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Aurélie Deveau, Philippe Clowez, François Petit, Jean-Paul Maurice, Flora Todesco, Claude Murat, Maryline Harroué, Julien Ruelle, François Le Tacon
According to isotopic labeling experiments, most of the carbon used by truffle (Tuber sp.) fruiting bodies to develop underground is provided by host trees, suggesting that trees and truffles are physically connected. However, such physical link between trees and truffle fruiting bodies has never been observed. We discovered fruiting bodies of Tuber aestivum adhering to the walls of a belowground quarry and we took advantage of this unique situation to analyze the physical structure that supported these fruiting bodies in the open air...
April 15, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Janusz J Zwiazek, Maria A Equiza, Justine Karst, Jorge Senorans, Mark Wartenbe, Monica Calvo-Polanco
With large forested urban areas, the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, faces high annual costs of replacing trees injured by deicing salts that are commonly used for winter road maintenance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots that allow trees to tolerate the detrimental effects of polluted soils. Here, we examined mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus contorta by germinating seeds in soils collected from different locations: (1) two urban areas within the city of Edmonton, and (2) an intact pine forest just outside Edmonton...
April 13, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Shijie Zhang, Lu-Min Vaario, Yan Xia, Norihisa Matsushita, Qifang Geng, Momi Tsuruta, Hiroyuki Kurokochi, Chunlan Lian
Forest trees are colonised by different species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi that interact competitively or mutualistically with one another. Most ECM fungi can produce sporocarps. To date, the effects of co-colonising fungal species on sporocarp formation in ECM fungi remain unknown. In this study, we examined host plant growth, mycorrhizal colonisation, and sporocarp formation when roots of Pinus densiflora are colonised by Laccaria japonica and three other ECM fungal species (Cenococcum geophilum, Pisolithus sp...
April 5, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Ella Thoen, Anders B Aas, Unni Vik, Anne K Brysting, Inger Skrede, Tor Carlsen, Håvard Kauserud
Although only a relatively small proportion of plant species form ectomycorrhizae with fungi, it is crucial for growth and survival for a number of widespread woody plant species. Few studies have attempted to investigate the fine scale spatial structure of entire root systems of adult ectomycorrhizal (EcM) plants. Here, we use the herbaceous perennial Bistorta vivipara to map the entire root system of an adult EcM plant and investigate the spatial structure of its root-associated fungi. All EcM root tips were sampled, mapped and identified using a direct PCR approach and Sanger sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region...
March 30, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Xin-Xin Wang, Ellis Hoffland, Liesje Mommer, Gu Feng, Thomas W Kuyper
Plant-soil feedback (PSF) describes the process whereby plant species modify the soil environment, which subsequently impacts the growth of the same or another plant species. Our aim was to explore PSF by two maize varieties (a landrace and a hybrid variety) and three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species (Funneliformis mosseae, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita, and the mixture). We carried out a pot experiment with a conditioning and a feedback phase to determine PSF with different species of AMF and with a non-mycorrhizal control...
March 27, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Hamed Aalipour, Ali Nikbakht, Nematollah Etemadi
Air pollution in metropolitan areas of Iran has negatively impacted establishment, growth, and development of many woody plant species, threatening the health of urban forest species. This study was designed to investigate the effects of artificial inoculation of seedlings of a major urban forest tree, Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica Greene) with beneficial microorganisms under the stress of air pollution caused by exhaust emissions from fuel pollutants (FP). We conducted this research as a completely randomized design in a form of split-factorial with three factors comprising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae or a mixture of both species, bacterial inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens and non-inoculated controls, and two levels of FP (fuel pollutants and non-fuel pollutants) using three replications of each treatment...
March 21, 2019: Mycorrhiza
S J Nuske, S Anslan, L Tedersoo, B C Congdon, S E Abell
Mycorrhizal fungi are very diverse, including those that produce truffle-like fruiting bodies. Truffle-like fungi are hypogeous and sequestrate (produced below-ground, with an enclosed hymenophore) and rely on animal consumption, mainly by mammals, for spore dispersal. This dependence links mycophagous mammals to mycorrhizal diversity and, assuming truffle-like fungi are important components of mycorrhizal communities, to plant nutrient cycling and ecosystem health. These links are largely untested as currently little is known about mycorrhizal fungal community structure and its dependence on mycophagous mammals...
