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Developments in Biologicals

H M Weingartl, C Nfon, G Kobinger
Ebola viruses (EBOV; genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae) cause often fatal, hemorrhagic fever in several species of simian primates including human. While fruit bats are considered a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% seroprevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
F Feldmann, H Feldmann
Ebola viruses are zoonotic pathogens with the potential of causing severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Bats have been identified as a reservoir for Ebola viruses but it remains unclear if transmission to an end host involves intermediate hosts. Recently, one of the Ebola species has been found in Philippine pigs raising concerns regarding animal health and food safety. Diagnostics have so far focused on human application, but enhanced pig surveillance and diagnostics, particularly in Asia, for Ebola virus infections seem to be needed to establish reasonable guidelines for public and animal health and food safety...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
N Vachiéry, I Marcelino, D Martinez, T Lefrançois
Heartwater, caused by the Rickettsiales Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER), is a tropical tick-borne disease of wild and domestic ruminants, transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. It causes significant economic losses due to high mortality and the high cost of antibiotic treatment of affected animals, limiting herd productivity. It is present in sub-Saharan Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean and two Caribbean islands (Guadeloupe and Antigua) from where it threatens the American mainland due to risk of the spread of infected A...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
H I J Roest, A Bossers, J M J Rebel
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, a highly infectious agent that can survive in the environment. Therefore, Q fever has a major public health impact when outbreaks occur. Small ruminants are identified as the source in the majority of outbreaks in humans. Accurate diagnosis and effective control strategies are necessary to limit the zoonotic and veterinary impact of Q fever. For this, knowledge of the pathogenesis of Q fever and excretion routes of C. burnetii from infected animals is crucial...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
K Wernike, B Hoffmann, M Beer
In late 2011 a novel virus of the Simbu serogroup, family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, was discovered at the German-Dutch border and named "Schmallenberg virus" (SBV). Since then, the virus has spread rapidly to other European countries, and the involvement of biting midges has been demonstrated. Affected adult ruminants show none or only mild clinical signs including fever, reduced milk production or diarrhoea. However, in keeping with related viruses, an infection of SBV-naive cows and ewes during a critical period of pregnancy can lead to severe foetal malformations summarized as "arthrogryposis- hydranencephaly syndrome...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
V Moennig, P Becher, M Beer
Classical swine fever is a serious and economically important transboundary disease threatening pig production globally. The infection may occur in backyard pigs, feral pig populations and domestic pigs. Whereas there are proven control strategies for the latter pig population, control in backyard pigs with poor biosecurity settings or in wild boar populations of high density still poses a problem in some parts of the world. Laboratory diagnostic methods, efficacious vaccines and contingency plans are in place in most industrialised countries...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, L Mur
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most complex livestock diseases. The significant losses that it causes, coupled with the lack of a vaccine against ASF virus and the possible resemblance with other swine hemorrhagic diseases, make early detection and laboratory diagnosis essential for controlling and managing the disease. All the techniques currently used to diagnose ASF have been fully validated showing high sensitivity and specificity to detect both antigen and antibodies against all 22 known genotypes; and enable the correct diagnosis of ASF in all possible epidemiological situations...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
L K Dixon, C C Abrams, D D G Chapman, L C Goatley, C L Netherton, G Taylor, H H Takamatsu
African swine fever virus is a large DNA virus which can cause an acute haemorrhagic fever in pigs resulting in high mortality. No vaccine is available, limiting options for control. The virus encodes up to 165 genes and virus particles are multi-layered and contain more than 50 proteins. Pigs immunised with natural low virulence isolates or attenuated viruses produced by passage in tissue culture and by targeted gene deletions can be protected against challenge with virulent viruses. CD8+ cells are required for protection induced by attenuated strain OURT88/3...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
A Tamin, P A Rota
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of emerging transboundary animal disease in pigs and horses. They also cause fatal disease in humans. NiV has a case fatality rate of 40 - 100%. In the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, about 1.1 million pigs had to be culled. The economic impact was estimated to be approximately US$450 million. Worldwide, HeV has caused more than 60 deaths in horses with 7 human cases and 4 deaths. Since the initial outbreak, HeV spillovers from Pteropus bats to horses and humans continue...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
C C Broder
Hendra virus and Nipah virus are viral zoonoses first recognized in the mid and late 1990's and are now categorized as the type species of the genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Their broad species tropism together with their capacity to cause severe and often fatal disease in both humans and animals make Hendra and Nipah "overlap agents" and significant biosecurity threats. The development of effective vaccination strategies to prevent or treat henipavirus infection and disease has been an important area of research...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
