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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

Silvia Franzellitti, Marco Capolupo, Rajapaksha H G R Wathsala, Paola Valbonesi, Elena Fabbri
The emerging paradigm on plastic pollution in marine environments is that microsize particles (MPs) have far more subtle effects than bigger fragments, given their size range overlapping with that of particles ingested by filter-feeders. The impacts include gut blockage, altered feeding and energy allocation, with knock-on effects on widespread physiological processes. This study investigated whether ingestion of polystyrene MPs (PS-MPs) triggers protective processes in marine mussels. The Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) system is a cytoprotective mechanism acting as an active barrier against harmful xenobiotics and a route of metabolite detoxification...
February 14, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
S Guilherme, R Crespo, D Azevedo, A Marques, M A Santos, R Serradeiro, M Pacheco
The progressive growth of aquaculture implicates a dependence on large water amounts, which are submitted to disinfection processes, namely ozonation. Considering the importance of genomic integrity, it is critical to improve the knowledge on ozone-related genotoxic hazard to organisms reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) applying ozonation. Therefore, genetic damage induced by ozone exposure in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) was assessed, combining the comet and the erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) assays, reflecting different damage levels, i...
February 13, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Brunna Castilhos Petersen, Tássia Huff Tietböhl, Alessandra Marqueze
This study aims to evaluate the contamination of the water of Lagoa Tramandaí on Genidens genidens and Citharichthys spilopterus residents of Lagoa Tramandaí, a region susceptible to environmental damage due to the release of domestic sewage from the municipalities bathed by the lagoon. Thereby, the biota suffers the interference of heavy metals, affecting their behavior and the metabolism of these individuals. The hepatic and muscular glycogen, glucose and plasma lactate of these species were analyzed, as well as the presence of heavy metals in lagoon water...
February 10, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Li Ding, Weihao Li, Na Li, Lingyue Liang, Xinying Zhang, Huilin Jin, Haitao Shi, Kenneth B Storey, Meiling Hong
The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), a freshwater turtle, is an invasive species in many parts of the world where it survives in both freshwater and coastal saline habitats. High salinity can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lead to oxidative damage. In this study, we investigate the antioxidant defense mechanisms of T. s. elegans in response to salinity stress. The results showed that the mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SODs), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PXs) were significantly increased in both 5 psu and 15 psu groups at the early stages of salinity exposure (generally 6-48 h), but typically returned to control levels after the longest 30 d exposure...
February 7, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Lina Long, Haigeng Zhang, Qi Ni, Huang Liu, Fan Wu, Xiaodong Wang
The present study was to investigate the effects of stocking density on the welfare of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for three months. Fish (average weight 760.86 g) were reared in triplicate under three densities: low density (4.80 kg m-2 ), medium density (8.99 kg m-2 ), and high density (12.68 kg m-2 ). The results showed that the 12.68 kg m-2 treatment significantly suppressed fish growth, gene expression of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and enhanced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucose, lactate levels, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA level (P < 0...
February 6, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
J L Johansen, A J Esbaugh
Acute exposure to crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can severely impair cardiorespiratory function and swim performance of larval, juvenile and adult fish. Interestingly, recent work has documented an oil induced decoupling of swim performance (Ucrit ) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) whereby oil causes a decline in Ucrit without a parallel reduction in MMR. We hypothesize that this uncoupling is due to impaired mitochondrial function in swimming muscles that results in increased proton leak, and thus less ATP generated per unit oxygen...
February 6, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Vitória Pereira, Ana Marques, Isabel Gaivão, Andreia Rego, Helena Abreu, Rui Pereira, Maria Ana Santos, Sofia Guilherme, Mário Pacheco
DNA integrity and stability are essential to organisms' health and survival. However, it has been neglected in what concerns to fish farming, disregarding the potential impact of endogenous/ exogenous factors. As marine macroalgae constitute a source of natural compounds with a large spectrum of biological activities, this study, situated in the interface of nutritional-genetic research and development of algae practical applications, aimed to evaluate the genoprotective properties of a macroalgae-enriched diet (total percentage of 5%, incorporating equal percentages of Ulva rigida, Gracilaria gracilis and Fucus vesiculosus) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)...
