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Animal Science Journal

Xiaokang Ma, Sai Zhang, Qinghui Shang, Shenfei Long, Xiangshu Piao
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in cottonseed meals (CSM) and to develop prediction equations for estimating AA digestibility for growing pigs based on the chemical composition and AA content of CSM. 10 CSM were collected from 10 provinces in China. 11 barrows (initial body weight: 34.4 ± 1.9 kg), fitted with an ileal T-cannula, were allotted to 6 × 11 Youden square with 6 periods and 11 diets...
March 18, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Excel Rio S Maylem, Ramesh C Tilwani, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Edwin C Atabay, Eufrocina P Atabay, Masashi Nagano
In this study, we examined the effects of superstimulation using follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) followed by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on buffalo embryo production by ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Nine Murrah buffaloes were subjected to OPU-IVF without superstimulation (control). The morphologies of the oocytes collected were evaluated, and oocytes were then submitted to in vitro maturation (IVM). Two days after OPU, same nine buffaloes were treated with twice-daily injections of FSH for 3 days for superstimulation followed by a GnRH injection...
March 10, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Katsuhiko Tsuruoka, Takami Kurahara, Hidenobu Kanamaru, Hideyuki Takahashi, Takafumi Gotoh
This study evaluated the effects of condensed barley distillers soluble (CBDS) on growth rate, rumen fermentation, plasma metabolite, and myofiber properties, and gene expression related to metabolism in the skeletal muscles of Japanese Black calves, compared with soybean meal and corn. Twenty-four calves were divided into four groups: fed 5% CBDS based on the hay dry matter weight (low CBDS) and fed soybean meal and corn at the same nutrition level (control); and fed 15% CBDS based on the hay dry matter weight (high CBDS) and fed soybean meal and corn at the same nutrition level (high soy)...
March 10, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Simone Mancini, Sara Minieri, Arianna Buccioni, Margherita Marzoni Fecia di Cossato, Claudia Russo, Gisella Paci
Tannins were recently evaluated as feed additives in order to increase antioxidant compounds in animal diet, mainly to enhance resistance to lipid oxidation in meat. Rabbit meat is one of the most susceptible animal products, thus the main aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of tannins to elongate shelf life of rabbit meat. Ninety hybrid rabbits were fed with three different diets: basal diet (control, C) and basal diet supplemented with 0.3% or 0.6% of tannins mix. Meat samples were refrigerated as raw at 4°C up to 11 days and analysed both as raw and cooked for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity...
March 7, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Charles G Brooke, Negeen Najafi, Katherine C Dykier, Matthias Hess
There has been a great interest to identify a microbial marker that can be used to predict feed efficiency of beef cattle. Such a marker, specifically one that would allow an early identification of animals with high feed efficiency for future breeding efforts, would facilitate increasing the profitability of cattle operations and simultaneously render them more sustainable by reducing their methane footprint. The work presented here suggests that Prevotella copri might be an ideal microbial marker for identifying beef cattle with high feed efficiency early in their life span and in the production cycle...
March 7, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Attilio L Mordenti, Nico Brogna, Giorgia Canestrari, Elena Bonfante, Stefano Eusebi, Ludovica M E Mammi, Elisa Giaretta, Andrea Formigoni
Focus of this study was to evaluate the most suitable breed/crossbred and the appropriate nutritional strategies to increase marbling in beef muscle and to improve its healthy properties, in particular the n-3 fatty acids content. One hundred and seventy-six heifers of three crossbreed commonly reared by Emilia-Romagna farmers: 48 Bleu Belge × Freisian (ITA), 48 Charolais × Aubrac (FRA), and 80 Angus (ANG) were used. Animals of each breed were randomly subdivided in two experimental groups that received two diets, differing for the dietary lipid source...
