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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Marian Vincenzi, Flavia Anna Mercurio, Marilisa Leone
The fluorinated alcohol 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) has been implemented for many decades now in conformational studies of proteins and peptides. In peptides, which are often disordered in aqueous solutions, TFE acts as secondary structure stabilizer and primarily induces an α-helical conformation. The exact mechanism through which TFE plays its stabilizing roles is still debated and direct and indirect routes, relying either on straight interaction between TFE and molecules or indirect pathways based on perturbation of solvation sphere, have been proposed...
February 14, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Corina Sarmiento, Julio A Camarero
Protein splicing domains, also called inteins, have become a powerful biotechnological tool for applications involving molecular biology and protein engineering. Early applications of inteins focused on self-cleaving affinity tags, generation of recombinant polypeptide α-thioesters for the production of semisynthetic proteins and backbone cyclized polypeptides. The discovery of naturally occurring split-inteins has allowed the development of novel approaches for the selective modification of proteins both in vitro and in vivo...
February 7, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Anna Clara M Galdino, Matheus P de Oliveira, Teodorico C Ramalho, Alexandre A de Castro, Marta H Branquinha, Andre L S Santos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a non-fermentative, gram-negative bacterium that is one of the most common pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired infections worldwide. The management of the infections caused by P. aeruginosa represents a huge challenge in healthcare settings due to the increased emergence of resistant isolates, some of them resistant to all the currently available antimicrobials, which results in elevated morbimortality rates. Consequently, the development of new therapeutic strategies against multidrug-resistant P...
February 6, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Joice Tom Jdevagiri, Vinayak Narayanankutty
Glutathione (GSH or reduced glutathione) is a tripeptide of gamma-Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine and the predominant intracellular antioxidant in many organisms including humans. GSH and associated enzymes are controlled by a transcription factor-nuclear factor-2 related erythroid factor-2 (Nrf2). In cellular milieu, GSH protects the cells essentially against a wide variety of free radicals including reactive oxygen species, lipid hydroperoxides, xenobiotic toxicants, and heavy metals. It has two forms, the reduced form or reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized form (GSSG), where two GSH moieties combine by sulfhydryl bonds...
February 6, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Oxana Galzitskaya
Polymorphism is a specific feature of the amyloid structures. We have studied the amyloid structures and the process of their formation using the synthetic and recombinant preparations of Aβ peptides and their three fragments. The fibrils of different morphology were obtained for these peptides. We suppose that fibril formation by Aβ peptides and their fragments proceeds according to the simplified scheme: destabilized monomer → ring-like oligomer → mature fibril that consists of ring-like oligomers. We are the first who did 2D reconstruction of amyloid fibrils provided that just a ring-like oligomer is the main building block in fibril of any morphology, like a cell in an organism...
January 25, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yi Wu, Hengxun He, Zhibin Cheng, Yueyu Bai, Xi Ma
Obesity is one of the main challenges of public health in the 21st century. Obesity can induce a series of chronic metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver, which seriously affect human health. Gut-brain axis, the two-direction pathway formed between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system, plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of obesity. Gastrointestinal signals are projected through the gut-brain axis to nervous system, and respond to various gastrointestinal stimulation...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yi Wu, Zhibin Cheng, Yueyu Bai, Xi Ma
Nutrients can regulate metabolic activities of living organisms through epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA regulation. Since the nutrients required for early embryos and postpartum lactation are derived in whole or in part from maternal and lactating nutrition, the maternal nutritional level affects the growth and development of the fetus and creates a profound relationship between disease development and early environmental exposure in the offspring's later life...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sujuan Ding, Gang Liu, Hongmei Jiang, Jun Fang
The rapid self-renewal of intestinal epithelial cells enhances intestinal function, promotes the nutritional needs of animals and strengthens intestinal barrier function to resist the invasion of foreign pathogens. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short-chain, non-coding RNAs that regulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation by down-regulating hundreds of conserved target genes after transcription via seed pairing to the 3' untranslated regions. Numerous studies have shown that miRNAs can improve intestinal function by participating in the proliferation and differentiation of different cell populations in the intestine...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Cunxi Nie, Fei Xie, Ning Ma, Yueyu Bai, Wenju Zhang, Xi Ma
As a major component of biologically active compounds in the body, proteins contribute to the synthesis of body tissues, for the renewal and growth of the body. The high level of dietary protein and the imbalance of amino acid (AA) composition in mammals result in metabolic disorders, inefficient utilization of protein resources and increased nitrogen excretion. Fortunately, nutritional interventions can be an effective way of attenuating the nitrogen excretion and increasing protein utilization, which include, but are not limited to, formulating the AA balance and protein-restricted diet supplementing with essential AAs, and adding probiotics in the diet...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Dongsheng Che, Seidu Adams, Bao Zhao, Guixin Qin, Hailong Jiang
Weaned piglets experience sudden changes in their dietary patterns such as withdrawal from the easily digestible watery milk to a coarse cereal diet with both systemic and intestinal disruptions coupling with the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins which affects the immune system and the concentrations of haptoglobin including both positive and negative acute-phase proteins in the plasma. L-arginine is an important protein amino acid for piglets, but its inadequate synthesis is a nutritional problem for both sows and piglets...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Fengtao Ma, Jingya Wei, Liyuan Hao, Qiang Shan, Hongyang Li, Duo Gao, Yuhang Jin, Peng Sun
