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Kum-Kang So, Jeesun Chun, Dae-Hyuk Kim
Fungal perylenequinones have photodynamic activity and are promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, we investigated the bactericidal and antitumor activities of phleichrome from the fungal perylenequinone family in vitro . Photodynamic bactericidal activity of phleichrome was analyzed by agar-well diffusion method under dark and illuminated conditions. The photodynamic antitumor activity of phleichrome was analyzed in MCF-7, HeLa, SW480, and HepG2 human cancer cell lines using in vitro cytotoxicity assays...
2018: Mycobiology
Beom Ryong Kang, Ji Hee Han, Jeong Jun Kim, Young Cheol Kim
Dual biocontrol of both insects and plant pathogens has been reported for certain fungal entomopathogens, including Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillum spp. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the dual biocontrol potential of two fungal isolates identified by morphological and phylogenetic analyses as Isaria javanica . Both these isolates caused mortality in the greater wax moth, and hence can be considered entomopathogens. Spores of the isolates were also pathogenic to nymphs of the green peach aphid ( Myzus persicae ), with an LC50 value of 107 spores/mL 4 days after inoculation and an LT50 of 4...
2018: Mycobiology
Ha-Yeon Song, Dahye Choi, Dong-Min Han, Dae-Hyuk Kim, Jung-Mi Kim
To develop a convenient promoter analysis system for fungi, a null-pigment mutant (NPG) of Aspergillus nidulans was used with the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) gene, npgA , which restores the normal pigmentation in A. nidulans , as a new reporter gene. The functional organization of serially deleted promoter regions of the A. nidulans trpC gene and the Cryphonectria parasitica crp gene in filamentous fungi was representatively investigated to establish a novel fungal promoter assay system that depends on color complementation of the NPG mutant with the PPTase npgA gene...
2018: Mycobiology
Hwa-Yong Lee, Sebastin Raveendar, Hyejin An, Youn-Lee Oh, Kab-Yeul Jang, Won-Sik Kong, Hojin Ryu, Yoon-Sup So, Jong-Wook Chung
The white button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) is one of the most widely cultivated species of edible mushroom. Despite its economic importance, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this species. Illumina paired-end sequencing produced 43,871,558 clean reads and 69,174 contigs were generated from five offspring. These contigs were subsequently assembled into 57,594 unigenes. The unigenes were annotated with reference genome in which 6,559 unigenes were associated with clusters, indicating orthologous genes...
2018: Mycobiology
Young-Joon Choi, Ji Hoon Park, Jeongran Lee, Hyeon-Dong Shin
Crepidiastrum sonchifolium , a flowering plant in the daisy family (Asteraceae), is native to East Asia. In Korea, this plant is a locally cultivated vegetable, and its market size is gradually growing. Since the plants with downy mildew infection were initially found at a private farm of Chuncheon city, the occurrences have continued in commercial farms of other regions, highlighting that this disease is spreading throughout Korea. The pathogen was attributed to a member of the genus Bremia that contains many specialized species, each of which displays a narrow host spectrum on Asteraceae...
2018: Mycobiology
Byeongsuk Ha, Sinil Kim, Minseek Kim, Hyeon-Su Ro
Pheromone (PHB)-receptor (RCB) interaction in the mating pheromone response pathway of Lentinula edodes was investigated using synthetic PHBs. Functionality of the C-terminally carboxymethylated synthetic PHBs was demonstrated by concentration-dependent induction of a mating-related gene ( znf2 ) expression and by pseudoclamp formation in a monokaryotic strain S1-11 of L. edodes . Treatment with synthetic PHBs activated the expression of homeodomain genes ( HD s) residing in the A mating type locus, and of A -regulated genes, including znf2 , clp1 , and priA , as well as genes in the B mating type locus, including pheromone ( phb ) and receptor ( rcb ) genes...
