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Nature Reviews. Neuroscience

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778192/heterogeneity-within-classical-cell-types-is-the-rule-lessons-from-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#1
REVIEW
Mark S Cembrowski, Nelson Spruston
The mechanistic operation of brain regions is often interpreted by partitioning constituent neurons into 'cell types'. Historically, such cell types were broadly defined by their correspondence to gross features of the nervous system (such as cytoarchitecture). Modern-day neuroscientific techniques, enabling a more nuanced examination of neuronal properties, have illustrated a wealth of heterogeneity within these classical cell types. Here, we review the extent of this within-cell-type heterogeneity in one of the simplest cortical regions of the mammalian brain, the rodent hippocampus...
February 18, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760881/the-neural-mechanisms-and-consequences-of-paternal-caregiving
#2
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman, Katharina Braun, Frances A Champagne
In recent decades, human sociocultural changes have increased the numbers of fathers that are involved in direct caregiving in Western societies. This trend has led to a resurgence of interest in understanding the mechanisms and effects of paternal care. Across the animal kingdom, paternal caregiving has been found to be a highly malleable phenomenon, presenting with great variability among and within species. The emergence of paternal behaviour in a male animal has been shown to be accompanied by substantial neural plasticity and to be shaped by previous and current caregiving experiences, maternal and infant stimuli and ecological conditions...
February 13, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742056/author-correction-inflammasome-signalling-in-brain-function-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#3
Michael T Heneka, Róisín M McManus, Eicke Latz
In the originally published version of this article, the competing interests statement indicated that the authors had no competing interests; however, this statement was incorrect. The statement should have read as follows: 'M.H. receives a consultation fee from IFM Therapeutics, LLC for consultations regarding the pathogenesis and interventional strategies of neurodegenerative disease. E.L. is a scientific co-founder and consultant to IFM Therapeutics. R.M.M. declares no competing interests.' This error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article...
February 11, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742055/sat-nav-for-the-spinal-cord
#4
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737462/oxidative-stress-dysfunctional-glucose-metabolism-and-alzheimer-disease
#5
REVIEW
D Allan Butterfield, Barry Halliwell
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major cause of age-related dementia. We do not fully understand AD aetiology and pathogenesis, but oxidative damage is a key component. The brain mostly uses glucose for energy, but in AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment glucose metabolism is dramatically decreased, probably owing, at least in part, to oxidative damage to enzymes involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and ATP biosynthesis. Consequently, ATP-requiring processes for cognitive function are impaired, and synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death result, with ensuing thinning of key brain areas...
February 8, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733610/revealing-a-receptor-for-secreted-app
#6
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723309/environmental-enrichment-new-neurons-and-the-neurobiology-of-individuality
#7
REVIEW
Gerd Kempermann
'Enriched environments' are a key experimental paradigm to decipher how interactions between genes and environment change the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan of an animal. The regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by environmental enrichment is a prime example of this complex interaction. As each animal in an enriched environment will have a slightly different set of experiences that results in downstream differences between individuals, enrichment can be considered not only as an external source of rich stimuli but also to provide the room for individual behaviour that shapes individual patterns of brain plasticity and thus function...
February 5, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718826/affective-valence-in-the-brain-modules-or-modes
#8
REVIEW
Kent C Berridge
How do brain systems evaluate the affective valence of a stimulus - that is, its quality of being good or bad? One possibility is that a neural subsystem, or 'module' (such as a subregion of the brain, a projection pathway, a neuronal population or an individual neuron), is permanently dedicated to mediate only one affective function, or at least only one specific valence - an idea that is termed here the 'affective modules' hypothesis. An alternative possibility is that a given neural module can exist in multiple neurobiological states that give it different affective functions - an idea termed here the 'affective modes' hypothesis...
February 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700858/lost-in-ruptures
#9
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696993/balancing-competing-drives
#10
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696992/how-the-epigenome-integrates-information-and-reshapes-the-synapse
#11
REVIEW
Rianne R Campbell, Marcelo A Wood
In the past few decades, the field of neuroepigenetics has investigated how the brain encodes information to form long-lasting memories that lead to stable changes in behaviour. Activity-dependent molecular mechanisms, including, but not limited to, histone modification, DNA methylation and nucleosome remodelling, dynamically regulate the gene expression required for memory formation. Recently, the field has begun to examine how a learning experience is integrated at the level of both chromatin structure and synaptic physiology...
January 29, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696991/repair-in-3d
#12
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696990/switching-fates
#13
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696989/depression-of-forgetting
#14
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696988/planting-seeds
#15
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670813/collicular-cortex-watches-movies
#16
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30647451/the-control-of-release-probability-at-nerve-terminals
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy S Dittman, Timothy A Ryan
Exocytosis is a fundamental membrane fusion process by which the soluble or membrane-associated cargoes of a secretory vesicle are delivered to the extracellular milieu or the cell surface. While essential for all organs, the brain relies on a specialized form of exocytosis to mediate information flow throughout its vast circuitry. Neurotransmitter-laden synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane on cue with astonishing speed in a probabilistic process that is both tightly regulated and capable of a fascinating array of plasticities...
January 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30643230/beyond-the-neuron-cellular-interactions-early-in-alzheimer-disease-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Christopher M Henstridge, Bradley T Hyman, Tara L Spires-Jones
The symptoms of Alzheimer disease reflect a loss of neural circuit integrity in the brain, but neurons do not work in isolation. Emerging evidence suggests that the intricate balance of interactions between neurons, astrocytes, microglia and vascular cells required for healthy brain function becomes perturbed during the disease, with early changes likely protecting neural circuits from damage, followed later by harmful effects when the balance cannot be restored. Moving beyond a neuronal focus to understand the complex cellular interactions in Alzheimer disease and how these change throughout the course of the disease may provide important insight into developing effective therapeutics...
January 14, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30610227/deconstructing-cortical-folding-genetic-cellular-and-mechanical-determinants
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Llinares-Benadero, Víctor Borrell
Folding of the cerebral cortex is a fundamental milestone of mammalian brain evolution and is associated with dramatic increases in size and complexity. New animal models, genetic tools and bioengineering materials have moved the study of cortical folding from simple phenomenological observation to sophisticated experimental testing. Here, we provide an overview of how genetics, cell biology and biomechanics shape this complex and multifaceted process and affect each other. We discuss the evolution of cortical folding and the genomic changes in the primate lineage that seem to be responsible for the advent of larger brains and cortical folding...
January 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30602721/from-sleeping-to-waking
#20
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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