Journals Current Neurology and Neurosci...

Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Christoforos Koumas, Francesco Michelassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), characterized by acute or subacute onset, severe weakness, and elevated creatine kinase levels, poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This article provides a succinct overview of IMNM, including clinical features, diagnostic strategies, and treatment approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent insights highlight the different clinical presentations and therapeutic options of IMNM stratified by autoantibody positivity and type...
April 9, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Kazim H Narsinh, Edgar Perez, Alexander F Haddad, Jacob S Young, Luis Savastano, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Ethan Winkler, John de Groot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glioblastoma remains resistant to most conventional treatments. Despite scientific advances in the past three decades, there has been a dearth of effective new treatments. New approaches to drug delivery and clinical trial design are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss how the blood-brain barrier and tumor microenvironment pose challenges for development of effective therapies for glioblastoma. Next, we discuss treatments in development that aim to overcome these barriers, including novel drug designs such as nanoparticles and antibody-drug conjugates, novel methods of drug delivery, including convection-enhanced and intra-arterial delivery, and novel methods to enhance drug penetration, such as blood-brain barrier disruption by focused ultrasound and laser interstitial thermal therapy...
April 5, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Amalie Chen, Bart K Chwalisz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) use has been on the rise for treatment of many different malignancies. Subsequently, more has been learned about immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that occur up to 12 months after treatment. This review summarizes the latest findings and management of neuro-ophthalmic associated irAEs. RECENT FINDINGS: irAEs can affect the afferent and efferent neuro-ophthalmic pathways, thereby targeting central and peripheral nervous systems...
March 18, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
David Bendetowicz, Margherita Fabbri, Federico Sirna, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Alexandra Foubert-Samier, Tiphaine Saulnier, Anne Pavy Le Traon, Cécile Proust-Lima, Olivier Rascol, Wassilios G Meissner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes previous and ongoing neuroprotection trials in multiple system atrophy (MSA), a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar, and autonomic dysfunction. It also describes the preclinical therapeutic pipeline and provides some considerations relevant to successfully conducting clinical trials in MSA, i.e., diagnosis, endpoints, and trial design. RECENT FINDINGS: Over 30 compounds have been tested in clinical trials in MSA...
February 28, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Christopher E Goyne, Ashley E Fair, Paige E Sumowski, Jennifer S Graves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Age is one of the most important factors in determining MS phenotype. This review provides an overview of how age influences MS clinical characteristics, pathology, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: New methods for measuring aging have improved our understanding of the aging process in MS. New studies have characterized the molecular and cellular composition of chronic active or smoldering plaques in MS...
February 28, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Fiona Costello, Steffen Hamann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Ana Banc, Sachin Kedar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will describe current methods for visual field testing in neuro-ophthalmic clinical practice and research, develop terminology that accurately describes patterns of field deficits, and discuss recent advances such as augmented or virtual reality-based perimetry and the use of artificial intelligence in visual field interpretation. RECENT FINDINGS: New testing strategies that reduce testing times, improve patient comfort, and increase sensitivity for detecting small central or paracentral scotomas have been developed for static automated perimetry...
January 30, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Chi-Ying R Lin, Sheng-Han Kuo, Puneet Opal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal dominant degenerative syndromes that present with ataxia and brain stem abnormalities. This review describes the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of SCAs in the context of recent knowledge of the role of the cerebellum in higher intellectual function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies suggest that patients with spinocerebellar ataxia can display cognitive deficits even early in the disease. These have been given the term cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS)...
January 25, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Victoria S Pelak, Vishal Krishnan, Stephanie Serva, Peter Pressman, Asher Mahmood, Lily Noteboom, Brianne M Bettcher, Stefan H Sillau, Andrew L Callen, Ashesh A Thaker
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Posterior cortical atrophy is a clinico-radiographical syndrome that presents with higher-order visual dysfunction and is most commonly due to Alzheimer's disease. Understanding factors associated with atypical presentations of Alzheimer's disease, such as posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), holds promise to shape our understanding of AD pathophysiology. Thus, we aimed to compare MRI evidence of lobar microbleeds (LMBs) in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) syndrome to typical AD (tAD) and to assess and compare MRI evidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in each group...
January 23, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Fiona Costello, Steffen Hamann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Papilledema refers to optic disc swelling caused by raised intracranial pressure. This syndrome arises from numerous potential causes, which may pose varying degrees of threat to patients. Manifestations of papilledema range from mild to severe, and early diagnosis is important to prevent vision loss and other deleterious outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis and management of syndromes of raised intracranial pressure associated with papilledema...
March 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Gilbert Youssef, Patrick Y Wen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The response assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria and its versions were developed by expert opinion consensus to standardize response evaluation in glioma clinical trials. New patient-based data informed the development of updated response assessment criteria, RANO 2.0. RECENT FINDINGS: In a recent study of patients with glioblastoma, the post-radiation brain MRI was a superior baseline MRI compared to the pretreatment MRI, and confirmation scans were only beneficial within the first 12 weeks of completion of radiation in newly diagnosed disease...