2018: Mycobiology
Piyangkun Lueangjaroenkit, Churapa Teerapatsakul, Lerluck Chitradon
A newly isolated white rot fungal strain KU-RNW027 was identified as Trametes polyzona , based on an analysis of its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic data. Aeration and fungal morphology were important factors which drove strain KU-RNW027 to secrete two different ligninolytic enzymes as manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase. Highest activities of MnP and laccase were obtained in a continuous shaking culture at 8 and 47 times higher, respectively, than under static conditions. Strain KU-RNW027 existed as pellets and free form mycelial clumps in submerged cultivation with the pellet form producing more enzymes...
2018: Mycobiology
Sumika Ogo, Takashi Yamanaka, Keiko Akama, Junko Nagakura, Keiko Yamaji
Radionuclides were deposited at forest areas in eastern parts of Japan following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant incident in March 2011. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have important effects on radiocaesium dynamics in forest ecosystems. We examined the effect of colonization by the EM fungus Astraeus hygrometricus on the uptake of cesium (Cs) and potassium (K) by Pinus densiflora seedlings. Pine seedlings exhibited enhanced growth after the EM formation due to the colonization by A. hygrometricus . Additionally, the shoot Cs concentration increased after the EM formation when Cs was not added to the medium...
2018: Mycobiology
Gui-Qing Liu, Xue-Hong Qiu, Li Cao, Ri-Chou Han
The entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris is a valuable medicinal ascomycete, which degenerates frequently during subsequent culture. To avoid economic losses during industrialized production, scratching stimuli of mycelia was introduced to improve the fruiting body production. The present results indicated that higher yields and biological efficiency were obtained from two degenerate strains (YN1-14 and YN2-7) but not from g38 (an insertional mutant in Rhf1 gene with higher yields and shorter growth periods)...
2018: Mycobiology
Supriya Sharma, Suruchi Gupta, Manoj K Dhar, Sanjana Kaul
Bioactive natural compounds, isolated from fungal endophytes, play a promising role in the search for novel drugs. They are an inspiring source for researchers due to their enormous structural diversity and complexity. During the present study fungal endophytes were isolated from a well-known medicinal shrub, Berberis aristata DC. and were explored for their antagonistic and antioxidant potential. B. aristata, an important medicinal shrub with remarkable pharmacological properties, is native to Northern Himalayan region...
2018: Mycobiology
Jaeyoung Choi, Jong-Joon Lee, Junhyun Jeon
The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae , is an important pathogen of rice plants. It is well known that genes encoded in the genome have different evolutionary histories that are related to their functions. Phylostratigraphy is a method that correlates the evolutionary origin of genes with evolutionary transitions. Here we applied phylostratigraphy to partition total gene content of M. oryzae into distinct classes (phylostrata), which we designated PS1 to PS7, based on estimation of their emergence time...
2018: Mycobiology
Young-Jin Park, Won-Sik Kong
Whole-genome sequencing of Flammulina ononidis , a wood-rotting basidiomycete, was performed to identify genes associated with carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). A total of 12,586 gene structures with an average length of 2009 bp were predicted by the AUGUSTUS tool from a total 35,524,258 bp length of de novo genome assembly (49.76% GC). Orthologous analysis with other fungal species revealed that 7051 groups contained at least one F. ononidis gene. In addition, 11,252 (89.5%) of 12,586 genes for F...
2018: Mycobiology
Eun-Hwa Lee, Sang-Hee Park, Ju-Kyeong Eo, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Ahn-Heum Eom
A new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota), Acaulospora koreana , was isolated from forest soils in South Korea. This novel fungus was collected from the rhizosphere of Lindera obtusiloba and Styrax obassia in forest and propagated with Sorghum bicolor in pot. Morphological characteristics of spores of A. koreana are rarely distinguished from Acaulospora mellea , which is reported as one of the most abundant mycorrhizal species in Korea. However, molecular evidence of rDNA sequence using improved primers for glomeromycotan fungal identification strongly supported that A...
