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Tree Physiology

Pierre-Antoine Chuste, Catherine Massonnet, Dominique Gérant, Berndt Zeller, Joseph Levillain, Christian Hossann, Nicolas Angeli, Rémi Wortemann, Nathalie Bréda, Pascale Maillard
The predicted recurrence of adverse climatic events such as droughts, which disrupt nutrient accessibility for trees, could jeopardize the nitrogen (N) metabolism in forest trees. Internal tree N cycling capacities are crucial to ensuring tree survival but how the N metabolism of forest trees responds to intense, repeated environmental stress is not well known. For 2 years, we submitted 9-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees to either a moderate or a severe prolonged drought or a yearly removal of 75% of the foliage to induce internal N cycling changes...
February 16, 2019: Tree Physiology
Marja Roitto, Sirkka Sutinen, Ai-Fang Wang, Timo Domisch, Tarja Lehto, Tapani Repo
Soil waterlogging is predicted to increase in the future climate in boreal regions due to increased precipitation. Snowmelt periods in winter may also become more common and further increase the amount of water in soil. It is not well known how waterlogging and soil freezing during winter affect the physiology, phenology and growth of trees. Our aim was to study the below- and aboveground responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings to waterlogging (WL) in frozen (Fr) and unfrozen (NoFr) soils in a growth chamber experiment...
February 7, 2019: Tree Physiology
Damien Sellier, Youcef Mammeri
Phloem transport is the process by which plants internally distribute assimilates. The loading of assimilates near the photosynthetic source is responsible for generating enough osmotic pressure to drive sap flow towards the sink tissues where assimilates are consumed. Phloem loading is variable and subject to a diurnal cycle. It is dominated by photosynthesis during the day and by degradation of leaf starch to sugars at night. Most studies ignore the effect of the loading cycle on transport and assume that sugar flow operates at equilibrium...
February 7, 2019: Tree Physiology
Roberto L Salomón, Linus De Roo, Samuel Bodé, Pascal Boeckx, Kathy Steppe
Respired CO2 in woody tissues radially diffuses to the atmosphere or it is transported upward with the transpiration stream, making the origin of CO2 in stem CO2 efflux (EA) uncertain, which may confound stem respiration (RS) estimates. An aqueous 13C-enriched solution was infused into stems of Populus tremula L. trees, and real-time measurements of 13C-CO2 and 12C-CO2 in EA were performed via Cavity Ring Down Laser Spectroscopy (CRDS). The contribution of locally respired CO2 (LCO2) and xylem-transported CO2 (TCO2) to EA was estimated from their different isotopic composition...
February 6, 2019: Tree Physiology
Yann Salmon, Lars Dietrich, Sanna Sevanto, Teemu Hölttä, Masako Dannoura, Daniel Epron
On-going climate change is increasing the risk of drought stress across large areas worldwide. Such drought events decrease ecosystem productivity and have been increasingly linked to tree mortality. Understanding how trees respond to water shortage is key to predicting the future of ecosystem functions. Phloem is at the core of the tree functions, moving resources such as non-structural carbohydrates, nutrients, and defence and information molecules across the whole plant. Phloem function and ability to transport resources is tightly controlled by the balance of carbon and water fluxes within the tree...
February 6, 2019: Tree Physiology
Artur Jankowski, Tomasz P Wyka, Roma Zytkowiak, Darius Danusevicius, Jacek Oleksyn
The correlations of phenotypic traits with environmental drivers suggest that variability of these traits is a result of natural selection, especially if such trait correlations are based on genetic variability. We hypothesized that in situ correlations of structural needle traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) with minimal winter temperature (Tmin) reported previously from a temperate/boreal transect would be conserved when plants are cultivated under common conditions. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing needles from two common gardens located in the temperate zone, one including adult trees and the other juvenile seedlings...
