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Current Issues in Molecular Biology

Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Jean- Noël Vallée
Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are angiocentric neoplasia which present dense monoclonal lymphocyte proliferation, and occur in brain parenchyma in 90% of the cases. Activated B-cell like Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) subtype represents more than 90% of PCNSLs and is the most aggressive subtype with a cure rate of only 40%. One of the characteristics of ABC-DLBCL subtype is neuroinflammation through the activation of NF-kappaB pathway. c-Myc alterations and protein expression have been shown in aggressive DLBCL...
January 16, 2019: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Traud Winkelmann, Kornelia Smalla, Wulf Amelung, Gerhard Baab, Gisela Grunewaldt-Stöcker, Xorla Kanfra, Rainer Meyhöfer, Stefanie Reim, Michaela Schmitz, Doris Vetterlein, Andreas Wrede, Sebastian Zühlke, Jürgen Grunewaldt, Stefan Weiß, Michael Schloter
After replanting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on the same site severe growth suppressions, and a decline in yield and fruit quality are observed in all apple producing areas worldwide. The causes of this complex phenomenon, called apple replant disease (ARD), are only poorly understood up to now which is in part due to inconsistencies in terms and methodologies. Therefore we suggest the following definition for ARD: ARD describes a harmfully disturbed physiological and morphological reaction of apple plants to soils that faced alterations in their (micro-) biome due to the previous apple cultures...
August 2, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Olivera Topalović, Holger Heuer
Plant health is strongly influenced by the interactions between parasites/pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. In this chapter we will summarize the up-to date knowledge on soil suppressiveness as a biological tool against phytonematodes and explore the nature of monoculture versus crop rotation in this regard. Since nematodes are successfully antagonized by different microbiological agents, we highlighted this phenomenon with respect to the most important antagonists, and a nature of these interactions...
August 2, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Ibrahim Alabid, Stefanie P Glaeser, Karl-Heinz Kogel
Endofungal bacteria are bacterial symbionts of fungi that exist within fungal hyphae and spores. There is increasing evidence that these bacteria, alone or in combination with their fungal hosts play a critical role in tripartite symbioses with plants, where they may contribute to plant growth and disease resistance to microbial pathogens. As the frequency of bacteria in fungi is commonly very low, breakthroughs in technology such as molecular taxonomy and laser scanning microscopy were required to establish the functional contribution of these bacteria in complex symbioses...
August 2, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Hanna Alhoraibi, Jean Bigeard, Naganand Rayapuram, Jean Colcombet, Heribert Hirt
In plant-microbe interactions, a pathogenic microbe initially has to overcome preformed and subsequently induced plant defenses. One of the initial host-induced defense responses is microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI). Successful pathogens attenuate MTI by delivering various effectors that result in effector-triggered susceptibility and disease. However, some host plants developed mechanisms to detect effectors and can trigger effector-triggered immunity (ETI), thereby abrogating pathogen infection and propagation...
August 2, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Jasper Schierstaedt, Nina Bziuk, Nemanja Kuzmanović, Khald Blau, Kornelia Smalla, Sven Jechalke
Plants are colonized by diverse microorganisms, which may positively or negatively influence the plant fitness. The positive impact includes nutrient acquisition, enhancement of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, both important factors for plant growth and survival, while plant pathogenic bacteria can cause diseases. Plant pathogens are adapted to negate or evade plant defense mechanisms, e.g. by the injection of effector proteins into the host cells or by avoiding the recognition by the host. Plasmids play an important role in the rapid bacterial adaptation to stresses and changing environmental conditions...
August 2, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Nicola Holden
Metabolism is the underpinning force that sustains life. Within the rhizosphere it is a cyclic process, with substrates flowing between different compartments of the complete soil-plant-microbe system. The physiochemical and structural environment of the rhizosphere is shaped by a combination of plant genotype and soil type, both of which strongly impact the microbial community structure. External influences such as seasonality, the degree of water saturation and anthropomorphic inputs also play a role. Together these factors influence the flux of metabolites through the rhizosphere community, which in turn impacts on plant growth, development and disease...
August 2, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Jing Zhang, Yang Yang, Zhi Yang, Tian Li, Fulin Chen
Macrophages are a specific mononuclear cell group abundant in almost every organ of higher animals. This group is a pivotal part of the immune system and is involved in immune responses against exogenous antigen invasion. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that macrophages participate in wound repair and tissue regeneration. In this review, we will first introduce the influences of regeneration after injury in various tissues and organs among macrophage-depleted animal models. Second, the possible relationship between macrophages and reparation capacities will be discussed...
April 30, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
C Citti, E Dordet-Frisoni, L X Nouvel, C H Kuo, E Baranowski
The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT...
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Adam P Roberts
Bacterial genomes vary considerably in terms of size and gene content. The proportion of a genome composed of horizontally acquired DNA or mobile genetic elements also varies, but follows an ecological pattern with more mobile genetic element genes being found in facultative intracellular bacteria than those considered extracellular and both containing more than obligately intracellular bacteria.
