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Molecular Plant Pathology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773771/variation-and-inheritance-of-the-xanthomonas-raxx-raxstab-gene-cluster-required-for-activation-of-xa21-mediated-immunity
#1
Furong Liu, Megan Mcdonald, Benjamin Schwessinger, Anna Joe, Rory Pruitt, Teresa Erickson, Xiuxiang Zhao, Valley Stewart, Pamela C Ronald
The rice XA21-mediated immune response is activated on recognition of the RaxX peptide produced by the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The 60-residue RaxX precursor is post-translationally modified to form a sulfated tyrosine peptide that shares sequence and functional similarity with the plant sulfated tyrosine (PSY) peptide hormones. The 5-kb raxX-raxSTAB gene cluster of Xoo encodes RaxX, the RaxST tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase, and the RaxA and RaxB components of a predicted type I secretion system...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623552/rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-p10-acts-as-either-a-synergistic-or-an-antagonistic-determinant-during-superinfection-with-related-or-unrelated-virus
#2
Hehong Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tan, Yuqing He, Kaili Xie, Lulu Li, Rong Wang, Gaojie Hong, Junmin Li, Jing Li, Michael Taliansky, Stuart MacFarlane, Fei Yan, Jianping Chen, Zongtao Sun
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus, is a devastating pathogen of crop plants. RBSDV S10 encodes a capsid protein (P10) that is an important component of the double-layered particle. However, little information is available on the roles of RBSDV P10 in viral infection or in interactions with other viruses. Here we demonstrate that expressing P10 in plants alleviated the symptoms of both RBSDV and the closely-related southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), and reduced the disease incidence, but made the plants more susceptible to the unrelated rice stripe virus (RSV)...
January 8, 2019: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597698/targeting-the-pattern-triggered-immunity-pathway-for-enhancing-resistance-to-fusarium-graminearum
#3
Sujon Sarowar, Syeda T Alam, Ragiba Makandar, Hyeonju Lee, Harold N Trick, Yanhong Dong, Jyoti Shah
FHB (Fusarium head blight) is a disease of the floral tissues of wheat and barley for which highly resistant varieties are not available, thus necessitating the need for identifying genes/mechanisms that can be targeted for controlling this devastating disease. Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of FHB in North America. In addition, it also causes Fusarium seedling blight. F. graminearum can also cause disease in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The Arabidopsis-F. graminearum pathosystem has facilitated the identification of targets for controlling disease caused by this fungus...
December 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575252/rescue-of-citrus-sudden-death-associated-virus-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-from-cloned-cdna-insights-into-mechanisms-for-expression-of-the-three-capsid-proteins
#4
Emilyn E Matsumura, Helvécio D Coletta-Filho, Marcos A Machado, Shahideh Nouri, Bryce W Falk
Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV) is a member of the genus Marafivirus in the family Tymoviridae and has been associated with citrus sudden death (CSD) disease in Brazil. Difficulties in purifying CSDaV from infected citrus plants have prevented progress in studying the role of this virus in CSD and in understanding its molecular biology. In this work, we have constructed a full-length cDNA clone of CSDaV driven by the 35S promoter (35SRbz-CSDaV). Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated inoculation of the 35SRbz-CSDaV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants enabled a fast recovery of high amounts of virions from the agroinfiltrated leaves, which has allowed a better molecular characterization of CSDaV...
December 21, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30548752/role-of-lysine-residues-of-the-magnaporthe-oryzae-effector-avrpiz-t-in-effector-and-pamp-triggered-immunity
#5
Pengfei Bai, Chan-Ho Park, Gautam Shirsekar, Pattavipha Songkumarn, Maria Bellizzi, Guo-Liang Wang
Magnaporthe oryzae is an important fungal pathogen of both rice and wheat. However, how M. oryzae effectors modulate plant immunity is not fully understood. Previous studies showed that the M. oryzae effector AvrPiz-t targets the host ubiquitin-proteasome system to manipulate plant defense. In return, two rice ubiquitin E3 ligases, APIP6 and APIP10, ubiquitinate AvrPiz-t for degradation. To determine how lysine residues contribute to AvrPiz-t stability and function, we generated double (K1,2R-AvrPiz-t), triple (K1,2,3R-AvrPiz-t) and lysine-free (LF-AvrPiz-t) mutants by mutating lysines into arginines in AvrPiz-t...
