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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747347/neuroimaging-in-functional-movement-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Jacob J Roelofs, Tiago Teodoro, Mark J Edwards
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional movement disorders are common and disabling causes of abnormal movement control. Here, we review the current state of the evidence on the use of neuroimaging in Functional movement disorders, particularly its role in helping to unravel the pathophysiology of this enigmatic condition. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, there has been a shift in thinking about functional movement disorder, away from a focus on high-level psychological precipitants as in Freudian conversion theories, or even an implicit belief they are 'put-on' for secondary gain...
February 12, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747288/protean-neurologic-manifestations-of-two-rare-dermatologic-disorders-sweet-disease-and-localized-craniofacial-scleroderma
#2
REVIEW
Asya I Wallach, Cynthia M Magro, Andrew G Franks, Lee Shapiro, Ilya Kister
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe diverse neurologic and neuroradiologic presentations of two rare, immunologically mediated skin conditions: Sweet disease and localized scleroderma (morphea). RECENT FINDINGS: Core syndromes of neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) are steroid responsiveness, recurrent meningitis, and encephalitis. Focal neurologic, neuro-vascular, and neuro-ophthalmologic syndromes have been reported recently in NSD. A variety of steroid-sparing treatments and biologics have been used for relapsing NSD...
February 12, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739256/unbiased-screens-for-modifiers-of-alpha-synuclein-toxicity
#3
REVIEW
Matthias Höllerhage, Marc Bickle, Günter U Höglinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview about unbiased screens to identify modifiers of alpha-synuclein (αSyn)-induced toxicity, present the models and the libraries that have been used for screening, and describe how hits from primary screens were selected and validated. RECENT FINDINGS: Screens can be classified as either genetic or chemical compound modifier screens, but a few screens do not fit this classification. Most screens addressing αSyn-induced toxicity, including genome-wide overexpressing and deletion, were performed in yeast...
February 9, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739241/movement-disorders-in-metabolic-disorders
#4
REVIEW
José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando G Barsottini, Alberto J Espay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide a review of the movement disorders that complicate selected metabolic disorders, including the abnormal movements that may appear during or after their treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Movement disorders may be underrecognized when arising in the context of a broad range of metabolic disorders. Abnormal movements may occur as the initial manifestation of a systemic disease, at any time during its course, or as a result of the medical interventions required for its management...
February 9, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739220/sleep-complaints-sleep-and-breathing-disorders-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Romigi, Michelangelo Maestri, Carmine Nicoletta, Giuseppe Vitrani, Marco Caccamo, Gabriele Siciliano, Enrica Bonanni, Diego Centonze, Alessandro Sanduzzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update the current knowledge concerning sleep complaints and breathing disorders in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) and to better understand if sleep and breathing symptoms may add a further clinical definition of DM2. RECENT FINDINGS: Although DM2 has been poorly evaluated, the most relevant sleep disorders are sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) (37.5-66.7%) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) (50-60%). Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) is not consistent with SDB, and a large percentage of patients with sleep complaints (58-69%) report pain...
February 9, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739219/neurological-complications-of-cardiological-interventions
#6
REVIEW
Amir Shaban, Enrique C Leira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurological complications are common during cardiac procedures. The type of procedure influences the profile of neurological complications and their management. In this article, we review the different neurological complications encountered following cardiac procedures, and treatment strategies for managing those complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical trials have expanded the time window of eligibility for mechanical thrombectomy and intravenous thrombolysis...
February 9, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739213/neurological-prognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-in-the-era-of-target-temperature-management
#7
REVIEW
Maximiliano A Hawkes, Alejandro A Rabinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to provide an updated review on neurological prognostication in comatose patients after cardiac arrest in light of current targeted temperature management (TTM) strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved pre-hospital and hospital care, death due to cardiac arrest is decreasing. Yet, most survivors have poor neurological outcomes. While TTM has demonstrated to improve neurological outcomes, it may cloud our prognostic accuracy...
February 9, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712068/promoting-brain-repair-and-regeneration-after-stroke-a-plea-for-cell-based-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Ania Dabrowski, Thomas J Robinson, Ryan J Felling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After decades of hype, cell-based therapies are emerging into the clinical arena for the purposes of promoting recovery after stroke. In this review, we discuss the most recent science behind the role of cell-based therapies in ischemic stroke and the efforts to translate these therapies into human clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical data support numerous beneficial effects of cell-based therapies in both small and large animal models of ischemic stroke...
February 2, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649633/research-in-the-acute-rehabilitation-setting-a-bridge-too-far
#9
REVIEW
Preeti Raghavan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to critically examine the challenges to clinical practice in acute neurorehabilitation settings to provide evidence-based recommendations for conducting research on neurologic recovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent changes in health care have dramatically challenged post-acute care by reducing the length of stay and increasing transitions in care with resulting loss of continuity of care and follow-up. These challenges hinder research and undermine progress in neurorehabilitation...
January 16, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637551/therapeutic-hypothermia-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#10
REVIEW
Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Kelly Zhou, Laura Bennet, Marianne Thoresen, Alistair J Gunn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic hypothermia reduces death or disability in term and near-term infants with moderate-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Nevertheless, many infants still survive with disability, despite hypothermia, supporting further research in to ways to further improve neurologic outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and experimental studies have refined our understanding of the key parameters for hypothermic neuroprotection, including timing of initiation, depth, and duration of hypothermia, and subsequent rewarming rate...
