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Journal of Veterinary Science

Xinle Zhu, Shixin Xu, Lianshou Lu, Shensen Wang, Qi Zhao, Dan Li, Jian Li, Hui Zhao, Bingen Xu
We prepared a polymorphic form of valnemulin hydrogen tartrate (Form I) to overcome the instability and irritating odor of valnemulin hydrochloride that affect its use in the production and application of veterinary drugs. The physicochemical properties of Form I were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed the crystal structure and thermal properties of Form I were very different from those of a commercially available form of valnemulin hydrogen tartrate (Form II)...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
JeongWoo Kang, Md Akil Hossain, Hae-Chul Park, YongSang Kim, Kwang-Jick Lee, Sung-Won Park
It is crucial to optimize the dose of fluoroquinolones to avoid antibiotic resistance and to attain clinical success. We undertook this study to optimize the dose of enrofloxacin against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis ( S . Enteritidis) in chicken by assessing its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices. The antibacterial activities of enrofloxacin against S . Enteritidis were evaluated. After administering 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of enrofloxacin to broiler chickens of both sexes by intravenous (IV) and peroral (PO) routes, blood samples were drawn at different intervals and enrofloxacin concentrations in plasma were determined...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Hyun-Ok Ku, Hee Yi, Young-Il Park, Byung-Suk Jeon, Hwan-Goo Kang, Yong-Sang Kim, Bong-Kyun Park
With the increased use of cell therapy in the veterinary sector, there is a growing demand for the development of cell-based medicinal products and the determination of their safety. Currently, the Korean Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency has established a guideline for evaluating the safety of cell-based medicinal products for animal use. The guideline includes items related to definition, classification, management, manufacturing procedure and quality control (standard and test method), stability testing, toxicity testing, pharmacological testing, and performance of clinical trials...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Hitoki Yamanaka, Ryuki Kadomatsu, Toshikazu Takagi, Makiko Ohsawa, Naoto Yamamoto, Noriaki Kubo, Takahira Takemoto, Kazutaka Ohsawa
Isolates of 24 enterococci, 5 Enterococcus casseliflavus and 19 Enterococcus gallinarum , possessing vanC genes and showing low-level resistance to vancomycin were obtained from mice from commercial mouse breeding companies. Since some of these isolates showed resistance to other antibiotics, the purpose of this study was to clarify the resistant profiles of these isolates. One E. casseliflavus isolate showed resistance to erythromycin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 μg/mL and also showed apparent resistance to fluoroquinolones with an MIC of 32 μg/mL for ciprofloxacin...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Jung-Hyung Ju, Jong-Il Shin, Ha-Young Lim, Hyun-Woo Kim, Byung-Joon Seung, Seung-Hee Cho, Soo-Hyeon Kim, Jung-Hyang Sur
Mammary lesions in sows can prevent suckling piglets from consuming colostrum that provides fundamental nutrients and protective immunity. Although mammary gross lesions are frequently found in sows at farms or slaughterhouses, with the exception of mastitis, they have received little research attention. In this study, we investigated mammary lesions observed in South Korean sows between 2015 and 2016. Mammary tissue samples of 82 sows showing gross lesions during meat inspection were histologically classified and immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to assess the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, and progesterone receptor (PR) for mammary hyperplastic lesions as well as that of cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD79a, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 for mastitis...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Daji Noh, Sooyoung Choi, Hojung Choi, Youngwon Lee, Kija Lee
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence used for evaluating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although SWI is being increasingly used in veterinary medicine, there are no systematic studies regarding its use. We aimed to evaluate TBI lesions by using conventional MRI and SWI in 11 dogs and determine the correlation between clinical status and conventional MRI or SWI findings. The modified Glasgow coma scale (MGCS) at presentation and a previously used MRI grading system (MRGr; grades 1-6) were used to evaluate the brain lesions, and correlations between MGCS score and each MRGr were assessed...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Ji-Hyun Bang, Hyun-Ok Ku, Hwan-Goo Kang, Hyobi Kim, Soohee Kim, Sung-Won Park, Yong-Sang Kim, Il Jang, Yu-Chan Bae, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Hee Yi