January 3, 2024: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Aaron S Geller, Peter Teale, Eugene Kronberg, John S Ebersole
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique that records neurophysiology data with millisecond temporal resolution and localizes it with subcentimeter accuracy. Its capability to provide high resolution in both of these domains makes it a powerful tool both in basic neuroscience as well as clinical applications. In neurology, it has proven useful in its ability to record and localize epileptiform activity. Epilepsy workup typically begins with scalp electroencephalography (EEG), but in many situations, EEG-based localization of the epileptogenic zone is inadequate...
December 27, 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Stephanie Hsu, Riley Bove
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the potential for exogenous hormones to influence risk and course of MS, this narrative review aims to summarize current knowledge from observational and interventional studies of exogenous hormones in humans with MS. RECENT FINDINGS: Large randomized clinical trials for combined oral contraceptives and estriol both show modest effect on inflammatory activity, with the latter showing potential neuroprotective effect. After fertility treatment, large actively treated cohorts have not confirmed any elevated risk of relapse...
December 16, 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Wesley T Kerr, Katherine N McFarlane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are data-driven techniques to translate raw data into applicable and interpretable insights that can assist in clinical decision making. Some of these tools have extremely promising initial results, earning both great excitement and creating hype. This non-technical article reviews recent developments in ML/AI in epilepsy to assist the current practicing epileptologist in understanding both the benefits and limitations of integrating ML/AI tools into their clinical practice...
December 7, 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Alessandro Galgani, Filippo Sean Giorgi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Performing a thorough review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies assessing locus coeruleus (LC) integrity in ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and contextualizing them with current preclinical and neuropathological literature. RECENT FINDINGS: MRI successfully detected LC alterations in ageing and AD, identifying degenerative phenomena involving this nucleus even in the prodromal stages of the disorder. The degree of LC disruption was also associated with the severity of AD cortical pathology, cognitive and behavioral impairment, and the risk of clinical progression...
December 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Sathyajit Sai Bandaru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the formal discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in 1953, we have gained a vast amount of knowledge regarding the specific populations of neurons, their connections, and synaptic mechanisms regulating this stage of sleep and its accompanying features. This article discusses REM sleep circuits and their dysfunction, specifically emphasizing recent studies using conditional genetic tools. RECENT FINDINGS: Sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD) in the dorsolateral pons, especially the glutamatergic subpopulation in this region (SLDGlut ), are shown to be indispensable for REM sleep...
December 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Zafer Keser, Salman Ikramuddin, Shashank Shekhar, Wuwei Feng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroke remains a leading disabling condition, and many survivors have permanent disability despite acute stroke treatment and subsequent standard-of-care rehabilitation therapies. Adjunctive neuromodulation is an emerging frontier in the field of stroke recovery. In this narrative review, we aim to highlight and summarize various neuromodulation techniques currently being investigated to enhance recovery and reduce impairment in patients with stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: For motor recovery, repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation (rTMS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS) have shown promising results in many smaller-scale trials...
December 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Sasan Andalib, Afshin A Divani, Cenk Ayata, Sheharyar Baig, Ethem Murat Arsava, Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu, Eder Leonardo Cáceres, Vinay Parikh, Masoom J Desai, Arshad Majid, Sara Girolami, Mario Di Napoli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for neurological and psychiatric disorders. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in VNS for treating ischemic stroke. This review discusses the evidence supporting VNS as a treatment option for ischemic stroke and elucidates its underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies investigating VNS in stroke models have shown reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological deficits...
December 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Amritha Harikumar, Kseniya P Solovyeva, Maria Misiura, Armin Iraji, Sergey M Plis, Godfrey D Pearlson, Jessica A Turner, Vince D Calhoun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last decade, evidence suggests that a combination of behavioral and neuroimaging findings can help illuminate changes in functional dysconnectivity in schizophrenia. We review the recent connectivity literature considering several vital models, considering connectivity findings, and relationships with clinical symptoms. We reviewed resting state fMRI studies from 2017 to 2023. We summarized the role of two sets of brain networks (cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTCC) and the triple network set) across three hypothesized models of schizophrenia etiology (neurodevelopmental, vulnerability-stress, and neurotransmitter hypotheses)...
December 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Jessica B Foster, Mateusz P Koptyra, Stephen J Bagley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the invasive and high-risk nature of brain surgery, the need for non-invasive biomarkers obtained from the peripheral blood is greatest in tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). In this comprehensive review, we highlight recent advances in blood biomarker development for adult and pediatric brain tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: We summarize recent blood biomarker development for CNS tumors across multiple key analytes, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cell-free DNA, cell-free RNA, proteomics, circulating tumor cells, and tumor-educated platelets...
December 2023: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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