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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

Ruhollah Rahimi, Hamid Farahmand, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Gholamreza Rafiee, Amirreza Abed-Elmdoust
Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) is an endangered species and genetic resource banking such as gametes and embryo preservation could be one of the most pursued conservation approaches. In this study, deleterious effects of the traditional cryopreservation technique and the effect of different doses of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HβCD) on thawed spermatozoa quality (motility duration and percentage) of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) were investigated from metabolic aspects of view. For cryopreserving, semen was diluted with Tris-HCl (100 mM) extenders containing 0, 5, 10, and 15 mM of HβCD in a ratio of 1:1 (semen/extenders)...
February 18, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
P Domingues, J Hernández-Urcera, R Cal, A Olivares, M Chimal, A Sánchez, C Rosas, P Gallardo
In the present work, growth and digestive enzyme activities of total acid and alkaline proteases, pepsin, trypsin, lipase, and α-amylase, as well as partial characterization of enzyme activity, were studied in diploid and triploid turbot. Growth was similar between both groups. Acid protease activity increased consistently during the experiment, for both diploid (2n) and triploid (3n) fish. The alkaline protease activity was always higher for triploids throughout the experiment. Proteolytic acid activity (pH 2) was generally higher for diploids, at all temperatures tested...
February 14, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Zhan-Ning Xu, Guo-Dong Zheng, Cheng-Bin Wu, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the differential proteomics of grass carp gills after hypoxic stress to better understand the roles of proteins in the hypoxic response and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Protein spots were obtained from a hypoxia-stressed group (372 ± 11 individuals) and a control group (406 ± 14 individuals) using the lmage Master 2D Platinum 7.0 analysis software. Fifteen protein spots were expressed differentially in the hypoxia-stressed group and varied significantly after exposure to the hypoxic conditions...
February 13, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Sharine N Descovi, Tiago G Petrolli, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Recent evidence has revealed the involvement of oxidative stress and oxidative damage with health impairment and mortality in fish exposed to hypoxia. Thus, natural compounds with antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging properties, such as caffeine, might help to prevent or reduce hepatic damage elicited by hypoxia. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with caffeine could prevent or reduce oxidative damage in the livers of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to hypoxia...
February 12, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Jiaojiao Chen, Dianfu Zhang, Qingsong Tan, Mengmei Liu, Pengcheng Hu
Dietary arginine (Arg) could improve the intestinal structure and absorption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus); however, the mechanism of Arg on intestinal morphology improvement was unclear. The present study aimed to explain the possible mechanism of the positive effect of Arg on intestinal epithelial cells of grass carp. An in vitro study was conducted through a primary culture model to assess the growth, cell viability, mRNA expressions of TOR signal pathway, and tight junction proteins of enterocytes after culture in the medium with 6 levels of Arg (0, 0...
February 7, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab, Mohamed N Monier, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Caterina Faggio
Water quality encompasses the water physical, biological, and chemical parameters. It generally affects the fish growth and welfare. Thus, the success of a commercial aquaculture project depends on supplying the optimum water quality for prompt fish growth at the minimum cost of resources. Although the aquaculture environment is a complicated system, depending on various water quality variables, only less of them have a critical role. One of these vital parameters is dissolved oxygen (DO) level, which requires continuous oversight in aquaculture systems...
February 4, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Roman Franěk, Taiju Saito, Martin Pšenička
Dead end (dnd) is a germ plasm-specific maternal RNA discovered in zebrafish and then in other vertebrates. Dnd protein is essential for migration and motility of primordial germ cells (PGCs), only cells destined to transfer genetic information to offspring. PGCs arise far from somatic cells of developing gonads and they must migrate to their site of function. Migration of PGCs follows complex path by various developing tissues as their disruption impacts on the fertility. Recently, it has been found that dnd is not required for survival of PGCs and dnd-deficient zebrafish PGCs transdifferentiate into the somatic cells...
