard-of-care chemotherapeutic dacarbazine. Reliable biomarkers to predict dasatinib responsiveness in melanoma have not yet been developed...
December 27, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Yongxu Mu, Xiaoyun Wu, Zhiming Hao
BACKGROUND: Within the past years, umbilical cord (UC) and amniotic membrane (AM) expanded in human platelet lysate (PL) have been found to become increasingly candidate of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in preclinical and clinical studies. Different sources of MSCs have different properties, and lead to different therapeutic applications. However, the similarity and differences between the AMMSCs and UCMSCs in PL remain unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we conduct a direct head-to-head comparison with regard to biological characteristics (morphology, immunophenotype, self-renewal capacity, and trilineage differentiation potential) and immunosuppression effects of AMMSCs and UCMSCs expanded in PL...
December 13, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Narendra Suryavanshi, Joanna Furmston, Anne J Ridley
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cells provide a barrier between blood and tissues, which is regulated to allow molecules and cells in out of tissues. Patients with cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) have dilated leaky blood vessels, especially in the central nervous system. A subset of these patients has loss-of-function mutations in CCM3. CCM3 is part of the STRIPAK protein complex that includes the little-characterized proteins FAM40A and FAM40B. RESULTS: We show here that FAM40A and FAM40B can interact with CCM3...
December 3, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Tylor R Lewis, Sean R Kundinger, Brian A Link, Christine Insinna, Joseph C Besharse
BACKGROUND: KIF17, a kinesin-2 motor that functions in intraflagellar transport, can regulate the onset of photoreceptor outer segment development. However, the function of KIF17 in a mature photoreceptor remains unclear. Additionally, the ciliary localization of KIF17 is regulated by a C-terminal consensus sequence (KRKK) that is immediately adjacent to a conserved residue (mouse S1029/zebrafish S815) previously shown to be phosphorylated by CaMKII. Yet, whether this phosphorylation can regulate the localization, and thus function, of KIF17 in ciliary photoreceptors remains unknown...
November 20, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Bo Xie, Xinyu Liu, Jie Yang, Jinke Cheng, Jianmin Gu, Song Xue
BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has become one of the most serious complications after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) is a reversible process, including SUMO E1-, E2-, and E3-mediated SUMOylation and SUMO-specific protease-mediated deSUMOylation, with the latter having been shown to play a vital role in myocardial IRI previously. However, little is known about the function and regulation of SUMO E3 ligases in myocardial IRI...
November 12, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Sarah R Alaei, Charles K Abrams, J Chloë Bulinski, Elliot L Hertzberg, Mona M Freidin
BACKGROUND: The gap junction protein, Connexin32 (Cx32), is expressed in various tissues including liver, exocrine pancreas, gastrointestinal epithelium, and the glia of the central and peripheral nervous system. Gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication and channel-independent processes of Cx32 contribute to the regulation of physiological and cellular activities such as glial differentiation, survival, and proliferation; maintenance of the hepatic epithelium; and axonal myelination...
September 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Honghua Zhu, Wei Liu, Hao Fang
BACKGROUND: Disruption to the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a leading factor associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Despite this, the underlying mechanism by which BBB disruption promotes POCD in the elderly population has not yet been not fully elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, we established a POCD mice model using isoflurane, and observed the highly expressed occludin and claudin 5 in brain tissues concomitant with the increased enrichment of CD4 positive cells and NK cells in the hippocampus of POCD mice compared to normal and non-POCD control...
September 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Sayilaxi Jieensinue, Hong Zhu, Guangcheng Li, Keli Dong, Meiting Liang, Yayue Li
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial homeostasis has been increasingly viewed as a potential target of cancer therapy, and mitochondrial fission is a novel regulator of mitochondrial function and apoptosis. The aim of our study was to determine the detailed role of mitochondrial fission in SW837 colorectal cancer cell viability, mobility and proliferation. In addition, the current study also investigated the therapeutic impact of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a type of anticancer adjuvant drug, on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis...
September 25, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Rémy Beaujois, Elizabeth Ottoni, Xin Zhang, Christina Gagnon, Sami Hassine, Stéphanie Mollet, Wildriss Viranaicken, Luc DesGroseillers
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported a change to one of the author names.