March 1, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Hoa V Ba, Hyun-Woo Seo, Pil-Nam Seong, Soo-Hyun Cho, Sun-Moon Kang, Yun-Seok Kim, Sung-Sil Moon, Yong-Min Choi, Jin-Hyoung Kim
One-hundred-twenty crossbred pigs finished at 175-185 days of age were used to investigate the effects of live weights at slaughter on the meat quality, volatile flavor compounds, and sensory attributes of pork meat. Based on the live weights at slaughter, three weight groups (n = 36 per group) were classified as follows: light weight (LW: 100 kg), medium weight (MW: 110 kg), and heavy weight (HW: 120 kg). After slaughter, longissimus dorsi muscle samples were taken and used for the analyses of aforementioned parameters...
February 27, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Koichi Hagiya, Ikumi Bamba, Takefumi Osawa, Yamato Atagi, Naozumi Takusari, Fumiaki Itoh, Takeshi Yamazaki
We used daily records from provincial Japanese weather stations and monthly test-day records of milk production to investigate the length of the lags in the responses of cows' milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) to heat stress (HS). We also investigated the HS thresholds in milk yield and SCS. Data were a total of 17,245,709 test-day records for milk and SCS in Holstein cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2015, along with weather records from 60 weather stations. Temperature-humidity index (THI) values were estimated by using average daily temperature and average daily relative humidity...
February 27, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Yuka Maeda, Keiko Nishimura, Kazuhiro Kurosu, Hitoshi Mizuguchi, Shigeru Sato, Fuminori Terada, Shiro Kushibiki
This study aimed to examine the effects of feeding kraft pulp (KP) on the growth performance, feed digestibility, and rumen fermentation of Japanese Black fattening steers. Ten Japanese Black fattening steers (aged 26 months) were randomly divided into control and KP groups. The control group (n = 5) was fed concentrate feed without KP, and the KP group (n = 5) was fed concentrate feed containing 10% KP. Both the groups were provided rice straw as roughage. The experiment was conducted over a period of 12 weeks...
February 27, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Daisuke Mashima, Yoshiaki Oka, Takafumi Gotoh, Shozo Tomonaga, Shoko Sawano, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Wataru Mizunoya
Free amino acids are important components of tastants and flavor precursors in meat. To clarify the correlation between muscle fiber type and free amino acids, we determined the concentrations of various free amino acids and dipeptides in samples of different muscle tissues (n = 21), collected from 26-month-old Japanese Black steers (n = 3) at 2 days postmortem. The proportions of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC), slow (MyHC1) and fast (MyHC2) isoforms were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
February 27, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Xin Jian Lei, Sang In Lee, In Ho Kim
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of plant extract YGF251 supplementation in different protein level diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding, and fecal gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 144 pigs (24.72 ± 1.54 kg) were randomly assigned to the treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of dietary protein levels (15.50%, 14.00% or 12.50%) and plant extract YGF251 levels (0 or 0.05%) with 6 replications per treatment and 4 pigs per pen...
February 21, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Hasan Riaz, Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf, Aixin Liang, Guo Hua Hua, Liguo Yang
This study was aimed to address melatonin receptor expression, mRNA level of hypothalamus and hypophysis hormone receptors (GnRHR, FSHR, and LHR), steroidogenesis, cell cycle, apoptosis, and their regulatory factors after addition of melatonin for 24 hr in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). The results revealed that direct addition of different concentrations of melatonin (100 pM, 1 nM, and 100 nM) resulted in significant upregulation (p < 0.05) of mRNA level of melatonin receptor 1a (MT1) without affecting melatonin receptor 1b (MT2)...
February 21, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Fuki Kawaguchi, Hiroto Kigoshi, Moriyuki Fukushima, Eiji Iwamoto, Eiji Kobayashi, Kenji Oyama, Hideyuki Mannen, Shinji Sasazaki
In our previous study, we detected a QTL for the oleic acid percentage (C18:1) on BTA9 in Japanese Black cattle through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In this study, we performed whole-genome resequencing on eight animals with higher and lower C18:1 to identify candidate polymorphisms for the QTL. A total of 39,658 polymorphisms were detected in the candidate region, which were narrowed to 1993 polymorphisms within 23 genes based on allele differences between the high and low C18:1 groups. We subsequently selected three candidate genes, that is, CYB5R4, MED23, and VNN1, among the 23 genes based on their function in fatty acid metabolism...