December 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30537338/pseudozyma-aphidis-activates-reactive-oxygen-species-production-programmed-cell-death-and-morphological-alterations-in-the-necrotrophic-fungus-botrytis-cinerea
#6
Claudia Escano-Calderón, Neta Rotem, Raviv Harris, David Vela-Corcía, Maggie Levy
Many types of yeasts have been studied in the last few years as potential biocontrol agents against different phytopathogenic fungi. Their ability to control plant diseases is mainly through combined modes of action. Among them, antibiosis, competition for nutrients and niches, induction of systemic resistance in plants and mycoparasitism have been the most studied. In previous work, we have established that the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis inhibits Botrytis cinerea through induced resistance and antibiosis...
December 10, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30537413/the-histone-like-protein-hupb-influences-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-through-the-regulation-of-flagellar-biosynthesis
#7
Valeria P Conforte, Florencia Malamud, Pablo M Yaryura, Laila Toum Terrones, Pablo S Torres, Verónica De Pino, Cristian N Chazarreta, Gustavo E Gudesblat, Atilio P Castagnaro, María Rosa Marano, Adrian A Vojnov
Citrus canker is an important disease of citrus, whose causal agent is the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). In previous studies, we found a group of Xcc mutants, generated by the insertion of the Tn5 transposon, which show impaired ability to attach to an abiotic substrate. One of these mutants carries the Tn5 insertion in hupB, a gene encoding a bacterial histone-like protein, homologue to the beta subunit of the Heat-Unstable (HU) nucleoid protein of Escherichia coli. These kinds of proteins are necessary to maintain the bacterial nucleoid organization and the global regulation of gene expression...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30537296/activation-of-immune-receptor-rx1-triggers-distinct-immune-responses-culminating-in-cell-death-after-four-hours
#8
Marijn Knip, Manon Ms Richard, Lisa Oskam, Hylco T D van Engelen, Thomas Aalders, Frank L W Takken
Intracellular NLR (nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat)-type immune receptors are a fundamental aspect of plant immune systems. As infection occurs at foci, activation of immune responses is typically non-uniform and non-synchronized, hampering the systematic dissection of their cellular effects and determining their phasing. We investigated the Potato NLR Rx1 using the CESSNA (Controlled Expression of effectors for Synchronized and Systemic NLR Activation) platform. CESSNA mediated Potato Virus X coat protein (CP) expression allowed monitoring of Rx1-mediated immune responses in a quantitative, and reproducible manner...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30499228/a-systematic-screen-of-conserved-r-solanacearum-effectors-reveals-the-role-of-ripab-a-nuclear-localized-effector-that-suppresses-immune-responses-in-potato
#9
Xueao Zheng, Xiaojing Li, Bingsen Wang, Dong Cheng, Yanping Li, Wenhao Li, Mengshu Huang, Xiaodan Tan, Guozhen Zhao, Botao Song, Alberto P Macho, Huilan Chen, Conghua Xie
Both Solanum tuberosum and Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB originated in South America and share a long-term coevolutionary history. However, our knowledge of potato bacterial wilt pathogenesis is scarce due to the technical difficulties of potato plant manipulation. Thus, we established a multiple screening system (virulence screening of effector mutants in potato, growth inhibition of yeast, and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana) of core type III effectors (T3Es) of a major potato pathovar of phylotype IIB, to provide more research perspectives and biological tools...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30499216/the-ralstonia-solanacearum-effector-ripn-suppresses-plant-pamp-triggered-immunity-localizes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-nucleus-and-alters-the-nadh-nad-ratio-in-arabidopsis
#10