September 10, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Cassiano Martin Batista, Rafael Luis Kessler, Iriane Eger, Maurilio José Soares
BACKGROUND: The palmitate analogue 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) is a non-selective membrane tethered cysteine alkylator of many membrane-associated enzymes that in the last years emerged as a general inhibitor of protein S-palmitoylation. Palmitoylation is a post-translational protein modification that adds palmitic acid to a cysteine residue through a thioester linkage, promoting membrane localization, protein stability, regulation of enzymatic activity, and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
August 31, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Kanako Hagio-Izaki, Madoka Yasunaga, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kajiya, Hiromitsu Morita, Masahiro Yoneda, Takao Hirofuji, Jun Ohno
BACKGROUND: Interactions of resident bacteria and/or their producing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with sulcular epithelial keratinocytes may be regulated by autophagy in the gingival sulcus. In this study, we investigated an induction of bacterial autophagy in exfoliative sulcular keratinocytes of the gingival sulcus and cultured keratinocytes treated with Porphyromonas gingivalis-originated LPS (PgLPS). RESULTS: Exfoliative sulcular keratinocytes showed an induction of autophagy, in addition to increased expression of LPS-mediated factors including lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and toll-like receptors (TLRs), leading to co-localization of bacteria with autophagosomes...
August 30, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Venla Mustonen, Jenni Kesäniemi, Anton Lavrinienko, Eugene Tukalenko, Tapio Mappes, Phillip C Watts, Jaana Jurvansuu
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of environmental ionizing radiation can be a selective pressure for wildlife by producing reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that are affected are not known. RESULTS: We isolated skin fibroblasts from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) inhabiting the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident site where background radiation levels are about 100 times greater than in uncontaminated areas. After a 10 Gy dose of gamma radiation fibroblasts from Chernobyl animals recovered faster than fibroblasts isolated from bank voles living in uncontaminated control area...
August 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Nan Kang, Yu Wang, Shichao Guo, Yunwei Ou, Guangchao Wang, Jie Chen, Dan Li, Qimin Zhan
BACKGROUND: TP53 gene mutations occur in more than 50% of human cancers and the vast majority of these mutations in human cancers are missense mutations, which broadly occur in DNA binding domain (DBD) (Amino acids 102-292) and mainly reside in six "hotspot" residues. TP53 G245C and R273H point mutations are two of the most frequent mutations in tumors and have been verified in several different cancers. In the previous study of the whole genome sequencing (WGS), we found some mutations of TP53 DBD in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) clinical samples...
August 20, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Emily C Moorefield, R Eric Blue, Nancy L Quinney, Martina Gentzsch, Shengli Ding
BACKGROUND: Conditional reprogramming has enabled the development of long-lived, normal epithelial cell lines from mice and humans by in vitro culture with ROCK inhibitor on a feeder layer. We applied this technology to mouse small intestine to create 2D mouse intestinal epithelial monolayers (IEC monolayers) from genetic mouse models for functional analysis. RESULTS: IEC monolayers form epithelial colonies that proliferate on a feeder cell layer and are able to maintain their genotype over long-term passage...
August 15, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Anne E C Nichols, Robert E Settlage, Stephen R Werre, Linda A Dahlgren
BACKGROUND: Tendinopathies are common and difficult to resolve due to the formation of scar tissue that reduces the mechanical integrity of the tissue, leading to frequent reinjury. Tenocytes respond to both excessive loading and unloading by producing pro-inflammatory mediators, suggesting that these cells are actively involved in the development of tendon degeneration. The transcription factor scleraxis (Scx) is required for the development of force-transmitting tendon during development and for mechanically stimulated tenogenesis of stem cells, but its function in adult tenocytes is less well-defined...
August 7, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
April N Ilacqua, Janet E Price, Bria N Graham, Matthew J Buccilli, Dexter R McKellar, Cynthia K Damer
BACKGROUND: Copines are calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins found in many eukaryotic organisms and are thought to be involved in signaling pathways that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Copines are characterized by having two C2 domains at the N-terminus accompanied by an A domain at the C-terminus. Six copine genes have been identified in the Dictyostelium genome, cpnA - cpnF. RESULTS: Independent cell lines expressing CpnA, CpnB, CpnC, CpnE, or CpnF tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were created as tools to study copine protein membrane-binding and localization...
July 16, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Yun-Hee Rhee, Jeong Hwan Moon, Ji-Hun Mo, Tiffany Pham, Phil-Sang Chung
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is dependent on mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to initiate adipocyte differentiation. Although anethole has been known as an anti-oxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibitor, there is little investigated about its role in adipogenic differentiation. METHODS: The effects on cytotoxicity and proliferation of anethole in hMSCs were measured by the MTT assay. The anti-adipogenic effect of anethole on hMSCs was analyzed by Oil Red O staining and western blot analysis...
July 6, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Ahlima Roumane, Kevin Berthenet, Chaïmaa El Fassi, Gabriel Ichim
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis, the most well-known type of programmed cell death, can induce in a paracrine manner a proliferative response in neighboring surviving cells called apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP). While having obvious benefits when triggered in developmental processes, AiP is a serious obstacle in cancer therapy, where apoptosis is frequently induced by chemotherapy. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the capacity of an alternative type of cell death, called caspase-independent cell death, to promote proliferation...
July 4, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
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