2018: Mycobiology
Thuong T T Nguyen, Monmi Pangging, Seo Hee Lee, Hyang Burm Lee
While evaluating fungal diversity in freshwater, grasshopper feces, and soil collected at Dokdo Island in Korea, four fungal strains designated CNUFC-DDS14-1, CNUFC-GHD05-1, CNUFC-DDS47-1, and CNUFC-NDR5-2 were isolated. Based on combination studies using phylogenies and morphological characteristics, the isolates were confirmed as Ascodesmis sphaerospora , Chaetomella raphigera , Gibellulopsis nigrescens , and Myrmecridium schulzeri , respectively. This is the first records of these four species from Korea...
2018: Mycobiology
Thuong T T Nguyen, Hyang Burm Lee
While surveying undiscovered fungal taxa in Korea, three rare zygomycetous fungal strains, CNUFC-PTF2-1, CNUFC-TF3-1, and CNUFC-ESAF3-1, were isolated from soil, leaf, and freshwater samples, respectively. The strains were analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically based on the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S rDNA sequences. Sequence analysis of the two loci revealed that the isolates, CNUFC-PTF2-1, CNUFC-TF3-1, and CNUFC-ESAF3-1, were identified as Backusella circina , Circinella muscae , and Mucor ramosissimus , respectively...
2018: Mycobiology
Fu-Chang Huang, Bin Liu, Hao Wu, Pei-Sheng Qin, Jin-Feng Li
Amylosporus sulcatus sp. nov. is described from Nonggang Nature Reserve, southern China, on the basis of morphological and molecular data. The morphological description and illustrations for the new species are provided. The species is characterized by pileate and stipitate basidiocarps. The pileus surface is obviously concentrically and radiately sulcate and tomentum, and the pore surface is snow white. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA confirmed it to be a new species...
2018: Mycobiology
Dong Liu, Jae-Seoun Hur
The genus Candelaria is characterized by a micro-foliose to micro-fruticose thallus and contains eight species, two of which were reported in South Korea. During the excursion of a Korean lichen flora investigation, some suspected Candelaria concolor specimens were collected, and their morphological, chemical, molecular phylogenetic, and geographic analyses were conducted. The samples eventually proved to be a new species, Candelaria asiatica , which can be recognized by a small, yellow lobate thallus with a pulverulent surface, and a fragile lobe margin with blastidia or phyllidia-like lobules...
2018: Mycobiology
Setu Bazie Tagele, Mahesh Adhikari, Sun Kumar Gurung, Hyun Gu Lee, Sang Woo Kim, Hyun Seung Kim, Han Jun Ju, Byeong Heon Gwon, San Kosol, Hyang Burm Lee, Youn Su Lee
Two new records of Trichocomaceae , namely Aspergillus allahabadii and Penicillium sizovae , were isolated in 2016 during a survey of fungal diversity in different crop fields locations in Gyeongnam, Korea. These species were identified based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis using internal transcribed spacer region and β-tubulin-encoding gene sequence data. A. allahabadii and P. sizovae have not yet been reported in Korea. Thus, this is the first report of these species in Korea, and their descriptions as well as details of their morphological characters are presented...
2018: Mycobiology
Mohamed Mannaa, Ki Deok Kim
In this study, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (10, 20, 30, and 40 °C) and relative humidities (RHs; 12, 44, 76, and 98%) on populations of predominant grain fungi ( Aspergillus candidus , Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Penicillium fellutanum , and Penicillium islandicum ) and the biocontrol activity of Pseudomonas protegens AS15 against aflatoxigenic A. flavus KCCM 60330 in stored rice. Populations of all the tested fungi in inoculated rice grains were significantly enhanced by both increased temperature and RH...
2018: Mycobiology
Yangseon Kim, In Jeong Kang, Dong Bum Shin, Jae Hwan Roh, Sunggi Heu, Hyeong Kwon Shim
Fusarium graminearum causes the devastating plant disease Fusarium head blight and produces mycotoxins on small cultivated grains. To investigate the timeframe of F. graminearum infection during rice cultivation, a spore suspension of F. graminearum was applied to the rice cultivars Dongjin 1 and Nampyeongbyeo before and after the heading stage. The disease incidence rate was the highest (50%) directly after heading, when the greatest number of flowers were present, while only 10% of the rice infected 30 days after heading showed symptoms...
2018: Mycobiology
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