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity level can be used as a diagnostic marker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning. In this study, we aimed to establish a baseline level of normal brain AChE activity in wild birds. AChE activity was measured in the brains of 87dead wild birds (26 species). The level of AChE activity ranged from 6.40 to 15.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue in normal wild birds. However, the brain tissue AChE activity level in wild birds exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticide was 48.0%-96...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Joshua Adekunle Babalola, Jong-Mu Kim, Yun-Jung Lee, Jeong-Ho Park, Hong-Seok Choi, Yeong-Gon Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Yong-Sun Kim
Scrapie is a mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease that predominantly affects sheep and goats. Scrapie has been shown to overcome the species barrier via experimental infection of other rodents. To confirm the re-transmissibility of the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain to ovine prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, mice of an ovinized transgenic mouse line carrying the Suffolk sheep PrP gene that contained the A136 R154 Q171 /ARQ allele were intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenates obtained from terminally ill ME7-infected C57BL/6J mice...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Jimo Jeong, Yechan Jung, YoungKown Cho, Kichang Lee
The magnetic resonance (MR) features of spinal epidural hemorrhage depending with the passage of time have a meaning in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study is to propose the characteristic MR image of spinal epidural hemorrhage using a lower field permanent magnet scanner in dogs. A total of 8 clinically normal beagle dogs, weighing about 9 kg, were allocated. After a baseline MR examination, spinal epidural hemorrhage was created. MR scanning was executed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 using 0...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Gi Yong Lee, Hang-Ho Lee, Sun Young Hwang, Joonbae Hong, Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Soo-Jin Yang
The recent emergence of Staphylococcus schleiferi in dogs with otitis externa or skin and soft tissue infections has become a significant zoonotic issues. In the current study, we investigated 1) the carriage rates of S. schleiferi among major staphylococci in healthy dogs and dogs with otitis externa, 2) antibiotic susceptibility profiles of S. schleiferi, particularly methicillin resistance (MR), and 3) virulence factors associated with skin and soft tissue infections such as ability to form biofilm, resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and carriage of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Ho-Hyun Kwak, Heung-Myong Woo, Kyung-Mee Park
Long-term maintenance of transplanted organs is one of the major factors that increases survival time of recipients. Although obtaining a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched donor with the recipient is essential for successful organ transplantation, there have been limited reports on MHC matching between dogs. In this study, we analyzed the canine MHC matching rates using Maltese, one of the most popular purebred dogs, and mongrel dogs in Korea. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes and DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction with primers specific to MHC microsatellite markers...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Susan Diana Kerfua, Gabriel Shirima, Lughano Kusiluka, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Esau Martin, Eugene Arinaitwe, Sarah Cleaveland, Daniel T Haydon
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most important livestock diseases in East Africa with outbreaks reported annually that cause severe economic losses. It is possible to control disease using vaccination, but antigenic matching of the vaccine to circulating strains is critical. To determine the relationship between foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in districts along the Uganda and Tanzanian border between 2016 and 2017 and currently used vaccines, phylogenetic analysis of the full VP1 virus sequences was carried out on samples collected from both sides of the border...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Niroch Nawzad Aubid, Yong Liu, Juan Miguel Peralvo Vidal, Vanessa Jane Hall
The development of long-term surviving fetal cell cultures from primary cell tissue from the developing brain is important for facilitating studies investigating neural development and for modelling neural disorders and brain congenital defects. The field faces current challenges in co-culturing both progenitors and neurons long-term. Here, we culture for the first time, porcine fetal cells from the dorsal telencephalon at embryonic day (E) 50 and E60 in conditions that promoted both the survival of progenitor cells and young neurons...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Myunghwan Jung, Hokeun Won, Min-Kyoung Shin, Myung Whan Oh, Soojin Shim, Injoong Yoon, Han Sang Yoo
