Maifu Yu, Pin Sun, Changkai Sun, Wei-Lin Jin
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are commonly observed and while no therapy is universally applicable, cell-based therapies are promising. Stem cell transplantation has been investigated, but endogenous neural stem cells (eNSCs), despite their potential, especially with the development of bioelectronic medicine and biomaterials, remain understudied. Here, we compare stem cell transplantation therapy with eNSC-based therapy and summarize the combined use of eNSCs and developing technologies. The rapid development of implantable biomaterials has resulted in electronic stimulation becoming increasingly effective and decreasingly invasive...
September 19, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Juan Pacheco-Yanes, Eric Reynolds, Jian Li, Eliana Mariño
Recent research has confirmed the strong connection between imbalances in the oral and gut microbiome (oral-gut dysbiosis), periodontitis, and inflammatory conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Microbiome modulation is crucial for preventing and treating several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis. However, the causal relationships between the microbiome and its derived metabolites that mediate periodontitis and chronic inflammation constitute a notable knowledge gap...
September 18, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Fiona Louise Roberts, Luis Rodrigo Cataldo, Malin Fex
The two monoamines serotonin and melatonin have recently been highlighted as potent regulators of islet hormone secretion and overall glucose homeostasis in the body. In fact, dysregulated signaling of both amines are implicated in β-cell dysfunction and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Serotonin is a key player in β-cell physiology and plays a role in expansion of β-cell mass. Melatonin regulates circadian rhythm and nutrient metabolism and reduces insulin release in human and rodent islets in vitro...
September 16, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Tanisha Jowsey, Jessica Stokes-Parish, Rachelle Singleton, Michael Todorovic
Generative artificial intelligence (GAI) large language models (LLMs), like ChatGPT, have become the world's fastest growing applications. Here, we provide useful strategies for educators in medical and health science (M&HS) to integrate GAI-LLMs into learning and teaching practice, ultimately enhancing students' digital capability.
September 15, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Thomas Koudstaal, Manuela Funke-Chambour, Michael Kreuter, Philip L Molyneaux, Marlies S Wijsenbeek
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) encompasses a spectrum of chronic lung diseases that progressively impact the interstitium, resulting in compromised gas exchange, breathlessness, diminished quality of life (QoL), and ultimately respiratory failure and mortality. Various diseases can cause PF, with their underlying causes primarily affecting the lung interstitium, leading to their referral as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). The current understanding is that PF arises from abnormal wound healing processes triggered by various factors specific to each disease, leading to excessive inflammation and fibrosis...
September 14, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Pavel I Volik, Gelina S Kopeina, Boris Zhivotovsky, Alexey V Zamaraev
The PIDDosome is a multiprotein complex that includes p53-induced protein with a death domain 1 (PIDD1), receptor-interacting protein-associated ICH-1/CED-3 homologous protein with a death domain (RAIDD), and caspase-2, the activation of which is driven by PIDDosome assembly. In addition to the key role of the PIDDosome in the regulation of cell differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and organogenesis and regeneration, caspase-2, RAIDD and PIDD1 engagement in neuronal development was shown. Here, we focus on the involvement of PIDDosome components in neurodegenerative disorders, including retinal neuropathies, different types of brain damage, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and Lewy body disease...
September 14, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Alicia Ljungdahl, Stephan J Sanders
Technological advances have enabled high-throughput omics assays, such as parallelized screening of lipids across plasma samples. Pioneering a new paradigm for neuropsychiatric biomarker discovery, Yap et al. describe a large-scale systematic analysis of comprehensive phenotypic, genotypic, environmental, and lipidomic data to unravel the intricate interplay between these and autism-associated traits.
September 13, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Zhaodi Che, Ziyuan Zhou, Si-Qi Li, Lei Gao, Jia Xiao, Nai-Kei Wong
The liver can succumb to oxidant damage during the development of chronic liver diseases. Despite their physiological relevance to hepatic homeostasis, excessive reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production under pathological conditions is detrimental to all liver constituents. Chronic oxidative stress coupled to unresolved inflammation sets in motion the activation of profibrogenic hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and later pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The liver antioxidant and repair systems, along with autophagic and ferroptotic machineries, are implicated in the onset and trajectory of disease development...
September 11, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Nicolas Guillot, Barnabé Roméo, Shima Sepehri Manesh, Gerard Milano, Patrick Brest, Laurence Zitvogel, Paul Hofman, Baharia Mograbi
The past decade has witnessed a revolution in cancer treatment by shifting from conventional therapies to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). These immunotherapies unleash the host immune system against the tumor and have achieved unprecedented durable remission. However, 80% of patients do not respond. This review discusses how bacteria are unexpected drivers that reprogram tumor immunity. Manipulating the microbiota impacts on tumor development and reprograms the tumor microenvironment (TME) of mice on immunotherapy...