Yunhao Sun, Pai Li, Dong Shen, Qiaoling Wei, Jianguo He, Yongjun Lu
Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most destructive plant bacterial pathogens, delivers an array of effector proteins via its type III secretion system for pathogenesis. However, the biochemical functions of most of these proteins remain unclear. RipN is a type III effector with unknown function(s) from the pathogen R. solanacearum. Here, we demonstrate that RipN is a conserved type III effector found within the R. solanacearum species complex that contains a putative Nudix hydrolase domain and has ADP-ribose/NADH pyrophosphorylase activity in vitro...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30499169/tale-carrying-bacterial-pathogens-trap-host-nuclear-import-receptors-for-facilitating-infection-of-rice
#11
Shugang Hui, Yarui Shi, Jingjing Tian, Li Wang, Yueyue Li, Shiping Wang, Meng Yuan
Many plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas rely on secreting virulence transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins into plant cells to activate plant susceptibility genes to cause disease, the process is dependent on TALEs binding to specific element of host targeting gene promoters in plant nucleus. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after been injected into host cells, transferred from plant cytoplasm into plant nucleus, which is the key step for pathogen successful infection. Here, we showed that host plant cytoplasm/nuclear shuttle proteins OsImpα1a and OsImpα1b were key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterial pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697917/pyricularia-graminis-tritici-is-not-the-correct-species-name-for-the-wheat-blast-fungus-response-to-ceresini-et-al-mpp-20-2
#12
Barbara Valent, Mark Farman, Yukio Tosa, Dominik Begerow, Elisabeth Fournier, Pierre Gladieux, M Tofazzal Islam, Sophien Kamoun, Martin Kemler, Linda M Kohn, Marc-Henri Lebrun, Jason E Stajich, Nicholas J Talbot, Ryohei Terauchi, Didier Tharreau, Ning Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557450/the-need-for-speed-compartmentalized-genome-evolution-in-filamentous-phytopathogens
#13
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Stefan Kusch, Ralph Panstruga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30074299/impact-of-genetic-drift-selection-and-accumulation-level-on-virus-adaptation-to-its-host-plants
#14
Elsa Rousseau, Lucie Tamisier, Frederic Fabre, Vincent Simon, Marion Szadkowski, Olivier Bouchez, Catherine Zanchetta, Gregory Girardot, Ludovic Mailleret, Frederic Grognard, Alain Palloix, Benoit Moury
The efficiency of plant major resistance genes is limited by the emergence and spread of resistance-breaking mutants. Modulation of the evolutionary forces acting on pathogen populations constitutes a promising way to increase the durability of these genes. We studied the effect of four plant traits affecting these evolutionary forces on the rate of resistance breakdown (RB) by a virus. Two of these traits correspond to virus effective population sizes (Ne ) at either plant inoculation or during infection. The third trait corresponds to differential selection exerted by the plant on the virus population...
December 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30073749/deciphering-the-functions-of-the-outer-membrane-porin-oprbxo-involved-in-virulence-motility-exopolysaccharide-production-biofilm-formation-and-stress-tolerance-in-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#15
Nahee Bae, Hye-Jee Park, Hanbi Park, Minyoung Kim, Sang-Wook Han
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a Gram-negative bacterium causing bacterial leaf blight disease in rice. Previously, proteomic analysis has shown that the outer membrane protein B in Xoo (OprBXo) is more abundant in the wildtype strain than is the outer membrane protein 1 in the Xoo (Omp1X) knockout mutant. OprBXo shows high homology with OprB, which has been well characterized as a carbohydrate-selective porin in X. citri ssp. citri and Pseudomonas species. However, the functions of OprBXo in Xoo have not yet been documented...