January 22, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Dan Wang, Quanquan Cao, Wenxu Zhu, Yadong Hu, Xinyu Zhang, Shaowu Yin, Tao Wang
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and salinity are important variables in aquatic environments. High concentration of LPS and large changes in salinity seriously threat the survival of a variety of organisms, including fish. To reveal the effects of salinity and LPS on a fish immune response, we measured the immune-related parameters (total leukocyte count, total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations, complement C3 concentration, and lysozyme activity) and genes (the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and SOCS1-3 at the mRNA and protein levels) of juvenile Takifugu fasciatus exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or LPS (25 μg mL-1 ) under different salinities (0, 15, and 30 ppt) for 24 h...
January 18, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Mahdi Teimouri, Sakineh Yeganeh, Ghodrat Rahimi Mianji, Mojtaba Najafi, Soleiman Mahjoub
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% S. platensis meal on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation, as well as the expression of two antioxidant enzyme genes (SOD and CAT) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). One hundred and eighty fish, with an average initial weight of 101 ± 8 g, were cultured for 10 weeks. At the end of experiment, lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in serum of fish fed with S. platensis and fish fed with 5, 7...
January 16, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Hualiang Liang, Ahmed Mokrani, Hopeson Chisomo-Kasiya, Ke Ji, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren, Bo Liu, Bingwen Xi, Ajun Sun
The present study evaluated the mechanisms governing insulin signaling, glucose metabolism, and lipogenesis in juvenile fish fed with different dietary leucine levels. Fish were fed six practical diets with graded leucine levels ranging from 0.90 to 2.94% of dry basis for 8 weeks. The trial results showed that, compared to the control group (0.90%), optimal dietary leucine level (1.72%) resulted in the up-regulation of mRNA expression related to insulin signaling pathway, including target of rapamycin (TOR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (Akt)...
January 11, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Manuela Mania, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Angela Avenoso, Angela D'Ascola, Michele Scuruchi, Adele Campo, Giuseppe Acri, Salvatore Campo
Teleost haemoglobins vary in polymorphisms and primary structure, although display similar functional properties. Key amino acids for Root effect (a reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity and loss of cooperativity with declining pH) are conserved throughout fish evolution. For the first time, we cloned and characterised Sparus aurata L. embryonic globin chains (eα1, eα2, eβ). We also studied haemoglobins (eHbI, eHbII) behaviour in normal and low-oxygen conditions. Several amino acids in fry globins are different in chemical type (e...
January 9, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Masafumi Amano, Noriko Amiya, Kataaki Okubo, Junpei Yamashita, Ayae Kuriu, Ayano Yasuta, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Yoshitaka Sakakura
The localization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain and pituitary of the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to understand its neuroendocrine system. The genome assembly of K. marmoratus did not have any sequence encoding GnRH1, but sequences encoding GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH) were found. Therefore, GnRH1 was identified by in silico cloning. The deduced amino acid sequence of the K...
January 7, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Alexey T Aliper, Alisa A Zaichikova, Ilija Damjanović, Paul V Maximov, Anna A Kasparson, Zoran Gačić, Elena M Maximova
Single-unit responses of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) were recorded extracellularly from their axonal terminals in the tectum opticum (TO) of the intact fish (goldfish, carp). The depths of retinal units consecutively recorded along the track of the microelectrode were measured. At the depth of around 50 μm, the responses of six types of direction-selective (DS) GCs were regularly recorded. Responses of two types of orientation-selective (OS) GCs and detectors of white and black spots occurred approximately 50 μm deeper...
January 5, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Li Li, Qian Xiao, Linlin Wang, Zhongjie Chang
Identifying proteins that regulate fin injury is critical to our understanding of regeneration as it relates to both acute wound injury and tissue formation. We have cloned the full-length cDNA of the actinodin4 (and4) gene of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (MaAnd4) by the RACE method (GenBank Accession No. MG385835). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis during fin regeneration indicated a sudden increase in MaAnd4 expression, with a peak at 3 days post amputation (dpa). In situ analysis showed that MaAnd4 is located in the distal blastema and cells lining the regions of actinotrichia formation at 3 dpa...