Milk is the basic food for infants and newborn animals, providing a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins. Milk also provides nourishment for people of all ages due to its abundant nutrients, and it is used in the manufacture of numerous health-related products. Milk contains caseins and whey proteins as the two major protein classes. Caseins fall into four major types known as αs1-, αs2-, β- and κ-casein, whereas whey proteins comprise a mixture of globular proteins including β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, serum albumin, lactoferrin, and other bioactivators...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Xi Chen, Zehong Yang, Huiling Hu, Wentao Duan, Aiping Wang, Yanbin Dong, Weihang Gao, Song Deng, Bo Cheng, Jiali Li, Nannan Sun, Zhibin Cheng, Wenfeng Guo, Yanwu Li, Yong Gao
Weaning is a stressful event associated with gastrointestinal disorders and increased disease susceptibility. Many studies have reported the changes happened in the gut of various mammals such as pigs and rats after weaning. These findings suggest that the development of intestinal tract mainly is affected at the time of weaning through interfering in the differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells. Weaning stress stimulates the rapid differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells in order to adjust to changes caused by weaning, which are mainly manifested as deeper crypt depth and intestine decreased villus height...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Wenyu Ma, Chengfang Tang, Huiling Hu, Fenglian Zhang, Xuanying Wang, Xiaoting Wu, Wenjian Zhang, Xiaoxia Wang, Huazhi Ma, Zhihao Li, Yanbin Dong, Zehong Yang, Shixiu Feng, Liping Tian, Yong Gao
Weaning is a critical period for the growth and development of mammals, in which various physiological and biochemical indicators of the body have undergone great changes. The development, differentiation, and maturation of the nervous system are regulated by many proteins. Changes in related proteins affect the physiological functions of the nervous system. However, the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of the nervous system at this stage is still poorly understood. The mechanism of differentiation and regulation of the major proteins in the nervous system during this special period of weaning remains to be investigated...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Wenjie Zhang, Yueling Zhang, Yuanjia Zheng, Mingxuan Zheng, Nannan Sun, Xiaoying Yang, Yong Gao
Lactation is a critical phase for brain function development. New dietary experiences of mouse caused by weaning can regulate brain development and function, increase their response to food and environment,eventually give rise to corresponding behavioral changes. Changes in weaning time induce the alteration of brain tissues morphology and molecular characteristics, glial cell activity and behaviors in the offspring. In addition, it is also sensitive to the intervention of environment and drug during this period...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jing Wang, Haifeng Ji
The intestinal epithelial barrier plays a crucial role in the health and growth of weaned piglets. Proper epithelial function mainly depends on tight junctions (TJs), which act as both ion channels and a barrier against noxious molecules. TJs are multiprotein complexes consisting of transmembrane and membrane-associated proteins. Because the intestine in piglets is immature and incomplete, its structure and function are easily impaired by various stresses, infections, and food-related factors. Certain nutrients have been demonstrated to participate in intestinal TJ regulation...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Shiyu Tao, Tianjiao Zhou, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Yuhua Zhu, Tiantian Li, Huaijun Zhou, Junjun Wang
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major problem in swine production since the associated low birth weight leads to high rates of pre-weaning morbidity and mortality, and permanent retardation of growth and development. The underlying regulatory mechanisms from the aspects of epigenetic modification receive widespread attention. Studies explore the changes in genome wide methylation in small intestine (SI), liver and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) between IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) newborn piglets using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) approach...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yanbin Dong, Weihang Gao, Zhao Gao, Shuqi Pu, Xiaowen Xu, Xingping Yang, Yuan Zhang, Kui Fang, Jie Li, Weijian Yu, Nannan Sun, Ling Hu, Qin Xu, Zhibin Cheng, Yong Gao
Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that a series of remodeling processes occurred in the adipose tissue during the weaning, such as the differentiation. Fibroblasts in the breast at weaning stage could re-differentiate into mature adipocytes. Many transcriptional factors were involved in these processes, especially the PPARγ, C/EBP, and SREBP1. There is cell apoptosis participating in the breast tissue degeneration and secretory epithelial cells losing during weaning. In addition, hormones, especially the estrogen and pituitary hormone, play a vital role in the whole reproductive processes...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov
Prediction of physicochemical and biochemical behavior of peptides is important and attractive task of the modern natural sciences, since these substances have key role in life processes. The Monte Carlo technique is possible way to solve the above task. The Monte Carlo method is a tool with different applications relatively of study of peptides: (i) analysis of the 3D configurations (conformers); (ii) establishing of quantitative structure - property / activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs); and (iii) development of databases on the biopolymers...
January 23, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Qi Zhao, Haifan Yu, Mingxuan Ji, Yan Zhao, Xing Chen
In the medical field, drug-target interactions are very important for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, they also can help researchers predict the link between biomolecules in the biological field, such as drug-protein and protein-target correlations. Therefore, the drug-target research is a very popular study in both the biological and medical fields. However, due to the limitations of manual experiments in the laboratory, computational prediction methods for drug-target relationships are increasingly favored by researchers...
January 23, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Eglantina Idrizaj, Rachele Garella, Roberta Squecco, Maria Caterina Baccari
The present review focused on those adipocytes-released peptides known to be involved in the control of gastrointestinal motility, acting both centrally and peripherally. To this purpose, the following peptides have been taken into account: leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin-1 and apelin. The discussion of the related physiological or pathophysiological roles, based on the most recent findings, is intended to underlie the close interactions among adipose tissue, central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract...
January 20, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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