Peter E Kima
The capacity to infect and survive in a wide variety of host cells is amongst the strategies that contribute to pathogen persistence. The recent study by Karagiannis et al. presents an unbiased approach to identify infected cells in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection, which revealed parasites in unexpected host cells.
September 22, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
André B B Wilke, Ni-Bin Chang, John Townsend, Giovanni Benelli, Marco Ajelli
Cities across the USA are implementing urban policies to mitigate unwanted effects of urbanization. These policies may inadvertently promote the proliferation of mosquito vectors. Limited evidence exists regarding how urban policies impact arbovirus transmission risk. Models can evaluate public health interventions aimed at reducing arbovirus-related risks caused by urban policies.
September 20, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Alfredo Mayor, Deus S Ishengoma, Joshua L Proctor, Robert Verity
Strategic use of Plasmodium falciparum genetic variation has great potential to inform public health actions for malaria control and elimination. Malaria molecular surveillance (MMS) begins with a strategy to identify and collect parasite samples, guided by public-health priorities. In this review we discuss sampling design practices for MMS and point out epidemiological, biological, and statistical factors that need to be considered. We present examples for different use cases, including detecting emergence and spread of rare variants, establishing transmission sources and inferring changes in malaria transmission intensity...
September 18, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Robert Poulin
With growing human populations living along freshwater shores and marine coastlines, aquatic ecosystems are experiencing rising levels of light pollution. Through its effects on hosts and parasites, anthropogenic light at night can disrupt host-parasite interactions evolved under a normal photoperiod. Yet its impact on aquatic parasites has been ignored to date. Here, I discuss the direct effects of light on the physiology and behaviour of parasite infective stages and their hosts. I argue that night-time lights can change the spatiotemporal dynamics of infection risk and drive the rapid evolution of parasites...
September 16, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Bernd H Kalinna
Ittiprasert and colleagues identified genomic safe harbour (GSH) sites in Schistosoma mansoni using computational methods and inserted a transgene into one of the sites through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-assisted homology-directed repair. This study outlines a promising strategy for functional genomics to study this parasite that causes a debilitating and neglected tropical disease.
September 15, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Isabelle G Henshall, Tobias Spielmann
Nutrient import and waste efflux are critical dependencies for intracellular Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Nutrient transport proteins are often lineage specific and can provide unique targets for antimalarial drug development. P. falciparum nutrient transport pathways can be a double-edged sword for the parasite, not only mediating the import of nutrients and excretion of waste products but also providing an access route for drugs. Here we briefly summarise the nutrient acquisition pathways of intracellular P...
September 14, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Michael F Good, Stephanie K Yanow
Recent data suggest that approaches to developing a subunit blood-stage malaria vaccine may be misdirected. While antigenic polymorphism is recognized as a challenge, efforts to counter this have primarily involved enhancing the quantity and quality of antibody with potent adjuvants, identifying conserved target proteins, or combining multiple antigens to broaden the immune response. However, paradoxically, evidence has emerged that narrowing, rather than broadening, the immune response may be required to obtain an immune response protective against multiple Plasmodium strains...
September 6, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Julius Lukeš, Dave Speijer, Alena Zíková, Juan D Alfonzo, Hassan Hashimi, Mark C Field
The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, has developed into a flexible and robust experimental model for molecular and cellular parasitology, allowing us to better combat these and related parasites that cause worldwide suffering. Diminishing case numbers, due to efficient public health efforts, and recent development of new drug treatments have reduced the need for continued study of T. brucei in a disease context. However, we argue that this pathogen has been instrumental in revolutionary discoveries that have widely informed molecular and cellular biology and justifies continuing research as an experimental model...
September 5, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Afsoon Sabet, Samuel F Ward, Risa Pesapane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Ryan F Hechinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Martin K Nielsen, Ray M Kaplan, Ghazanfar Abbas, Abdul Jabbar
Long-term intensive use of anthelmintics for parasite control of livestock, companion animals, and humans has resulted in widespread anthelmintic resistance, a problem of great socioeconomic significance. But anthelmintic therapy may also select for other biological traits, which could have implications for anthelmintic performance. Here, we highlight recent examples of changing parasite dynamics following anthelmintic administration, which do not fit the definition of anthelmintic resistance. We also consider other possible examples in which anthelmintic resistance has clearly established, but where coselection for other biological traits may have also occurred...
