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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779681/isolation-of-rickettsia-rickettsiella-and-spiroplasma-from-questing-ticks-in-japan-using-arthropod-cells
#1
May June Thu, Yongjin Qiu, Chikako Kataoka-Nakamura, Chihiro Sugimoto, Ken Katakura, Norikazu Isoda, Ryo Nakao
Ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites that transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. Ticks harbor not only pathogenic microorganisms but also endosymbionts. Although some tick endosymbionts are known to be essential for the survival of ticks, their roles in ticks remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize tick-borne microorganisms from field-collected ticks using two arthropod cell lines derived from Ixodes scapularis embryos (ISE6) and Aedes albopictus larvae (C6/36)...
February 19, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758273/prevalence-of-francisella-tularensis-in-dermacentor-variabilis-ticks-minnesota-2017
#2
Tory Whitten, Courtney Demontigny, Jenna Bjork, Mandy Foss, Molly Peterson, Joni Scheftel, Dave Neitzel, Maureen Sullivan, Kirk Smith
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Francisella tularensis in Minnesota ticks is unknown. Ticks collected at seven sites were tested to determine the infection prevalence of F. tularensis in Dermacentor variabilis in Minnesota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ticks were collected from two properties at an epizootic site and at five long-term tick research sites. Ticks were pooled by species, sex, date, and site with a maximum of 10 ticks per pool. Ticks were bisected and homogenized; DNA from supernatant was extracted and tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR)...
February 13, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758271/the-revised-arthropod-containment-guidelines
#3
Stephen Higgs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30730266/false-negative-results-in-bartonellosis-diagnosis
#4
Marina Rovani Drummond, Luciene Silva Dos Santos, Marilene Neves da Silva, Amanda Roberta de Almeida, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva Diniz, Rodrigo Angerami, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho
We report a fatal case of Bartonella henselae bacteremic patient. He had negative serology and PCRs from whole blood and liquid culture; only ftsZ nested PCR was positive from the blood liquid culture. The isolate had positive PCRs. When considered, bartonellosis diagnosis can be still challenging because of technical limitations.
February 7, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720389/rift-valley-fever-viral-rna-detection-by-in-situ-hybridization-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#5
Izabela K Ragan, Kaitlynn N Schuck, Deepa Upreti, Lieza Odendaal, Juergen A Richt, Jessie D Trujillo, William C Chauncey, A Sally Davis
Sporadic outbreaks of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a zoonotic, mosquito-borne Phlebovirus, cause abortion storms and death in sheep and cattle resulting in catastrophic economic impacts in endemic regions of Africa. More recently, with changes in competent vector distribution, growing international trade, and its potential use for bioterrorism, RVFV has become a transboundary animal disease of significant concern. New and sensitive techniques that determine RVFV presence, while lessening the potential for environmental contamination and human risk, through the use of inactivated, noninfectious samples such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are needed...
February 5, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714881/risk-of-african-swine-fever-virus-sylvatic-establishment-and-spillover-to-domestic-swine-in-the-united-states
#6
Jillian D Wormington, Andrew Golnar, Karen C Poh, Rebekah C Kading, Estelle Martin, Sarah A Hamer, Gabriel L Hamer
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a high-consequence foreign animal disease that has emerged along international trade routes. Owing to high lethality and resulting trade sanctions, establishment of this disease in the United States would have devastating economic consequences. ASFV can be transmitted by soft ticks in the genus Ornithodoros or directly between swine, including domestic, feral, and wild swine. Consequently, the spatial risk of ASFV establishment depends on where susceptible animals, with or without competent vectors, co-occur...
February 4, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702382/visual-and-rapid-detection-of-leptospira-interrogans-using-multiple-cross-displacement-amplification-coupled-with-nanoparticle-based-lateral-flow-biosensor
#7
Shijun Li, Ying Liu, Xu Chen, Ming Wang, Weilin Hu, Jie Yan
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. In the present study, a visual and rapid method for detecting Leptospira interrogans was developed based on multiple cross-displacement amplification (MCDA) and nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor (LFB). A set of 10 primers was specifically designed to recognize 10 regions of the lipL 41 gene of L. interrogans. The MCDA reaction was optimized at 64°C for only 40 min, and the amplification products were directly applied to the biosensor...
January 31, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694736/arthropod-containment-guidelines-version-3-2
#8
(no author information available yet)
The Arthropod Containment Guidelines are a product of the work of the American Committee of Medical Entomology, a subcommittee of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The guidelines provide a reference for research laboratories to assess risk and establish protocols for the safe handling of arthropod vectors of human and animal disease agents. The guidelines were originally published in 2004 and have been updated here to reflect the spectrum of vector taxa under investigation, and the demands of working with vector arthropods in the context of the Select Agent Rule...