D J Paton, D P King
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) exists as multiple serotypes and strains that infect a range of cloven-hoofed animals with variable severity. Clinical diagnosis reinforced by diagnostic tests support timely intervention, whilst virus characterisation helps trace routes of spread and select appropriate vaccine strains. To speed up and simplify diagnosis, penside tests have recently been developed. Serology is used to identify undisclosed infection and substantiate freedom from infection and specific tests are needed to detect infected animals in vaccinated populations...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
A Ludi, L Rodriguez
The need for better foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing "severe economic damage to the country's agriculture" [1]. Inactivated antigen vaccines have been available since the early 1900s and have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world and repressing clinical disease in others...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
C L Afonso, P J Miller
Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious disease of birds that can have severe economic consequences for poultry producers, including a serious impact on the international trade of poultry and eggs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates are also called avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 isolates, but only infection with virulent NDV (vNDV) causes the disease. Virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) isolates are distributed worldwide and have a high capacity to mutate, allowing the development of multiple vNDV genotypes evolving simultaneously at different locations...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
D E Swayne, E Spackman
Since 1959, 32 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in birds. Rapid detection and accurate identification of HPAI has been critical to controlling such epizootics in poultry. Specific paradigms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry vary somewhat among different countries and industry compartments depending on specific needs and resources. Importantly, since HPAI and low pathogenicity (LP) AI of the H5 and H7 subtypes are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), diagnostic procedures are implemented for regulatory purposes and are harmonized to some degree...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
W C Wilson, H M Weingartl, B S Drolet, K Davé, M H Harpster, P A Johnson, B Faburay, M G Ruder, J A Richt, D S McVey
Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is concern that this virus could spread because of global warming, increased animal trade or through bioterrorism. This paper discusses the current and developing approaches to diagnosis of RVF. Diagnostic assays are available for RVF, but availability can be limited and there is a need for global harmonization...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
B Dungu, M Donadeu, M Bouloy
Vaccination continues to be the most effective way to control Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic insect-borne viral disease of livestock. The irregular, cyclical and persistent nature of RVF in its occurrence in enzootic situations suggests that the vaccination strategy to be considered for these regions should be different from what is envisaged for free from risk regions. Currently available RVF vaccines have been extensively used for the control of the disease. However, these vaccines have shortcomings that have encouraged many research groups to develop new vaccine candidates that would address a large number of the current challenges, and be suitable for use both in disease-free regions and in different contingency and emergency preparedness strategies...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
R E Hill, P L Foley, N E Clough, L R Ludemann, D C Murtle
The USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) has the regulatory authority to issue licenses and permits that allow the marketing of pure, safe, potent, and effective veterinary biological products. Under the standard licensing or permitting process, a manufacturer develops, characterizes, and evaluates a product prior to licensure. The CVB evaluates the submitted information, inspects the manufacturing facilities and methods of production and testing, and confirms key product test results through independent testing...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
J M Hardham, C M Lamichhane
Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
C G Gay
The National Animal Health Program at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), includes research programs dedicated to the defense of animal agriculture against the treat of biological agents with the potential of significant economic harm and/or public health consequences. This article provides a summary of the program and identifies its relevance to national initiatives to protect livestock and poultry as well as global food security. An introduction to setting research priorities and a selection of research accomplishments that define the scope of the biodefense research program is provided...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
J R Díez, D K Styles
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) is charged with monitoring, controlling, and responding to select reportable diseases and all foreign animal diseases. Emergency Management and Diagnostics (EM&D) oversees Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) preparedness and response. In order to effectively prepare for and respond to FADs, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease, VS develops plans, strategies, and policies to effectively combat an intrusion...
2013: Developments in Biologicals
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