February 19, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Xi Liang, Xue Bi, Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Hiroaki Sano
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding decoction of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine formula on rates of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine turnover and whole body protein synthesis in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood metabolites were also determined. Six sheep were subjected to either mixed hay (MH-diet, as control) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root, and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) in a crossover design for each of 3-week period...
February 17, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Tomoya Tamura, Yuki Okubo, Yoshitaka Deguchi, Shizu Koshikawa, Masahiro Takahashi, Yasushi Chida, Keiji Okada
Demand has been increasing recently for an automated monitoring system of animal behavior as a tool for the management of livestock animals. This study investigated the association between the behavior of dairy cattle and the acceleration data collected using three-axis neck-mounted accelerometers, as well as the feasibility of improving the precision of behavior classifications through machine learning. In total 38 Holstein dairy cows were used, and kept in four different farms. A logger was mounted to each collar to obtain acceleration data for calculating the activity level and variations...
February 17, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Ying-Chao Zhang, Dong-Xia Li, Xue-Kai Wang, Yan-Li Lin, Qing Zhang, Xiao-Yang Chen, Fu-Yu Yang
The objective of this study was to examine the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of mulberry (Morus alba L.) silage prepared with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and propionic acid (PA). The selected LAB strains Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum LC365281 (L1) and L. brevis LC365282 (L2), and commercial inoculant strains L. plantarum Gaofuji (GF) and L. buchneri Fresh (FR), and PA were used as additives for silage preparation. Silage treatments were designed as control, L1, L2, GF, FR, PA, PA + L1, PA + L2, PA + GF, or PA + FR...
February 17, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Maimaiti Reshalaitihan, Masaaki Hanada
We investigated the influence of calving difficulty on dry matter intake (DMI) in Holstein cows immediately after calving using 15 pregnant heifers and 15 multiparous cows. DMI was measured for 6 days after calving. Calving difficulty was evaluated with a calving score, and urinary cortisol was measured. The calving score was higher in the first lactation heifers than in the multiparous cows. The average DMI 6 days after calving was lower in the first lactation heifers than in the multiparous cows. The urinary cortisol concentration at 4 days after calving was higher in the first lactation heifers than in the multiparous cows and was positively associated with the calving score...
February 14, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Koichi Hagiya
The procedure used for the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Japan has developed from a lactation sire-MGS model to a multiple-lactation random regression test-day animal model. Genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls in Japan began in 1989 with the use of field-style progeny testing; dairy herd improvement program data from all over Japan were used, along with a sire and maternal grandsire model. In 1993, an animal model was introduced to estimate breeding values for yield and type traits. A random regression test-day model was first applied in 2010...
February 14, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Masahiro Osada, Hitomi Iwabuchi, Toru Aoki, Kika Sasaki, Hitoshi Ushijima, Takeyuki Ozawa
Artificial insemination using sex-sorted semen is employed to efficiently increase the number of female dairy calves born. Previous studies have determined that using sex-sorted semen is beneficial to improve the management, but the mechanism by which it increases cattle numbers through objective indices of breeding remains unclear. This study focused on a Brown Swiss cattle herd in which frozen female sex-sorted semen was systematically employed to increase the number of cattle. We analyzed the correlation between the increase in the number of cattle and the screening accuracy of sex-sorted semen, measuring indices such as pregnancy rate and birth rate of female calves...
February 10, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Masahiro Satoh
The aims of the present study are to represent the concept of restricted breeding values algebraically and to propose a criterion for evaluating the genetic responses achieved by using a restricted selection procedure. An additive genetic mixed model characterized by multiple traits with constraints was assumed. If the random errors approach zero and the fixed effects can be completely estimated correctly in the model, the restricted best linear unbiased predictor of breeding values (uR ) is equal to <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
February 5, 2019: Animal Science Journal
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