January 29, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688547/serological-evidence-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-and-west-nile-virus-infections-among-children-with-arthritis-in-turkey
#9
Huseyin Yilmaz, Kenan Barut, Asiye Karakullukcu, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Bekir Kocazeybek, Eda Altan Tarakci, Utku Y Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Zahide Bilgin, Meltem Ulutas Esatgil, Christine Klaus, Juergen A Richt, Nuri Turan
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are mainly transmitted by arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts including humans, resulting in fever and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA in Turkish children with fever and/or arthritis. For this purpose, 110 sera and buffy-coat samples were collected; sera were analyzed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and buffy-coat-derived white blood cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA...
January 28, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676269/what-have-we-learned-about-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-emergence-in-humans-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
Patrick Dawson, Mamunur Rahman Malik, Faruque Parvez, Stephen S Morse
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in humans in 2012. A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize current knowledge and identify critical knowledge gaps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on MERS-CoV using PRISMA guidelines. We identified 407 relevant, peer-reviewed publications and selected 208 of these based on their contributions to four key areas: virology; clinical characteristics, outcomes, therapeutic and preventive options; epidemiology and transmission; and animal interface and the search for natural hosts of MERS-CoV...
January 24, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668280/effects-of-deltamethrin-treatment-on-small-mammal-and-ectoparasite-population-dynamics-and-plague-prevalence-in-a-north-american-mixed-grass-prairie-system
#11
Lauren P Maestas, Hugh B Britten
Sylvatic plague affects many species in North American prairie ecosystems. Deltamethrin is commonly used to manage fleas in potential outbreak areas. Understanding the role of small mammals and their ectoparasites in sylvatic plague maintenance is pertinent to understanding the ecology of plague and its persistence in nature. This study examined the effects of plague management using deltamethrin on communities of small mammals, their flea faunas, and Yersinia pestis prevalence. We trapped small mammals from 2014 to 2016 on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation (LOBR), South Dakota, and analyzed the effects of deltamethrin treatment on small mammal populations, flea loads, and Y...
January 22, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668248/admission-clinicopathological-factors-associated-with-prolonged-hospital-stay-among-hospitalized-patients-with-dengue-viral-infections
#12
Serric Suthesh Willeam Peter, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Victoria Phooi Khei Tan, Chin Fang Ngim, Nur Amelia Azreen Adnan, Lian Yih Pong, Amreeta Dhanoa
BACKGROUND: There is an escalation of frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics in Malaysia, with a concomitant increase in patient hospitalization. Prolonged hospitalization (PH) due to dengue virus (DENV) infections causes considerable socioeconomic burden. Early identification of patients needing PH could optimize resource consumption and reduce health care costs. This study aims to identify clinicopathological factors present on admission that are associated with PH among patients with DENV infections...
January 22, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638437/sustaining-efforts-of-controlling-zoonotic-sleeping-sickness-in-uganda-using-trypanocidal-treatment-and-spray-of-cattle-with-deltamethrin
#13
Charles Waiswa, Mandela Robert Wangoola
In 2005, the zoonotic acute sleeping sickness was spreading rapidly from the endemic areas of southeastern Uganda with potential for merger into areas affected by the chronic form of the disease in northwest Uganda. Movement of cattle reservoirs due to restocking was blamed for the rapid spread. To stop the spread of the zoonotic sleeping sickness, cattle in the disease endemic areas had to be treated with trypanocidal drugs and sprayed with deltamethrin to promote the live bait technology that helps suppress the tsetse vector...
January 14, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30620249/evaluation-of-five-pulicides-to-suppress-fleas-on-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-encouraging-long-term-results-with-systemic-0-005-fipronil
#14
David A Eads, Dean E Biggins, Jonathan Bowser, Kristina Broerman, Travis M Livieri, Eddie Childers, Phillip Dobesh, Randall L Griebel
Plague, a flea-borne disease, hampers efforts to restore populations of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), which occupy colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in North America. Plague is managed by infusing prairie dog burrows with DeltaDust® 0.05% deltamethrin, a pulicide that kills fleas. Experiments are needed to identify pulicides that can be used in rotation with DeltaDust for integrated plague management. In South Dakota, USA, we tested the efficacy of four pulicide dusts when applied at a rate of 8 g per burrow on colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus): Sevin® 5% carbaryl; Dusta-cide® 6% malathion; Alpine® 0...