February 2, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
F Gagné, J Auclair, P Turcotte, C Gagnon, C Peyrot, K Wilkinson
The release of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment could pose a threat to ecosystems. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of surface water characteristics on zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and ZnS04 toxicity to the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Mussels were exposed to an equivalent concentration of 25 μg/L Zn as either nZnO or ZnSO4 for 96 h at 15 °C in 4 types of surface waters: green water (high conductivity and pH with low natural organic matter content), brown water (low conductivity and pH with high natural organic matter content), diluted municipal effluent (high conductivity and pH with high urban organic matter content) and aquarium water (treated green water with organic matter removed)...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ekaterina Fock, Elena Lavrova, Vera Bachteeva, Svetlana Nikolaeva, Rimma Parnova
Previously we showed that arginine-vasotocin (AVT)-stimulated osmotic water permeability (OWP) of the frog urinary bladder was decreased if the mucosal side of the bladder has been naturally colonized by Gram-negative bacteria, or if bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was introduced into the lumen of the isolated bladder (J. Exp. Zool., 2013, 319, 487-494). Taking into account that in different tissues and cell types, challenge with LPS causes significant metabolic shift and energy deficiency, we hypothesized that an LPS-induced decrease of AVT-stimulated OWP could depend on the reduction of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which is important for generation of ATP in epithelia...
January 17, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Amanda Reynolds Kirby, Georgina K Cox, Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Mitochondrial function is critical to support aerobic metabolism through the production of ATP, and deficiencies in mitochondrial bioenergetics will directly impact the performance capacity of highly aerobic tissues such as the myocardium. Cardiac function in fish has been shown to be negatively affected by crude oil exposure, however, the mechanism for this adverse response is largely unexplored. We hypothesized that lipophilic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in crude oil disrupt the electron transport system (ETS) ultimately leading to mitochondrial dysfunction...
January 15, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
M Pillet, G Castaldo, S De Weggheleire, L Bervoets, R Blust, G De Boeck
Analyzing effects of metal mixtures is important to obtain a realistic understanding of the impact of mixed stress in natural ecosystems. The impact of a one-week exposure to a sublethal metal mixture containing copper (4.8 μg/L), cadmium (2.9 μg/L) and zinc (206.8 μg/L) was evaluated in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). To explore whether this exposure induced oxidative stress or whether defense mechanisms were sufficiently fitting to prevent oxidative stress, indicators of apoptosis (expression of caspase 9 [CASP] gene) and of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA] level and xanthine oxidase [XO] activity) were measured in liver and gills, as well as activities and gene expression of enzymes involved in antioxidant defense (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione reductase [GR] and glutathione-S-transferase [GST])...
January 15, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Hyo Jin An, Mehrdad Sarkheil, Hye Seon Park, Il Je Yu, Seyed Ali Johari
This study evaluated the potential toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) on saltwater microcrustacean Artemia salina nauplii under ISO TS 20787 guideline. To investigate the acute toxicity of these nanomaterials, the nauplii were exposed to different concentrations of 0 (control), 0.39, 1.56, 6.25, 25 and 100 mg/L AgNPs and concentrations of 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/L AgNWs for 72 h. Immobilization rate of A. salina exposed to both AgNPs and AgNWs for 72 h increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0...
January 10, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
S Thanigaivel, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee, John Thomas
Sea weeds are valuable natural assets in aquaculture due to the presence of various bioactive active metabolites in them. Successful fish production and maintenance of disease free culturing systems in aquaculture with environment friendly practices is often affected by various environmental factors. Disease causing pathogens is one of the major factors. These can be controlled by the emerging technologies such as biopolymer based drug delivery systems, feed encapsulations processes and immersions of active ingredients which can possibly facilitate sustainable production by enhancing growth and immune responses in aquaculture animals...
December 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Victor Torres Rosas, José María Monserrat, Martin Bessonart, Larisa Magnone, Luis Alberto Romano, Marcelo Borges Tesser
This research evaluated the effect of the simultaneous substitution of fish meal and fish oil at 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100% (termed SS0, SS30, SS50, SS70 and SS100, respectively) with both Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and linseed oil. The effect on growth, colour, fatty acid (FA) profile, and liver and muscle antioxidant response in mullets (Mugil liza) were evaluated. A full substitution was not possible due to a final body weight reduction (p < 0.05). The colorimetric analyses showed an improvement in fillet colouration (p < 0...