Among various vaccines against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , subunit vaccines using recombinant proteins of ApxI, ApxII, and ApxIII as vaccine antigens have shown good efficacy in terms of safety and protection. Therefore, subunit vaccines are being applied worldwide and the development of new subunit vaccines is actively being conducted. To evaluate the efficacy of the subunit vaccines, it is important to measure immune responses to each Apx toxin separately. However, the cross-reactivity of antibodies makes it difficult to measure specific immune reactivity to each toxin...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Jin Il Kim, Sehee Park, Joon-Yong Bae, Man-Seong Park
The 4a and 4b proteins of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been described for their antagonism on host innate immunity. However, unlike clustering patterns of the complete gene sequences of human and camel MERS-CoVs, the 4a and 4b protein coding regions did not constitute species-specific phylogenetic groups. Moreover, given the estimated evolutionary rates of the complete, 4a, and 4b gene sequences, the 4a and 4b proteins might be less affected by species-specific innate immune pressures...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Science
Preeti Kumari Chaudhary, Soochong Kim
Platelet activation plays a major role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Various agonists including ADP and thrombin interact with GPCRs which transduce signals from the cell surface to intracellular effectors through various G proteins. Recent studies have elucidated the role of these receptors and their corresponding G proteins in the regulation of events involved in platelet activation. However, these agonists-induced platelet activation in companion animals is poorly understood. This study was designed to characterize the platelet response to various agonists in dog platelets...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Yo-Han Kim, Doo Kim
A total of 123 Coxiella burnetii strains detected in cattle from a nationwide survey in Korea were classified into the genomic groups I (0.8%), II (13.8%), III (11.5%), IV (63.1%), and V (5.4%). Acute Q-fever strain (groups I, II, and III) was 27.6%, and chronic strain (groups IV and V) was 72.4% of the total. A dairy farm, both types were detected, showed 6.7 times higher detection rate than another farm where only chronic Q-fever strains were detected. Both acute and chronic Q-fever strains are widespread in Korea, and it could represent an active transmission source to livestock and humans...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Viviana Manzulli, Antonio Fasanella, Antonio Parisi, Luigina Serrecchia, Adelia Donatiello, Valeria Rondinone, Marta Caruso, Sabine Zange, Alina Tscherne, Nicola Decaro, Carmine Pedarra, Domenico Galante
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis , is a non-contagious infectious disease that affects a wide range of animal species (primarily ruminants), as well as humans. Due to the often fatal outcome in human cases, the quick administration of definitely effective antimicrobials is crucial either as prophylaxis or for the therapy of clinical cases. In this study, a total of 110 B. anthracis strains, temporally, geographically and genetically different, isolated during anthrax outbreaks in Italy from 1984 to 2017, were screened for their susceptibility towards 16 clinically relevant antimicrobial agents using the broth microdilution method...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Chang-Min Lee, Doo-Won Song, Woong-Bin Ro, Min-Hee Kang, Hee-Myung Park
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for identifying the genetic causes of various diseases. This study conducted to identify genomic variation in Maltese dog genomes associated with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) development and evaluate the association of each biological condition with DMVD in Maltese dogs. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from 48 Maltese dogs (32 with DMVD and 16 controls). Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Hayoung Yang, Woosun Kim, Junwoo Bae, Hyunwoo Kim, Sangki Kim, Jihye Choi, Jinho Park, Dong-In Jung, Hongbum Koh, DoHyeon Yu
White blood cells (WBCs) and storage period are the main factors of transfusion reactions. In the present study, cytokine/chemokine concentrations after leukoreduction (LR) and irradiation (IR) in stored canine whole blood were measured. Red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion caused by IR and LR were also compared. Blood samples from 10 healthy Beagles were divided into four groups (no treatment, LR, IR, and LR + IR). Leukocytes were removed by filtration in the LR group and gamma radiation (25Gy) was applied in the IR group...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
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