December 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30055094/dissecting-interplays-between-vitis-vinifera-l-and-grapevine-virus-b-gvb-under-field-conditions
#16
Walter Chitarra, Danila Cuozzo, Alessandra Ferrandino, Francesca Secchi, Sabrina Palmano, Irene Perrone, Paolo Boccacci, Chiara Pagliarani, Ivana Gribaudo, Franco Mannini, Giorgio Gambino
Plant virus infections are often difficult to characterize as they result from a complex molecular and physiological interplay between a pathogen and its host. In this study, the impact of the phloem-limited grapevine virus B (GVB) on the Vitis vinifera L. wine-red cultivar Albarossa was analysed under field conditions. Trials were carried out over two growing seasons by combining agronomic, molecular, biochemical and ecophysiological approaches. The data showed that GVB did not induce macroscopic symptoms on 'Albarossa', but affected the ecophysiological performances of vines in terms of assimilation rates, particularly at the end of the season, without compromising yield and vigour...
December 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30047240/silencing-pskpp4-a-map-kinase-kinase-kinase-gene-reduces-pathogenicity-of-the-stripe-rust-fungus
#17
Xiaoguo Zhu, Jia Guo, Fuxin He, Yang Zhang, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Chuanming Huang, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Many obligately parasitic pathogens absorb nutrients from host plants via specialized infection structures, called haustoria and infection hyphae, to further colonization and growth in the host plant. In the wheat (Triticum aestivum) stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) PsFUZ7 is involved in the regulation of haustorium formation and invasive growth. Here, we functionally characterized PsKPP4 of Pst, which is homologous to the yeast MAPKKK STE11...
December 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30047230/fungal-attack-and-host-defence-pathways-unveiled-in-near-avirulent-interactions-of-penicillium-expansum-crea-mutants-on-apples
#18
Joanna Tannous, Dilip Kumar, Noa Sela, Edward Sionov, Dov Prusky, Nancy P Keller
Amongst the universal diseases affecting apples, blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum is a major concern, resulting in yield and quality losses as a result of the production of the mycotoxin patulin. Despite the characterization of the patulin biosynthetic gene cluster at both the molecular and chemical levels, the underlying regulation of patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum and the mechanisms of apple colonization remain largely obscure. Recent work has indicated that sucrose, a carbon catabolite repressive metabolite, is a critical factor in the regulation of patulin synthesis...
December 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30047227/phytoplasma-effector-swp1-induces-witches-broom-symptom-by-destabilizing-the-tcp-transcription-factor-branched1
#19
Nan Wang, Haizhen Yang, Zhiyuan Yin, Wenting Liu, Liying Sun, Yunfeng Wu
Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria, which secrete effector proteins that are often responsible for altering the plant morphology and behaviours of their vectors. Phytoplasma multifunctional effector proteins TENGU and SAP11 induce typical witches' broom symptoms, but their mode of action remains unknown. Previously, we have identified a SAP11-like effector from wheat blue dwarf phytoplasma, SWP1, which induces witches' broom symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. In this study, we observed that SWP1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants showed typical witches' broom symptoms...
December 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30047221/mining-the-effector-repertoire-of-the-biotrophic-fungal-pathogen-ustilago-hordei-during-host-and-non-host-infection
#20
Bilal Ökmen, Daniel Mathow, Alexander Hof, Urs Lahrmann, Daniela Aßmann, Gunther Doehlemann
The success of plant-pathogenic fungi mostly relies on their arsenal of virulence factors which are expressed and delivered into the host tissue during colonization. The biotrophic fungal pathogen Ustilago hordei causes covered smut disease on both barley and oat. In this study, we combined cytological, genomics and molecular biological methods to achieve a better understanding of the molecular interactions in the U. hordei-barley pathosystem. Microscopic analysis revealed that U. hordei densely colonizes barley leaves on penetration, in particular the vascular system...
December 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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