February 4, 2019: Tree Physiology
Lei Chen, Sergio Rossi, Annie Deslauriers, Jianquan Liu
Present-day global warming is occurring faster at higher elevations. Although there is much information regarding the divergent responses of tree growth to climate change, the altitudinal patterns of species-specific xylogenesis remains poorly understood. We investigated the xylogenesis of balsam fir (Abies balsamea Mill.) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. B.S.P.) at two elevations in Quebec (Canada). The number of enlarging and mature cells of the developing tree ring were counted on microcores collected weekly between 2011 and 2014...
January 31, 2019: Tree Physiology
Liang Wei, Chonggang Xu, Steven Jansen, Hang Zhou, Bradley O Christoffersen, William T Pockman, Richard S Middleton, John D Marshall, Nate G McDowell
Woody plants vary in their adaptations to drought and shade. For a better prediction of vegetation responses to drought and shade within dynamic global vegetation models, it is critical to group species into functional types with similar adaptations. One of the key challenges is that the adaptations are generally determined by a large number of plant traits that may not be available for a large number of species. In this study, we present two heuristic woody plant groups that were separated using cluster analysis in a three-dimensional trait-environment space based on three key metrics for each species: mean xylem embolism resistance, shade tolerance and habitat aridity...
January 31, 2019: Tree Physiology
Anna M Jensen, Jeffrey M Warren, Anthony W King, Daniel M Ricciuto, Paul J Hanson, Stan D Wullschleger
We quantified seasonal CO2 assimilation capacities for seven dominant vascular species in a wet boreal forest peatland then applied data to a land surface model parametrized to the site (ELM-SPRUCE) to test if seasonality in photosynthetic parameters results in differences in simulated plant responses to elevated CO2 and temperature. We collected seasonal leaf-level gas exchange, nutrient content and stand allometric data from the field-layer community (i.e., Maianthemum trifolium (L.) Sloboda), understory shrubs (Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron and Judd, Chamaedaphne calyculata (L...
January 22, 2019: Tree Physiology
Martina Tomasella, Andrea Nardini, Benjamin D Hesse, Anna Machlet, Rainer Matyssek, Karl-Heinz Häberle
Severe drought events threaten tree water transport system, productivity and survival. Woody angiosperms generally die when embolism-induced loss of hydraulic conductance (PLC) surpasses 80-90% under intense water shortage. However, the recovery capability and possible long-term carry-over effects of repeated drought events could dictate the fate of species' population under climate change scenarios. Potted saplings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were subjected to two drought cycles in two consecutive growing seasons, aiming to induce minimum leaf water potentials (Ψmd) of about -4 MPa, corresponding to hydraulic thresholds for survival of this species...
January 22, 2019: Tree Physiology
Da Yang, Yong-Jiang Zhang, Jia Song, Cun-Yang Niu, Guang-You Hao
Characterizing differences in key functional traits between simple-leaved (SL) and compound-leaved (CL) tree species can contribute to a better understanding of the adaptive significance of compound leaf form. In particular, this information may provide a mechanistic explanation to the long-proposed fast-growth hypothesis of CL tree species. Here, using five SL and five CL tree species co-occurring in a typical temperate forest of Northeast China, we tested whether higher hydraulic efficiency underlies potentially high photosynthetic capacity in CL species...
January 22, 2019: Tree Physiology
Thomas Damestoy, Benjamin Brachi, Xoaquín Moreira, Hervé Jactel, Christophe Plomion, Bastien Castagneyrol
Research on plant-herbivore interactions has long recognized that plant genetic variation plays a central role in driving insect abundance and herbivory, as well as in determining plant defense. However, how plant genes influence herbivore feeding performances, and which plant defensive traits mediate these effects, remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the feeding performances of two insect leaf chewers with contrasting diet breadth (the generalist Lymantria dispar L. and the specialist Thaumetopoea processionea L...
January 22, 2019: Tree Physiology
J G Arco Molina, G Helle, M A Hadad, F A Roig
The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in tree rings were used to derive the intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) of Araucaria araucana trees of northern Patagonia along a strong precipitation gradient. It is well known that climatic and ontogenetic factors affect growth performance of this species but little is known about their influence in the physiological responses, as iWUE. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the physiological reactions of young and adult trees from two open xeric and two moderately dense mesic A...
