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Sexual Plant Reproduction

Shin Hiratsuka, Makoto Fujimura, Taishi Hayashida, Yutaka Nishikawa, Kazuyoshi Nada
Japanese pear has a genetically controlled self-incompatibility system, but both the pollen-tube growth in a semi in vivo assay and fruit set after self-pollination differ considerably among cultivars. The percentage of styles in which pollen tubes have reached the base ranges from 0 to 36 %, a value determined by culture of styles in vitro, and fruit set ranges from 0.6 to 15.2 %. Based on these data, we have assigned a value for the self-incompatibility weakness to each cultivar. Here, we showed that pollen factors control the degree of self-incompatibility...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Shu-Wei Zhang, Gui-Xiang Huang, Feng Ding, Xin-Hua He, Jie-Chun Pan
Seedlessness is an important economic trait of lemon. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon requires detailed data on pollen and embryo sac fertility, embryo development and compatibility mechanisms governing self- and cross-pollination. The results of the current study indicate that the fertility of pollen and mature embryo sac remains normal. When flowers were self- or cross-pollinated, pollen grains of 'Xiangshui' were able to germinate on the stigma. In the case of self-pollination, pollen tubes became twisted, tube tips enlarged and tubes ruptured in the bottom of stigma...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Petra Šarhanová, Radim J Vašut, Martin Dančák, Petr Bureš, Bohumil Trávníček
Rubus subgen. Rubus includes common European species with highly complicated taxonomy, ongoing hybridisation and facultative apomixis. Out of approximately 750 species recognised in Europe, only 3 diploid sexual species are known, along with numerous apomictic brambles that are highly connected to polyploidy. One exception of a tetraploid taxon is R. ser. Glandulosi, which is known for prevalent sexuality. This taxon highly hybridises with tetraploid members of R. ser. Discolores and leads to the origin of many hybridogenous populations and individuals...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Ana Sofia Róis, Generosa Teixeira, Timothy F Sharbel, Jörg Fuchs, Sérgio Martins, Dalila Espírito-Santo, Ana D Caperta
The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Angela R Cordle, Erin E Irish, Chi-Lien Cheng
Apogamy is a phenomenon in which a sporophyte develops asexually, directly from a cell or cells of a gametophyte. It is a phenomenon described mainly in lower plants, but shares certain aspects with apomixis in angiosperms. The genes involved in apogamy commitment in ferns are unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of asexual reproduction is controlled in lower and higher plants by overlapping sets of genes. To this end, we created a normalized subtracted cDNA library that represents genes with increased expression during apogamy commitment in the fern Ceratopteris richardii...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Ming Li, Aihua Sha, Xinan Zhou, Pingfang Yang
Siphonogamy is a critical process in plant reproductive growth, during which numerous cell-cell interaction events occur between pistil and pollen. Previous studies in Solanaceae, Papaveraceae, and Brassicaceae focusing on pollen-stigma recognition in self-incompatible systems have provided many important views. In this study, we profiled the proteome in soybean mature pistils before and after pollination. Comparative analyses of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis maps from un-pollinated and pollinated pistils were conducted...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Adriano Silvério, Sophie Nadot, Tatiana T Souza-Chies, Olivier Chauveau
Iridaceae is one of the few families in which floral oils are produced and collected by pollinators as a resource. Perigonal nectaries and trichomal elaiophores are highly unusual within the tribe Sisyrinchieae. Both structures occur mainly on the staminal column, while they are usually distributed on the tepals in the other tribes of the subfamily Iridoideae. Sisyrinchieae is the largest tribe of Iridaceae present on the American continent, and the diversity observed may be related to the exceptional development of trichomal elaiophores within the genus Sisyrinchium, but knowledge concerning the other types of nuptial glandular structures within the tribe is still limited, preventing us from estimating their implication for species diversity...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
A R Griffin, T D Vuong, R E Vaillancourt, J L Harbard, C E Harwood, C Q Nghiem, H H Thinh
Colchicine-induced neoautotetraploid genotypes of Acacia mangium were cloned and planted in mixture with a set of diploid clones in an orchard in southern Vietnam. Following good general flowering, open-pollinated seed was collected from trees of both cytotypes and microsatellite markers were used to determine the breeding system as characterised by the proportion of outcrosses in young seedling progeny. As predicted from the literature, the progeny of diploid clones were predominantly outcrossed (t(m) = 0...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Kenji Ueda, Michiyuki Ono, Jun Iwashita, Hiroetsu Wabiko, Masayasu Inoue
The Lilium longiflorum gH2A promoter is active exclusively in the generative cells of mature pollen in transgenic tobacco expressing the gH2A promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) construct as a reporter gene. Temporal and spatial aspects of gH2A promoter activity examined during pollen development in transgenic tobacco reveal that GUS reporter activity was not detected until developing pollen entered the early bicellular developmental stage. Activity was first detected in generative cells at early-mid stages and gradually increased to maximum levels at mid-bicellular stages...