January 14, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637520/csf-biomarkers-for-early-diagnosis-of-synucleinopathies-focus-on-idiopathic-rbd
#11
REVIEW
Claudio Liguori, Federico Paolini Paoletti, Fabio Placidi, Roberta Ruffini, Giulia Maria Sancesario, Paolo Eusebi, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Lucilla Parnetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is one of the most significant prodromal manifestations of synucleinopathies. Different predictive biomarkers for iRBD conversion have been investigated, but scarce data are present in literature about the predictive role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. In this review, we focus on CSF biomarkers in patients with both iRBD and RBD associated with synucleinopathies to explore their potential predictive power. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies revealed that CSF α-synuclein levels are higher in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with RBD compared to those without RBD, even if α-synuclein does not seem to predict conversion of iRBD into PD...
January 14, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30627880/defining-cognitive-reserve-and-implications-for-cognitive-aging
#12
REVIEW
Corinne Pettigrew, Anja Soldan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize current conceptual models of cognitive reserve (CR) and related concepts and to discuss evidence for these concepts within the context of aging and Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence to date supports the notion that higher levels of CR, as measured by proxy variables reflective of lifetime experiences, are associated with better cognitive performance, and with a reduced risk of incident mild cognitive impairment/dementia...
January 9, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30406855/untangling-ptsd-and-tbi-challenges-and-strategies-in-clinical-care-and-research
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca C Hendrickson, Abigail G Schindler, Kathleen F Pagulayan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can result from similar injuries and can result in similar symptoms, such as problems with sleep, concentration, memory, and mood. Although PTSD and persistent sequelae due to a TBI (PST) have generally been viewed as pragmatically confounded but conceptually separable entities, we examine emerging evidence emphasizing the breadth of overlap in both clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology between PST and PTSD...
November 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30406848/relation-between-stress-granules-and-cytoplasmic-protein-aggregates-linked-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Ioana Dobra, Serhii Pankivskyi, Anastasiia Samsonova, David Pastre, Loic Hamon
ᅟ: A hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of cytoplasmic protein aggregates in neurons of affected subjects. Among recently identified elements of these aggregates are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) involved in RNA metabolism and alternative splicing and have in common the presence of low complexity domains (LCD) that are prone to self-assemble and form aggregates. The mechanism of cytoplasmic protein aggregation remains elusive. Stress granules (SGs) that are micrometric RNA-protein assemblies located in the cytoplasm of cells exposed to environmental stress are suspected to play the role of seeds...
November 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30406315/a-precision-medicine-approach-to-cerebral-edema-and-intracranial-hypertension-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-quo-vadis
#15
REVIEW
Ruchira M Jha, Patrick M Kochanek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Standard clinical protocols for treating cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension after severe TBI have remained remarkably similar over decades. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are treated interchangeably when in fact intracranial pressure (ICP) is a proxy for cerebral edema but also other processes such as extent of mass lesions, hydrocephalus, or cerebral blood volume. A complex interplay of multiple molecular mechanisms results in cerebral edema after severe TBI, and these are not measured or targeted by current clinically available tools...
November 7, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30397831/prognostic-factors-in-pediatric-sport-related-concussion
#16
REVIEW
Scott L Zuckerman, Benjamin L Brett, Aaron S Jeckell, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Gary S Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sport-related concussion (SRC) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been thrust into the national spotlight, with youth athletes bearing the burden of this public health problem. The current review aims to provide a practical summary of pediatric SRC, including key terminology, return to play/school, and risk factors for post-concussion syndrome (PCS). RECENT FINDINGS: While the majority of youth athletes recover within 2 to 4 weeks, approximately 10% of athletes experience a protracted recovery with symptoms lasting months, impacting social, scholastic, and sporting activities...
November 5, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30382420/comparative-sleep-disturbances-in-myotonic-dystrophy-types-1-and-2
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Romigi, Valentina Franco, Fabio Placidi, Claudio Liguori, Emanuele Rastelli, Giuseppe Vitrani, Diego Centonze, Roberto Massa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update current knowledge regarding sleep disturbances and myotonic dystrophies so as to better understand if sleep symptoms may help in the early recognition of the two genetic subtypes: myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep, hypersomnia, and REM sleep dysregulation are frequently described in DM1 patients...
October 31, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30382405/management-of-episodic-migraine-in-children-and-adolescents-a-practical-approach
#18
REVIEW
Reena Gogia Rastogi, Clarimar Borrero-Mejias, Carolyn Hickman, Kara Stuart Lewis, Robert Little
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Episodic migraine is very common in children and adolescents, seen by primary care and specialists. In kids, this can greatly affect quality of life, including significant disability, specifically in terms of missed school and other activities. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the most up-to-date thoughts on episodic migraine in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Current options for both abortive and preventative treatments in kids, as well as specific non-pharmacological and lifestyle management recommendations for children, will be reviewed, as well as options for status migrainosus in the pediatric patient...
October 31, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30353426/overview-of-neurovascular-physiology
#19
REVIEW
Debbie Yi Madhok, Jeffrey R Vitt, Anh T Nguyen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurophysiology is a complex network of cellular, electrical, and vascular systems which function to maximize neuronal functioning and brain performance. The brain exists in a closed system made up of parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood with any increase in volume leading to a corresponding decrease in one of the components. Once these compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, there is a precipitous increase in the intracranial pressure leading to decreases in cerebral perfusion and resulting ischemia...
October 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30353408/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-upper-extremity-motor-recovery-does-it-help
#20
REVIEW
Heidi M Schambra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) noninvasively modulates brain excitability in humans and influences mediators of plasticity in animals. When applied in humans in the months to years after stroke, potentiation of motor recovery has been limited. Recently, investigators have shifted rTMS administration into the early weeks following stroke, when injury-induced plasticity could be maximally engaged. This article provides an overview of basic mechanisms of rTMS, consideration of its interaction with various forms of neuroplasticity, and a summary of the highest quality clinical evidence for rTMS given early after stroke...
October 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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