March 21, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Yoriko Sugiyama, Masao Murata, Seiichi Kanetani, Kazuhide Nara
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is essential for the survival of both host trees and associated ECM fungi. However, during conservation activities of endangered tree species, their ECM symbionts are largely ignored. Here, we investigated ECM fungi in ex situ populations established for the conservation of Pinus amamiana, an endangered species distributed on Yakushima Island, Japan. Our objective was to determine whether ECM fungi in natural forests are conserved in ex situ populations on the same island. In particular, we focused on the existence of Rhizopogon yakushimensis, which is specific to P...
March 16, 2019: Mycorrhiza
R Michael Lehman, Shannon L Osborne, Wendy I Taheri, Jeffrey S Buyer, Bee Khim Chim
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are considered to be a key group of soil organisms for assessments of soil biological properties and developing relationships among crop production management practices, soil properties, crop performance, and ecosystem services. In a field study of cover crop treatments established during the transition from small grains to corn (Zea mays L), we assessed multiple measures of AM fungal responses to the management treatments: soil propagule numbers, biomass via lipid biomarkers, and root colonization extent...
March 13, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Diana Marcela Morales Londoño, Edenilson Meyer, David González, Anabel González Hernández, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares, Paulo Emilio Lovato
Land area planted with genetically modified (GM) crops has grown rapidly, and Brazil has the second largest area with those plants. There is, however, limited information on the possible effects of that technology on non-target organisms, especially root symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We evaluated AMF symbiosis development in five maize genotypes: one landrace, two conventional hybrids (DKB 240 and Formula), and two GM hybrids (DKB 240-VT Pro and Formula TL). We evaluated symbiosis response in two separate experiments: one in autumn and the other in summer...
February 20, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Haibo Zhang, Zefeng Qin, Yanan Chu, Xiaolin Li, Peter Christie, Junling Zhang, Jingping Gai
A topic of confusion over the interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plants is the mycorrhizal status of some plant families such as Cyperaceae, which is generally considered to be non-mycorrhizal. Here, we conducted experiments to explore how the abiotic environmental conditions and AM network influence the interactions between AM fungi and Carex capillacea. We grew Carex capillacea alone or together with a mycorrhizal host species Medicago sativa in the presence or absence of AM fungi (soil inoculum from Mount Segrila and Rhizophagus intraradices from the Chinese Bank of the Glomeromycota, BGC)...
January 28, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Kento Rammitsu, Takahiro Yagame, Yumi Yamashita, Tomohisa Yukawa, Shiro Isshiki, Yuki Ogura-Tsujita
Leafless epiphytes in the Orchidaceae undergo a morphological metamorphosis in which the root has chloroplast-containing cortical cells and is the sole photosynthetic organ for carbon gain. All orchids are entirely dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for their carbon supply during seed germination, and this mycorrhizal association generally persists in adult plants. However, our knowledge of the mycorrhizal association of leafless epiphytic orchids remains limited, and the contribution of the mycorrhizal association to nutrient acquisition in these orchid species is largely unknown...
March 2019: Mycorrhiza
Ricardo Leyva-Morales, Mayra E Gavito, S Margarita Carrillo-Saucedo
Most studies dealing with mycorrhizal associations and drought have focused on the plants, not on the fungi, and tolerance and adaptations of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to cope with water stress are virtually unknown. This study was conducted to assess how water stress directly affects an AM fungus isolate, particularly through morphological and physiological changes in the external mycelium. We used two-compartment pots separated by mesh and an air gap that allowed us to apply water stress treatments only to the external mycelium...
January 14, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Laura Bogar, Kabir Peay, Ari Kornfeld, Julia Huggins, Sara Hortal, Ian Anderson, Peter Kennedy
Although ectomycorrhizal fungi have well-recognized effects on ecological processes ranging from plant community dynamics to carbon cycling rates, it is unclear if plants are able to actively influence the structure of these fungal communities. To address this knowledge gap, we performed two complementary experiments to determine (1) whether ectomycorrhizal plants can discriminate among potential fungal partners, and (2) to what extent the plants might reward better mutualists. In experiment 1, split-root Larix occidentalis seedlings were inoculated with spores from three Suillus species (S...