December 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Valdir Braz, Helga Gomes, Antônio Galina, Luiz Saramago, Glória Braz, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Carlos Logullo, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Eldo Campos, Jorge Moraes
The cattle tick R. microplus is the biggest obstacle to livestock rearing in tropical countries. It is responsible for billions of dollars in losses every year, affecting meat and milk production, beef and dairy cattle, and the leather industry. The lack of knowledge and strategies to combat the tick only increases the losses, it leads to successive and uncontrolled applications of acaricides, favouring the selection of strains resistant to commercially available chemical treatments. In this paper, we tested 3‑bromopyruvate (3‑BrPA), an alkylating agent with a high affinity for cysteine residues, on the R...
December 20, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Sharine N Descovi, Renato Zanella, Osmar D Prestes, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rupture on blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be a pathway for trichlorfon-induced neurotoxic effects, and to investigate its implications on oxidative status, cell viability and brain neurotransmitters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The BBB permeability was increased in fish exposed for 24 h to 22 mg/L of trichlorfon compared to the control group, as well as in those exposed to 11 and 22 mg/L of trichlorfon for 48 h. Compared to the control group, brain reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxide levels were higher when exposed to 22 mg/L of trichlorfon and 11 and 22 mg/L of trichlorfon after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, while the antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radical levels was lower...
December 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Gavin J Partridge, Shasha Rao, Lindsey D Woolley, Luke Pilmer, Alan J Lymbery, Clive A Prestidge
In an effort to overcome the palatability issues currently constraining the effective delivery of praziquantel (PZQ) via feed to treat monogenean parasites in yellowtail kingfish, this study compared the bioavailability and palatability of PZQ in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) against pure PZQ in this species. Improving bioavailability would facilitate lower dietary inclusion levels to achieve the same therapeutic dose and therefore reduce the bitterness of feeds containing PZQ...
December 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
A M da Rocha, L W Kist, E A Almeida, D G H Silva, C D Bonan, S Altenhofen, C G Kaufmann, M R Bogo, D M Barros, S Oliveira, V Geraldo, R G Lacerda, A S Ferlauto, Luiz Orlando Ladeira, J M Monserrat
Given the increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in several industries and technological applications, it is essential to perform in vivo toxicological studies with these nanomaterials to evaluate their potential ecotoxicity. Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) are key neurotransmitters for brain functions and behavioral responses. Determination of DA and 5HT were performed in brain samples from zebrafish Danio rerio exposed i.p. to single-walled CNT (SWCNT), besides analyzing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ectonucleotidases activity, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity...
December 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Javier Ramírez-Rochín, Ángel I Campa-Córdova, Martín G Frías-Espericueta, Marcela G Fregoso-López, Humberto Bojórquez-Leyva, Federico Páez-Osuna
This study investigated acute arsenic toxicity and bioconcentration capacity in Litopenaeus vannamei because it has been frequently exposed to lower salinities than its isosmotic point (25 g L-1 ). Juveniles (9.9 ± 0.4 g) were exposed to low (5-10 g L-1 ) and isosmotic salinity (25 g L-1 ) levels; As values were 30.8, 20.2, 16.8 and 13.9 mg L-1 at 5 g L-1 ; 30.4, 19.1, 16.8 and 14.8 mg L-1 at 10 g L-1 ; 31.5, 19.0, 15.0 and 11.9 mg L-1 at 25 g L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 , respectively...
December 4, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Zhuoan Bai, Tongjun Ren, Yuzhe Han, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Yanan Hu, Zequn Li, Zhiqiang Jiang
A 30-days feeding trail was conducted to determine the sensitivity of Carassius auratus to the toxicological effects of elevated dietary Selenomethionine (Se-Met). C. auratus averaging 23.56 ± 1.82 g were exposed to four Se-Met concentrations (mg Se/kg): 0 (Se-Met0), 5 (Se-Met5), 10 (Se-Met10) and 20 (Se-Met20) to estimate the effects on tissue selenium (Se) accumulation, blood biochemical profiles, transcript expression and intestinal microbiota. Se accumulated in the kidney, liver and muscle in a dose-dependent manner and followed this order: kidney > liver > muscle, the highest accumulation were obtained in kidney of Se-Met20 diet after 30 days of feeding...
December 4, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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