August 24, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Stephanie B Orchanian, Melissa B Lodoen
Monocytes are recruited from the bone marrow to sites of infection where they release cytokines and chemokines, function in antimicrobial immunity, and differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to control infection. Although many studies have focused on monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, recent work has examined the unique roles of monocytes during infection to promote immune defense. We focus on the effector functions of monocytes during infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, and discuss the signals that mobilize monocytes to sites of infection, their production of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial mediators, their ability to shape the adaptive immune response, and their immunoregulatory functions...
August 24, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Hudson A Pinto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
L Rainer Butler, Julia Gonzalez, Joao H F Pedra, Adela S Oliva Chavez
Ticks can transmit a variety of human pathogens, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites. Historically, their saliva has been of immense interest due to its anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and anesthetic properties. Only recently, it was discovered that tick saliva contains extracellular vesicles (EVs). Briefly, it has been observed that proteins associated with EVs are important for multiple tick-borne intracellular microbial lifestyles. The impact of tick EVs on viral and intracellular bacterial pathogen transmission from the tick to the mammalian host has been shown experimentally...
August 15, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Ritika Sengupta, Madhurima Roy, Nidhi S Dey, Paul M Kaye, Mitali Chatterjee
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a heterogeneous dermal sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is challenging in terms of its etiopathogenesis. Hypopigmentation is a consistent clinical feature in PKDL, but mechanisms contributing to the loss of melanocytes remains poorly defined. Like other hypopigmentary dermatoses - for example, vitiligo, psoriasis, and leprosy - the destruction of melanocytes is likely a multifactorial phenomenon, key players being immune dysregulation and inflammation. This review focuses on immunological mechanisms responsible for the 'murder' of melanocytes, prime suspects at the lesional sites being CD8+ T cells and keratinocytes and their criminal tools being proinflammatory cytokines, for example, IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF-α...
August 15, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Reid Gohmann, David Mackey
Pathogen-encoded virulence factors perturb host physiology and immune function to promote infection. Reinforcing the concept that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is convergently targeted by virulence factors from diverse pathogens, Li et al. demonstrate that PP2A is coopted by members of a modular family of effector proteins from a plant-pathogenic oomycete.
August 12, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Bruno Douradinha
Attenuated plasmodial sporozoite-induced immune response includes intrahepatic nitric oxide (NO) production, which promotes apoptosis of infected hepatocytes and consequent parasite clearance. NO in excess reacts with superoxide, forming peroxynitrite, a powerful cytotoxic agent. Here, I suggest that peroxynitrite proapoptotic action may contribute to the attenuated malarial sporozoite-mediated protection.
August 12, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Victor M Ortega-Jimenez, Allison M Gardner, Justin C Burton
Ticks are blood-feeding parasites with limited locomotion, known for transmitting multiple pathogens to vertebrates. England et al. suggest that ticks can be easily pulled, via electrostatic induction, toward charged hosts with fluffy coats that are prone to accumulate higher electrostatic potentials. Thus, static electricity may influence ticks' ecology and management.
August 10, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
David S Guttery, Mohammad Zeeshan, Anthony A Holder, Eelco C Tromer, Rita Tewari
Meiosis is sexual cell division, a process in eukaryotes whereby haploid gametes are produced. Compared to canonical model eukaryotes, meiosis in apicomplexan parasites appears to diverge from the process with respect to the molecular mechanisms involved; the biology of Plasmodium meiosis, and its regulation by means of post-translational modification, are largely unexplored. Here, we discuss the impact of technological advances in cell biology, evolutionary bioinformatics, and genome-wide functional studies on our understanding of meiosis in the Apicomplexa...
August 2, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
Mengqi Liu, William C Cho, Robin J Flynn, Xiaoliang Jin, Houhui Song, Yadong Zheng
Chronic parasite infections in the liver pose a global threat to human and animal health, often occurring with liver fibrosis that leads to cirrhosis, liver failure, and even cancer. Hepatic fibrogenesis is a complex yet reversible process of tissue repair and is associated with various factors, including immune cells, microenvironment, gut microbiome, and interactions of the different liver cells. As a profibrogenic or antifibrogenic driver, microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely involved in parasite-induced hepatic fibrosis...
July 27, 2023: Trends in Parasitology
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