January 7, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Alena Voříšková, Jan Jansa, David Püschel, Miroslav Vosátka, Petr Šmilauer, Martina Janoušková
The relationship between mycorrhiza functioning and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities is an important but experimentally still rather little explored topic. The main aim of this study was thus to link magnitude of plant benefits from AM symbiosis in different abiotic contexts with quantitative changes in AM fungal community composition. A synthetic AM fungal community inoculated to the model host plant Medicago truncatula was exposed to four different abiotic contexts, namely drought, elevated phosphorus availability, and shading, as compared to standard cultivation conditions, for two cultivation cycles...
January 5, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Meili Baragatti, Paul-Marie Grollemund, Pierre Montpied, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Joël Gravier, Claude Murat, François Le Tacon
From 1903-1904 to 1988-1989, the two World Wars and sociological factors as rural desertification and changes in land uses mainly explained the decline of black truffle production in the Vaucluse department, which well reflects that of the whole of France. These can be correlated with the annual climatic variations as well as, from 1924-1925 to 1948-1949, the raw production rates of the managed truffle orchard of Pernes-les-Fontaines located in Vaucluse. The two methods used (correlation coefficients and Bayesian functional linear regression with Sparse Step functions) gave consistent results: the main factor explaining the annual variations of truffle production was the summer climatic water deficit of the year n...
January 3, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Nan Yang, Olaf Butenschoen, Rumana Rana, Lars Köhler, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner, Stefan Scheu, Andrea Polle, Rodica Pena
In forest ecosystems, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for plant growth and soil biogeochemical processes. The biochemical composition of ECM mycelium is an important fungal effect trait with consequences for its decomposition rate, and consequently on soil carbon pools and plant nutrition. Although the link between ECM fungi and leaf litter-released nutrients is well known, the response of ECM fungal biochemical composition to different leaf litter species remains poorly understood. To determine how leaf litter quality influences ECM fungi's biochemical profiles, we planted young beech trees in an oak forest and replaced the natural leaf litter with that of European beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), or lime (Tilia cordata)...
December 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Babacar Thioye, Diederik van Tuinen, Aboubacry Kane, Sergio Mania de Faria, Cheikh Ndiaye, Robin Duponnois, Samba Ndao Sylla, Amadou Mustapha Bâ
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a major role as biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Nevertheless, it is still poorly documented whether inoculated AMF can successfully establish in field soils as exotic AMF and improve plant growth and productivity. Further, the fate of an exogenous inoculum is still poorly understood. Here, we pre-inoculated two cultivars (Tasset and Gola) of the fruit tree Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) with the exotic AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis isolate IR27 before transplantation in the field...
November 21, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Carlos Urcelay, Silvana Longo, József Geml, Paula A Tecco
It is generally assumed that recruitment and expansion of alien species along elevation gradients are constrained by climate. But, if plants are not fully constrained by climate, their expansion could be facilitated or hindered by other factors such as biotic interactions. Here, we assessed the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soils along an elevation gradient (i.e. 900 m, 1600 m, 2200 m and 2700 m a.s.l.) through a fungal DNA meta-barcoding approach. In addition, we studied in the greenhouse the effects of AMF on growth and phosphorous (P) nutrition of seedlings of the alien trees Gleditsia triacanthos, Ligustrum lucidum and Pyracantha angustifolia cultivated in soils from those elevations, spanning the elevation at which they already form monospecific stands (below 1450 m a...
November 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Awagul Awaydul, Wanying Zhu, Yongge Yuan, Jing Xiao, Hao Hu, Xin Chen, Roger T Koide, Lei Cheng
Invasive species often reduce ecosystem services and lead to a serious threat to native biodiversity. Roots of invasive plants are often linked to roots of native plants by common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but whether and how CMNs mediate interactions between invasive and native plant species remains largely uninvestigated. We conducted two microcosm experiments, one in which we amended the soil with mineral N and another in which we amended the soil with mineral P. In each experiment, we grew a pair of test plants consisting of Kummerowia striata (native to our research site) and Solidago canadensis (an invasive species)...
November 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
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