September 11, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Han Liu, Pengbei Fan, Fanli Jin, Hui Ren, Feng Xu, Jiansheng Li
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is responsible for high disability rates, high death rates, and significant cost to health systems. Growing evidence in recent decades shows significant biophysical microenvironment changes in COPD, impacting lung tissues, cells, and treatment response. Furthermore, such biophysical changes have shown great potential as novel targets for improved therapeutic strategy of COPD, where both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies focusing on repairing the biophysical microenvironment of the lung have emerged...
September 11, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Johanna L Rhodes, Nicolas Papon
Toxicants such as smoke, biofuel, and pollutants constantly challenge our respiratory health, but little is known about the pathophysiological processes involved. In a new report, Lin et al. provide evidence that our bacterial and fungal lung populations orchestrate the interplay between environmental exposure and lung functions, thereby conditioning health outcomes.
September 8, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Jared S Elenbaas, In-Hyuk Jung, Ariella Coler-Reilly, Paul C Lee, Arturo Alisio, Nathan O Stitziel
Sushi, von Willebrand factor type A, EGF, and pentraxin domain containing 1 (SVEP1) is a large extracellular matrix protein that is also detected in circulation. Recent plasma proteomic and genomic studies have revealed a large number of associations between SVEP1 and human traits, particularly chronic disease. These include associations with cardiac death and disease, diabetes, platelet traits, glaucoma, dementia, and aging; many of these are causal. Animal models demonstrate that SVEP1 is critical in vascular development and disease, but its molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly defined...
September 4, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Huan-Tzu Hou, Ting-Chien Lin, Meng-Hsing Wu, Shaw-Jenq Tsai
Recent work by Muraoka and colleagues reports that the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum is detected in the uterus of 64% of women with endometriosis. Fusobacterium infection causes macrophage infiltration, transforming growth factor-β production, and transgelin upregulation in human and mouse endometria as well as endometriotic lesion development in a mouse model of endometriosis.
August 18, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Damon Fard, Enrico Giraudo, Luca Tamagnone
Pancreatic cancer is a major cause of demise worldwide. Although key associated genetic changes have been discovered, disease progression is sustained by pathogenic mechanisms that are poorly understood at the molecular level. In particular, the tissue microenvironment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is usually characterized by high stromal content, scarce recruitment of immune cells, and the presence of neuronal fibers. Semaphorins and their receptors, plexins and neuropilins, comprise a wide family of regulatory signals that control neurons, endothelial and immune cells, embryo development, and normal tissue homeostasis, as well as the microenvironment of human tumors...
August 17, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Costanza Ferrari Bardile, Carola I Radulescu, Mahmoud A Pouladi
Oligodendrocytes (OLGs), highly specialized glial cells that wrap axons with myelin sheaths, are critical for brain development and function. There is new recognition of the role of OLGs in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), including Huntington's disease (HD), a prototypic NDD caused by a polyglutamine tract expansion in huntingtin (HTT), which results in gain- and loss-of-function effects. Clinically, HD is characterized by a constellation of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances...
August 15, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Kent Imaizumi, Sergiu P Paşca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Coral González-Prieto, Jason P Lynch, Cammie F Lesser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Sem Geertsema, Arno R Bourgonje, Raphael R Fagundes, Ranko Gacesa, Rinse K Weersma, Harry van Goor, Giovanni E Mann, Gerard Dijkstra, Klaas N Faber
Oxidative stress (OS) is an important pathophysiological mechanism in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials investigating compounds directly targeting OS in IBD yielded mixed results. The NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2)/Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) pathway orchestrates cellular responses to OS, and dysregulation of this pathway has been implicated in IBD. Activation of the NRF2/Keap1 pathway may enhance antioxidant responses. Although this approach could help to attenuate OS and potentially improve clinical outcomes, an overview of human evidence for modulating the NRF2/Keap1 axis and more recent developments in IBD is lacking...
August 7, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with a decline in progesterone-derived anxiolytic-antidepressant neurosteroids after delivery. Neurosteroid replacement therapy (NRT) with GABA-A receptor-modulating allopregnanolone (brexanolone) shows promise as the first drug treatment for PPD. Here we describe the molecular insights of the neurosteroid approach for rapid relief of PPD symptoms compared with traditional antidepressants.
August 2, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Mona Parizadeh, Marie-Claire Arrieta
A growing number of human gut microbiome studies consistently describe differences between human populations. Here, we review how factors related to host genetics, ethnicity, lifestyle, and geographic location help explain this variation. Studies from contrasting environmental scenarios point to diet and lifestyle as the most influential. The effect of human migration and displacement demonstrates how the microbiome adapts to newly adopted lifestyles and contributes to the profound biological and health consequences attributed to migration...
July 27, 2023: Trends in Molecular Medicine
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