December 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Patrick von Aderkas, Massimo Nepi, Marlies Rise, Federico Buffi, Massimo Guarnieri, Andrea Coulter, Karen Gill, Patricia Lan, Sarah Rzemieniak, Ettore Pacini
Pollen of larch (Larix × marschlinsii) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was used in homospecific and heterospecific crosses. Germination of heterospecific pollen in ovulo was reduced in post-pollination prefertilization drops. This provides evidence of selection against foreign pollen by open-pollinated exposed ovules in these two sister taxa, which share the same type of pollination mechanism. Of the other prezygotic stages in pollen-ovule interactions, uptake of pollen by stigmatic hairs did not show any selection...
September 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Alan G Seal, A Ross Ferguson, H Nihal de Silva, Jing-Li Zhang
Sex can sometimes lead to complications. In some crops, 2n gametes have been exploited by plant breeders to transfer genetic variation between taxa of different ploidy levels. However, their role and use in dioecious genera have received relatively little attention. In the dioecious genus Actinidia (kiwifruit), seedling populations usually segregate equally for females and males as sex is determined by an XX female/XY male system. While fertilization involving 2n egg cells is not expected to affect the sex ratios of progenies, fertilization involving 2n pollen is likely to produce progenies with excess males...
September 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Bolin Liu, Nicolas Boivin, David Morse, Mario Cappadocia
The self-incompatibility (SI) reaction in the Solanaceae involves molecular recognition of stylar haplotypes by pollen and is mediated by the S-locus from which a stylar-localized S-RNase and several pollen-localized F-box proteins are expressed. S-RNase activity has been previously shown to be essential for the SI reaction, leading to the hypothesis that pollen rejection in incompatible crosses is due to degradation of pollen RNA. We used pollen expressing the fluorescent marker GFP, driven by the LAT52 promoter, to monitor the accumulation of mRNA and protein in pollen after compatible and incompatible pollinations...
September 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Radka Rosenbaumová, Anna Krahulcová, František Krahulec
Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates...
September 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Don J Durzan
Cell fate, development timing and occurrence of reproductive versus apomictic development in gymnosperms are shown to be influenced by culture conditions in vitro. In this study, female parthenogenetic apomixis (fPA), androsporogenetic parthenogenesis (mAP) and progenesis were demonstrated using embryonal initials of Araucaria angustifolia in scaled-up cell suspensions passing through a single-cell bottleneck in darkness and in an artificial sporangium (AS). Expression was based on defined nutrition, hormones and feedforward-adaptive feedback process controls at 23-25 °C and in darkness...
September 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Caroline S Ford, Mike J Wilkinson
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) has an idiosyncratic form of late-acting self-incompatibility that operates through the non-fusion of incompatible gametes. Here, we used high-resolution confocal microscopy to define fine level changes to the embryo sac of the strongly self-incompatible cocoa genotype SCA 24 in the absence of pollination, and following compatible and incompatible pollination. All sperm nuclei had fused with the female nuclei by 48 h following compatible pollinations. However, following incompatible pollinations, we observed divergence in the behaviour of sperm nuclei following release into the embryo sac...
September 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
J Lora, M Herrero, J I Hormaza
Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angiosperms and makes Annona cherimola an interesting model to study the effect of varying environmental conditions on subsequent pollen performance during the final stages of pollen development...
September 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
C Suárez, A J Castro, H F Rapoport, M I Rodríguez-García
Sexual reproduction is essential for the propagation of higher plants. From an agronomical point of view, this is a particularly key process because fertilization guarantees fruit formation in most cultivated fruit species. In the olive, however, in spite of its agricultural importance, little attention has been paid to the study of sexual reproduction. In order to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate pollen-pistil interactions in the olive during the progamic phase, it is essential to first have a good knowledge of the reproductive structures involved in such interactions...
June 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Jian-Guo Cao, Xi-Ling Dai, Quan-Xi Wang
Egg development in Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum was studied using ultrastructural and cytochemical methods to examine structural features influencing fertilization in leptosporangiate ferns. Ultrastructural observations indicate a separation cavity is first formed above the egg during oogenesis with a pore region persistently connecting the egg and the ventral canal cell. The egg envelope is formed by deposition of amorphous materials in the separation cavity on the outer surface of plasmalemma. The egg envelope was not formed across the pore region; instead, a fertilization pore was formed...
June 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Krystyna Winiarczyk, Jolanta Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Kamila Kupisz
We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms...
June 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
Mackenzie L Taylor, Joseph H Williams
Trithuria (Hydatellaceae; Nymphaeales) is unique among early-divergent angiosperms in that its species are extremely small and most have exceptionally short, annual life histories. Given the evolution of these extremes of size and development, we sought to understand whether post-pollination processes still varied predictably with breeding system in Trithuria. To address this question, we studied two Western Australian species, Trithuria austinensis (dioecious, obligately outcrossing) and Trithuria submersa (bisexual, highly selfing)...
June 2012: Sexual Plant Reproduction
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