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EMBO Reports

Natalie Grams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: EMBO Reports
Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Guohua Hua, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Peter C Angeletti, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bo R Rueda, John S Davis, Cheng Wang
Dysfunction of the homeostasis-maintaining systems in specific cell types or tissues renders the organism susceptible to a range of diseases, including cancers. One of the emerging mechanisms for maintaining tissue homeostasis is cellular senescence. Here, we report that the Hippo pathway plays a critical role in controlling the fate of ovarian cells. Hyperactivation of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), the major effector of the Hippo pathway, induces senescence in cultured primary human ovarian surface epithelial cells (hOSEs)...
February 12, 2019: EMBO Reports
Alkmini A Papadopoulou, Stephan A Müller, Torben Mentrup, Merav D Shmueli, Johannes Niemeyer, Martina Haug-Kröper, Julia von Blume, Artur Mayerhofer, Regina Feederle, Bernd Schröder, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Regina Fluhrer
Members of the GxGD-type intramembrane aspartyl proteases have emerged as key players not only in fundamental cellular processes such as B-cell development or protein glycosylation, but also in development of pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease or hepatitis virus infections. However, one member of this protease family, signal peptide peptidase-like 2c (SPPL2c), remains orphan and its capability of proteolysis as well as its physiological function is still enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that SPPL2c is catalytically active and identify a variety of SPPL2c candidate substrates using proteomics...
February 7, 2019: EMBO Reports
Johannes Niemeyer, Torben Mentrup, Ronny Heidasch, Stephan A Müller, Uddipta Biswas, Rieke Meyer, Alkmini A Papadopoulou, Verena Dederer, Martina Haug-Kröper, Vivian Adamski, Renate Lüllmann-Rauch, Martin Bergmann, Artur Mayerhofer, Paul Saftig, Gunther Wennemuth, Rolf Jessberger, Regina Fluhrer, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Marius K Lemberg, Bernd Schröder
Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and the four homologous SPP-like (SPPL) proteases constitute a family of intramembrane aspartyl proteases with selectivity for type II-oriented transmembrane segments. Here, we analyse the physiological function of the orphan protease SPPL2c, previously considered to represent a non-expressed pseudogene. We demonstrate proteolytic activity of SPPL2c towards selected tail-anchored proteins. Despite shared ER localisation, SPPL2c and SPP exhibit distinct, though partially overlapping substrate spectra and inhibitory profiles, and are organised in different high molecular weight complexes...
February 7, 2019: EMBO Reports
Jianli Liu, Bo Zhu, Weidong Gao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: EMBO Reports
Melissa Suran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: EMBO Reports
Stephan Guttinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: EMBO Reports
Alexandra Russo, Pragya Goel, E J Brace, Chris Buser, Dion Dickman, Aaron DiAntonio
The ubiquitin ligase Highwire restrains synaptic growth and promotes evoked neurotransmission at NMJ synapses in Drosophila Highwire regulates synaptic morphology by downregulating the MAP3K Wallenda, but excess Wallenda signaling does not account for the decreased presynaptic release observed in highwire mutants. Hence, Highwire likely has a second substrate that inhibits neurotransmission. Highwire targets the NAD+ biosynthetic and axoprotective enzyme dNmnat to regulate axonal injury responses. dNmnat localizes to synapses and interacts with the active zone protein Bruchpilot, leading us to hypothesize that Highwire promotes evoked release by downregulating dNmnat...
January 28, 2019: EMBO Reports
Yong Cheng, Jeffery S Schorey
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to carry microbial components and function in the host defense against infections. In this study, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ) RNA is delivered into macrophage-derived EVs through an M.tb SecA2-dependent pathway and that EVs released from M.tb -infected macrophages stimulate a host RIG-I/MAVS/TBK1/IRF3 RNA sensing pathway, leading to type I interferon production in recipient cells. These EVs also promote, in a RIG-I/MAVS-dependent manner, the maturation of M...
January 25, 2019: EMBO Reports
Murray J Cairns
Small non-coding miRNA appear to be vital in brain development and function by organising complex patterns of gene expression. These molecules are important for the regulation of synaptically localised mRNAs that encode proteins involved in neurotransmission and behaviour. In this issue of EMBO Reports , Lackinger et al [1] demonstrate that a large cluster of miRNAs, that emerged in placental mammals, functions as a repressor of social behaviour. This discovery has significant implications for our understanding of the brain, behaviour and in particular psychiatric syndromes, which have been shown to display alterations of these molecules...