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Alba Blesa, Beate Averhoff, José Berenguer
The small amount of genetic content in thermophiles generally limits their adaptability to environmental changes. In Thermus spp., very active horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mechanisms allow the rapid spread of strain-specific adaptive gene modules among the entire population. Constitutive expression of a rather particular and highly efficient DNA transport apparatus (DTA) is at the center of this HGT-mediated enhanced adaptability. The function of the DTA is dependent on the integrity and longevity of the extracellular DNA (eDNA) being transformed, which can be improved by the production of extracellular vesicles (EV) through lysis of a fraction of the population...
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Jamil Ahmad, Akhtar Rasool Asif, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Ali Akbar Bhuiyan, Abdelmotaleb Elokil, Xiaoyong Du, Changzhi Zhao, Xiangdong Liu, Shengsong Xie
Precise nucleic acid editing technologies have facilitated the research of cellular function and the development of novel therapeutics, especially the current programmable nucleases-based editing tools, such as the prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nucleases (Cas). As CRISPR-based therapies are advancing toward human clinical trials, it is important to understand how natural genetic variation in the human population may affect the results of these trials and even patient safety...
February 11, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Chenxi Lu, Wei Hu, Ting Ji, Mengzhen Han, Yang Yang, Zhenxiao Jin
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle present in most eukaryotic cells and plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. ER dysfunction, specifically ER stress (ERS), is a pathophysiological response involved in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular lesions. Therefore, suppression of ERS may improve lipid metabolic disorders and reduce cardiovascular risk. Herein, we focus on novel breakthroughs regarding the roles of ERS in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as the internal mechanisms of ERS and its status as a potential therapeutic target...
February 1, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Wencheng Di, Jianjun Lv, Shuai Jiang, Chenxi Lu, Zhi Yang, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Yang Yang, Biao Xu
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1s (PGC-1s) can induce the expression of several downstream genes that play pivotal roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism in the heart. Moreover, PGC-1 signaling pathways have also been reported to play a critical role in cardioprotection. Given the significance of PGC-1 coactivators, we summarize the current literature on the molecular mechanisms and roles of PGC-1s in cardiac metabolism. Thus, in this review, we first introduce the basic knowledge regarding PGC-1 signaling pathways...
February 1, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Lucia Popescu, Zhi-Ping Cao
Soil biota represents a major component of the earth's biodiversity and for over 200 years, the microscopy approach was the only way to explore it. In the last decade, the DNA-based technique has been adopted in soil ecology. Due to the rapid development of cutting-edge technology, the field is transitioning from barcoding individuals to metabarcoding communities. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and a rapid decline in sequencing cost, it has become feasible to assess soil biodiversity at species level...
2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Xingtan Zhang, Xuequn Chen, Pingping Liang, Haibao Tang
Structural variation (SV) is a type of genetic variation identified through the comparison of genome structures which often have direct and significant associations with phenotypic variations. Building on the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, research on plant structural variations are gaining momentum and have revolutionized our view on the functional impact of the 'hidden' diversity that were largely understudied before. Herein, we first describe the current state of plant genomic SV research based on NGS and in particular focus on the biological insights gained from the large-scale identification of various types of plant SVs...
2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Xifeng Chen, Vijai Bhadauria, Bojun Ma
DNA-binding proteins, including transcription factors, epigenetic and chromatin modifiers, control gene expressions in plants. To pinpoint the binding sits of DNA-binding proteins in genome is crucial for decoding gene regulatory networks. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to identify the DNA regions bound by a specific protein in vivo. The information generated from ChIP-Seq has tremendously advanced our understanding on the mechanism of transcription factors, cofactors and histone modifications in regulating gene expression...
2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Xiaobai Li
Reproductive development is a key step of the plant life cycles and indicates the start of a new life cycle. The reproductive organs including flower, fruit and seed, have diverse and complex structures, which is a syndrome in the evolution of angiosperms. The development of plant reproductive organs depends on the correct spatial and temporal expression of numerous genes acting in concert to form regulatory networks. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play a key role in the reproductive development through different modes of sequence-specific interaction with their targets...
2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Sanushka Naidoo, Erik Andrei Visser, Lizahn Zwart, Yves du Toit, Vijai Bhadauria, Louise Simone Shuey
RNA-sequencing technology has been widely adopted to investigate host responses during infection with pathogens. Dual RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) allows the simultaneous capture of pathogen specific transcripts during infection, providing a more complete view of the interaction. In this review, we focus on the design of dual RNA-seq experiments and the application of downstream data analysis to gain biological insight into both sides of the interaction. Recent literature in this area demonstrates the power of the dual RNA-seq approach and shows that it is not limited to model systems where genomic resources are available...
2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Xiangchun Zhou, Xufeng Bai, Yongzhong Xing
Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food crop for people worldwide, and a key goal has been to increase its grain yield. An increasing population that relies on a decreasing level of farmland has rendered the traditional method for the isolation and use of genetic loci in rice breeding unsatisfactory. Recently, the rapid development in next generation sequencing (NGS) has boosted the number of genome sequences for hundreds to thousands of rice varieties. A MutMap strategy and bulk segregation analysis (BSA) has been developed to directly identify candidate genes based on NGS...
2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
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