January 8, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615592/toxoplasma-gondii-in-captive-wild-felids-of-mexico-its-frequency-and-capability-to-eliminate-oocysts
#15
Antonio Gomez-Rios, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Eduardo Gutierrez-Blanco, Karla Y Acosta-Viana, Eugenia Guzman-Marin, Marcelino D Guiris-Andrade, Ivonne B Hernandez-Cortazar, Rubén López-Alonso, Epigmenio Cruz-Aldán, Matilde Jiménez-Coello
There is little information about Toxoplasma gondii in wild felids, even when these species have been associated with cases of toxoplasmosis in humans. In this study, samples of serum and whole blood were collected from 42 felids from 10 different species, in 4 Mexican zoos. Stool samples from 36 animals were also collected, corresponding to 82% of the felids included in the study. Stool samples were used for the search of oocysts by light field microscopy and PCR. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT)...
January 7, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615589/seroprevalence-of-tick-borne-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-infection-in-healthy-adult-population-and-patients-with-acute-undifferentiated-fever-from-the-yunnan-province-of-china
#16
Feng Wang, Mingbiao Ma, Suyi Luo, Min Yan, Lvyan Tao, Aihua Liu, Jiaru Yang, Yun Peng, Xiting Dai, Ruolan Bai, Zhenhua Ji, Miaomiao Jian, Fukai Bao
Anaplasma phagocytophilum-the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA)-is a tick-borne pathogen transmitted by Ixodid ticks infecting wild and domestic mammals as well as humans. Despite the availability of evidence regarding this emerging infection among vectors, host animals, and individuals in China, there is limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of A. phagocytophilum in the Yunnan Province. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum in healthy adults and patients with acute undifferentiated fever from four regions in the Yunnan Province...
January 7, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615584/risk-factors-associated-with-attacks-of-hematophagous-bats-desmodus-rotundus-on-cattle-in-ecuador
#17
Solón A Orlando, Vanessa F Panchana, Joselyn L Calderón, Olga S Muñoz, Dédime N Campos, Pablo R Torres-Lasso, Fabrizio J Arcos, Emmanuelle Quentin
In recent years, there has been an increasing risk of hematophagous bat attacks in Latin America, where livestock production is a basic source of food for local populations. In Ecuador, livestock represented an important part of agricultural output. Some cases of cattle bitten by bats in the province of Santa Elena have been reported; however, no previous studies have been conducted to determine the magnitude of the attacks and the associated risk factors. In this research, a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed recording attacks of hematophagous bats (Desmodus rotundus) through visual inspection of livestock and the capture of specimens by mist nets...
January 7, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615582/different-competence-as-a-lyme-borreliosis-causative-agent-reservoir-found-in-two-thrush-species-the-blackbird-turdus-merula-and-the-song-thrush-turdus-philomelos
#18
Alicja Gryczyńska, Maciej Kowalec
Passerine birds are significantly involved in the dissemination of Borreliella spp. bacteria (formerly Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex), the causative agent of most common and important tick-spread disease Lyme borreliosis. Among several dozen investigated passerine bird species, thrushes (Turdidae) have been reported as a relatively good pathogen reservoirs and disseminators. The principal aim of the study was to identify the differences in Borreliella spp. reservoir competence between two widespread and showing similar behavior thrush species...
January 7, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615572/influence-of-demography-land-use-and-urban-form-on-west-nile-virus-risk-and-human-west-nile-virus-incidence-in-ottawa-canada
#19
Benoit Talbot, Mark Ardis, Manisha A Kulkarni
Human infection by West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae), in some cases, develops into a deadly neuroinvasive disease. WNV risk is thought to be influenced by factors affecting the density of species that promote replication and transmission of the virus, namely peridomestic bird and mosquito species. Factors influencing contact between peridomestic bird and mosquito species and contact between infected mosquitoes and vulnerable human populations may also be important in determining WNV risk in an area...
January 7, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589638/bartonella-spp-bloodstream-infection-in-a-canadian-family
#20
Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi, Caroline Quach, Julie M Bradley
Historically, Bartonella spp. have been associated with febrile illness (Oroya fever, trench fever, and cat scratch disease), endocarditis (numerous Bartonella spp.), and vasoproliferative lesions (Bartonella bacilliformis, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii), occurring most often but not exclusively in immunocompromised patients. Recently, bloodstream infections with various Bartonella spp. have been documented in nonimmunocompromised individuals in association with a spectrum of cardiovascular, neurologic, and rheumatologic symptoms...
December 27, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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