January 11, 2019: Tree Physiology
Maria C Caldeira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2019: Tree Physiology
Michiel Hubeau, Jens Mincke, Christian Vanhove, Jan Courtyn, Stefaan Vandenberghe, Kathy Steppe
Phloem transport is of great importance in trees to distribute assimilated carbon across the entire tree. Nevertheless, knowledge of phloem is incomplete, because of the complexity of measuring its transport and characteristics. Only few studies have addressed how phloem transport might alter under climatic changes, with most data originating from theoretical studies. We measured phloem characteristics in leaves of young Populus tremula L. trees grown during 5 months under ambient (TA, 404 ppm ± 5) and elevated (TE, 659 ppm ± 3) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and compartmental modelling...
December 31, 2018: Tree Physiology
Andrea Galmán, William K Petry, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Ana Butrón, María de la Fuente, Marta Francisco, Alan Kergunteuil, Sergio Rasmann, Xoaquín Moreira
Elevational gradients have been highly useful for understanding the underlying forces driving variation in plant traits and plant-insect herbivore interactions. A widely held view from these studies has been that greater herbivory under warmer and less variable climatic conditions found at low elevations has resulted in stronger herbivore selection on plant defences. However, this prediction has been called into question by conflicting empirical evidence, which could be explained by a number of causes such as an incomplete assessment of defensive strategies (ignoring other axes of defence such as defence inducibility) or unaccounted variation in abiotic factors along elevational clines...
December 31, 2018: Tree Physiology
Jose Gutierrez Lopez, Julian Licata, Thomas Pypker, Heidi Asbjornsen
We assessed the effects of heater wattage on sap flux estimates from heat dissipation sensors and generated calibrated equations for 1-year-old Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden trees. We used a total of eight trees ranging from 3 to 6 cm in diameter. Our calibration experiment was performed with a modified tree-cut approach, which allowed us to estimate gravimetric water use manually weighing 20 l buckets every 15 min while sap flux was monitored on each tree. Our results indicate that changes the current supplied to the heaters from 0...
December 31, 2018: Tree Physiology
Yotam Zait, Ilana Shtein, Amnon Schwartz
Photosynthesis is limited by three main factors: stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm) and maximum capacity for Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax). It is unclear how limiting factors vary under stress, particularly during long-term stress acclimation. In this work, we compared for the first time photosynthesis limitation resulting from long-term acclimation to three major abiotic stresses: drought, salinity and temperature. We used saplings of Ziziphus spina-christi, a thermophilic and drought-tolerant tree, which recently became more abundant in the Mediterranean, presumably due to increased winter temperatures...
December 31, 2018: Tree Physiology
Eva Darenova, Justyna Szatniewska, Manuel Acosta, Marian Pavelka
This study presents results from continuous measurements of stem CO2 efflux carried out for seven growing seasons in a young Norway spruce forest. The objective of the study was to determine differences in temperature sensitivity of stem CO2 efflux (Q10) during night (when sap flow is zero or nearly zero), during early afternoon (when the maximum rate of sap flow occurs) and during two transition periods between the aforementioned periods. The highest Q10 was recorded during the period of zero sap flow, while the lowest Q10 was observed in period of the highest sap flow...
December 28, 2018: Tree Physiology
Annie Deslauriers, Marie-Pier Fournier, Fabrizio Cartenì, John Mackay
Synchrony between host budburst and insect emergence greatly influences the time window for insect development and survival. A few alterations of bud phenology have been reported under defoliation without clear consensus regarding the direction of effects, i.e., advance or delay. Here, we compared budburst phenology between conifers in defoliation and control treatments, and measured carbon allocation as a potential mechanistic explanation of changes in phenology. In a 2-year greenhouse experiment, saplings of balsam fir, black spruce and white spruce of two different provenances (north and south) were subjected to either control (no larvae) or natural defoliation treatment (larvae added) by spruce budworm...
December 28, 2018: Tree Physiology
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