January 23, 2019: EMBO Reports
Theodoros Rampias, Dimitris Karagiannis, Margaritis Avgeris, Alexander Polyzos, Antonis Kokkalis, Zoi Kanaki, Evgenia Kousidou, Maria Tzetis, Emmanouil Kanavakis, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Kalliopi N Manola, Gabriel E Pantelias, Andreas Scorilas, Apostolos Klinakis
Genome-wide studies in tumor cells have indicated that chromatin-modifying proteins are commonly mutated in human cancers. The lysine-specific methyltransferase 2C (KMT2C/MLL3) is a putative tumor suppressor in several epithelia and in myeloid cells. Here, we show that downregulation of KMT2C in bladder cancer cells leads to extensive changes in the epigenetic status and the expression of DNA damage response and DNA repair genes. More specifically, cells with low KMT2C activity are deficient in homologous recombination-mediated double-strand break DNA repair...
January 21, 2019: EMBO Reports
Yesim Gökmen-Polar, Yaseswini Neelamraju, Chirayu P Goswami, Yuan Gu, Xiaoping Gu, Gouthami Nallamothu, Edyta Vieth, Sarath C Janga, Michael Ryan, Sunil S Badve
The epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (ESRP1 and ESRP2) control the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) splicing program in cancer. However, their role in breast cancer recurrence is unclear. In this study, we report that high levels of ESRP1, but not ESRP2, are associated with poor prognosis in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast tumors. Knockdown of ESRP1 in endocrine-resistant breast cancer models decreases growth significantly and alters the EMT splicing signature, which we confirm using TCGA SpliceSeq data of ER+ BRCA tumors...
January 21, 2019: EMBO Reports
Miguel Mompeán, Gunes Bozkurt, Hao Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: EMBO Reports
Sjoerd Jl van Wijk, Simone Fulda, Ivan Dikic, Mike Heilemann
Covalent modification of proteins with ubiquitin is essential for the majority of biological processes in mammalian cells. Numerous proteins are conjugated with single or multiple ubiquitin molecules or chains in a dynamic fashion, often determining protein half-lives, localization or function. Experimental approaches to study ubiquitination have been dominated by genetic and biochemical analysis of enzyme structure-function relationships, reaction mechanisms and physiological relevance. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in microscopy-based imaging of ubiquitination, available reagents and technologies...
January 21, 2019: EMBO Reports
Adam Gristwood, Holger Breithaupt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: EMBO Reports
Shadab Nizam, Xiaoyu Qiang, Stephan Wawra, Robin Nostadt, Felix Getzke, Florian Schwanke, Ingo Dreyer, Gregor Langen, Alga Zuccaro
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (eATP) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates different cellular processes through its interaction with membrane-associated receptor proteins in animals and plants. eATP regulates plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Its accumulation in the apoplast induces ROS production and cytoplasmic calcium increase mediating a defense response to invading microbes. We show here that perception of extracellular nucleotides, such as eATP, is important in plant-fungus interactions and that during colonization by the beneficial root endophyte Serendipita indica eATP accumulates in the apoplast at early symbiotic stages...
January 14, 2019: EMBO Reports
Philip Hunter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: EMBO Reports
Ladislav Kováč
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: EMBO Reports
Keisuke Hitachi, Masashi Nakatani, Akihiko Takasaki, Yuya Ouchi, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Hiroshi Ageta, Hidehito Inagaki, Hiroki Kurahashi, Kunihiro Tsuchida
Promoter-associated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate the expression of adjacent genes; however, precise roles of these lncRNAs in skeletal muscle remain largely unknown. Here, we characterize a promoter-associated lncRNA, Myoparr , in myogenic differentiation and muscle disorders. Myoparr is expressed from the promoter region of the mouse and human myogenin gene, one of the key myogenic transcription factors. We show that Myoparr is essential both for the specification of myoblasts by activating neighboring myogenin expression and for myoblast cell cycle withdrawal by activating myogenic microRNA expression...
January 8, 2019: EMBO Reports
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