January 5, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Yudong Jia, Qiqi Jing, Yunhong Gao, Bin Huang
Accumulating evidence suggests that the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system participates in fish reproduction. To understand the physiological functions of the GH/IGF system, the mRNA expression profiles of all known members of the GH/IGF system, including hepatic and ovarian gh, GH receptor (ghr), IGFs (igf-i, igf-ii), IGF-I receptor (igf-ir) and IGF binding protein (igfbp1, igfbp2), pituitary gh, and hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) were investigated during ovarian development in turbot Scophthalmus maximus...
January 5, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiu Feng, Xiaomu Yu, Meixia Pang, Jingou Tong
Factor-inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) is an asparagine hydroxylase that interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to regulate transcriptional activity of HIF-1. Few studies of fish FIH-1 have been reported to date. In this study, the cDNA of FIH-1 gene was cloned and characterized for bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis (AnFIH-1). The AnFIH-1 cDNA is 2065 bp in length, encoding a protein of 357 amino acid (aa) residues, which contains a JmjC homology region of the jumonji transcription factors. AnFIH-1 shares high identities with other vertebrate FIH-1 (79...
January 3, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Gaku Kanno, Sappasith Klomklao, Yuya Kumagai, Hideki Kishimura
Trypsin from Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis) (JD-T) living in freshwater (2-18 °C) was purified. JD-T represented typical fish trypsin characteristics regarding the effects of protease inhibitor, calcium-ion, and pH. For the effect of temperature, JD-T quite resembled to the trypsins from tropical-zone marine fish and freshwater fish (the catfish cultured in Thailand), i.e., the optimum temperature was 60 °C, and it was stable below 60 °C at pH 8.0 for 15 min incubation. From the data, it seemed that the trypsin from freshwater fish is thermostable in spite of the fact that their habitat temperatures are low...
December 13, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiao-Qun Zhong, Ming-Yang Liu, Chao Xu, Wen-Bin Liu, Kenneth-Prudence Abasubong, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Streptococcus faecalis on the growth performance, intestinal histology, antioxidant capability, innate immunity, and disease resistance of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were fed five experimental diets containing 0 (SF0, control), 1 × 105 (SF1), 1 × 106 (SF2), 1 × 107 (SF3), and 1 × 108  cfu/g (SF4) of Streptococcus faecalis, respectively, for 10 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila with the cumulative mortality recorded during a period of 96 h...
December 11, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Andressa Teles, Joan Salas-Leiva, Carlos Alfonso Alvarez-González, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez
This study contributes to basic knowledge on the development of larval digestive enzyme activities of Seriola rivoliana, a carnivorous species that has shown high mortality in larval stage. The study was conducted under laboratory-controlled conditions until larvae reached 30 days after hatching (DAH). The specific activity of amylase and pepsin was analysed by spectrophotometric methods, and lipase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and alkaline phosphatase by fluorometry. The results showed that S. rivoliana larvae had different enzyme patterns depending on their developmental stage, and also when exogenous food was administered (rotifers and Artemia)...
December 8, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Suman Kumari, Mahua G Choudhury, Nirmalendu Saha
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions in several vertebrates including that of adaptation to various stressful stimuli. The air-breathing magur catfish (Clarias magur) is known to tolerate a very high external ammonia (HEA) stress in its natural habitats. We report here the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide (inos) gene and more generation of NO in magur catfish exposed to HEA. Exposure to HEA (25 mM NH4 Cl) for 14 days led to the higher accumulation of NO in different tissues of magur catfish and also more efflux of NO from the perfused liver of NH4 Cl-treated fish as a consequence of high build of toxic ammonia in body tissues...
December 8, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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