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Lynne Cox, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2019: Biogerontology
Neelesh Babu Thummadi, Anita Jagota
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains the central clock that orchestrate circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior in mammals. Tightly interlocked transcriptional and translational feedback loops (TTFLs) comprising of various clock genes such as Clock, Bmal1, Periods, Cryptochromes etc. in the SCN, send the timing signals to peripheral clocks that governs local metabolism with similar TTFLs. Peripheral clocks in kidney regulates several circadian rhythms like blood pressure, immunity etc. However, aging leads to circadian and inflammatory disorders in kidney...
May 16, 2019: Biogerontology
S Deepashree, S Niveditha, T Shivanandappa, S R Ramesh
Longevity of a species is a multifactorial quantitative trait influenced by genetic background, sex, age and environment of the organism. Extended longevity phenotypes (ELP) from experimental evolution in the laboratory can be used as model systems to investigate the mechanisms underlying aging and senescence. ELPs of Drosophila are correlated with various life history attributes such as resistance to environmental stressors (starvation, desiccation, cold and paraquat), developmental time, biochemical defenses, etc...
May 3, 2019: Biogerontology
Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Raisa Petrović, Irena Živković, Biljana Bufan, Vera Stoiljković, Gordana Leposavić
The study examined sex-specificities in age-related changes in BALB/c mice IgG antibody responses to immunisation with trivalent inactivated split-virus influenza bulk. Aging diminished the total serum IgG antibody responses to H1N1 and H3N2 and B influenza virus antigens in mice of both sexes, but they remained greater in aged females. This sex difference in aged mice correlated with the greater post-immunisation increase in the frequency of spleen germinal centre (GC) B cells and more favourable T follicular regulatory (Tfr)/GC B cell ratio, as Tfr cells are suggested to control antibody production through suppression of glycolysis...
May 2, 2019: Biogerontology
Craig S Clements, Mehmet U Bikkul, Wendy Ofosu, Christopher Eskiw, David Tree, Evgeny Makarov, Ian R Kill, Joanna M Bridger
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, premature ageing syndrome in children. HGPS is normally caused by a mutation in the LMNA gene, encoding nuclear lamin A. The classical mutation in HGPS leads to the production of a toxic truncated version of lamin A, progerin, which retains a farnesyl group. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI), pravastatin and zoledronic acid have been used in clinical trials to target the mevalonate pathway in HGPS patients to inhibit farnesylation of progerin, in order to reduce its toxicity...
April 30, 2019: Biogerontology
Lily Irene Huschtscha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2019: Biogerontology
Leszek Potocki, Ewelina Kuna, Kamila Filip, Beata Kasprzyk, Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk
It has been repeatedly reported that transposable elements (TE) become active and/or mobile in the genomes of replicatively and stress-induced senescent mammalian cells. However, the biological role of senescence-associated transposon activation and its occurrence and relevance in other eukaryotic cells remain to be elucidated. In the present study, Candida albicans, a prevalent opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans, was used to analyze changes in gene copy number of selected TE, namely Cirt2, Moa and Cmut1 during long-term culture (up to 90 days)...
April 15, 2019: Biogerontology
Thibault Teissier, Éric Boulanger
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) was initially characterized and named for its ability to bind to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that form upon the irreversible and non-enzymatic interaction between nucleophiles, such as lysine, and carbonyl compounds, such as reducing sugars. The concentrations of AGEs are known to increase in conditions such as diabetes, as well as during ageing. However, it is now widely accepted that RAGE binds with numerous ligands, many of which can be defined as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
April 9, 2019: Biogerontology
Trim Lajqi, Milan Stojiljkovic, Reinhard Wetzker
Mild environmental stress might have beneficial effects in aging by activating maintenance and repair processes in cells and organs. These beneficial stress effects fit to the concept of hormesis. Prominent stressors acting in a hormetic way are physical exercises, fasting, cold and heat. This review will introduce some toxins, which have been found to induce hormetic responses in animal models of aging research. To highlight the molecular signature of these hormetic effects we will depict signaling pathways affected by low doses of toxins on cellular and organismic level...
March 20, 2019: Biogerontology
Adam Rolt, Anitha Nair, Lynne S Cox
In the original publication of the article, Fig. 2 was published incorrectly. The corrected Figure is given below. The original article has been corrected.
March 6, 2019: Biogerontology
Leila Hosseini, Manouchehr S Vafaee, Javad Mahmoudi, Reza Badalzadeh
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) has been described as central coenzyme of redox reactions and is a key regulator of stress resistance and longevity. Aging is a multifactorial and irreversible process that is characterized by a gradual diminution in physiological functions in an organism over time, leading to development of age-associated pathologies and eventually increasing the probability of death. Ischemia is the lack of nutritive blood flow that causes damage and mortality that mostly occurs in various organs during aging...
March 5, 2019: Biogerontology
Ion Udroiu, Antonella Sgura
Investigations on possible links between hematological parameters and longevity are nearly absent. We tested the hypothesis that a fast rate of erythropoiesis, causing an earlier aging of the hematopoietic stem cells pool, contributes to a shorter lifespan. With this aim, we employed a new quantity, daily produced red blood cells per gram of body mass, as a measure of mass-specific rate of erythropoiesis. We found that among mammals rate of erythropoiesis and maximum lifespan are significantly correlated, independently from mass residuals...
March 4, 2019: Biogerontology
Olena Kucheryavenko, Glyn Nelson, Thomas von Zglinicki, Viktor I Korolchuk, Bernadette Carroll
Cellular senescence has recently been established as a key driver of organismal ageing. The state of senescence is controlled by extensive rewiring of signalling pathways, at the heart of which lies the mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex I (mTORC1). Here we discuss recent publications aiming to establish the mechanisms by which mTORC1 drives the senescence program. In particular, we highlight our data indicating that mTORC1 can be used as a target for senescence cell elimination in vitro. Suppression of mTORC1 is known to extend lifespan of yeast, worms, flies and some mouse models and our proof-of-concept experiments suggest that it can also act by reducing senescent cell load in vivo...
February 23, 2019: Biogerontology
Jingnu Xia, Maria Gravato-Nobre, Petros Ligoxygakis
An increasing amount of data implicate immunity-mostly innate immunity-in the ageing process; both during healthy ageing as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the aetiology however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we review what we know from model organisms (worms, flies and mice) on the possible mechanistic details that connect immunity and ageing. These links provide evidence that inter-tissue communication (especially the interaction between gut and brain), hormonal control mechanisms and intestinal microbiota determine immune system activity and thus influence lifespan...
February 22, 2019: Biogerontology
Ravi Kumar, Anamika Sharma, Amita Kumari, Ashu Gulati, Yogendra Padwad, Rohit Sharma
The phytochemical epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been reported to alleviate age-associated immune disorders and organ dysfunction. However, information regarding the mechanistic role of EGCG in the suppression of cellular senescence is limited. The present study thus assessed the effects and underlying mechanisms of EGCG in the inhibition of senescence as well as its potential to selectively eliminate senescent cells (senolytics) using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Premature senescence was established in cells by repeated exposure of H2 O2 at a sub-lethal concentration (150 μM)...
April 2019: Biogerontology
Adam Rolt, Anitha Nair, Lynne S Cox
Cellular senescence has been shown to be sufficient for the development of multiple age-related pathologies. Senescent cells adopt a secretory phenotype (the SASP) which comprises a large number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases. The SASP itself is thought to be causative in many pathologies of age-related diseases, and there is growing interest in developing seno-modifying agents that can suppress the SASP. However, in order to identify new agents, it is necessary to conduct moderate to high throughput screening with robust assays for the required outcome...
February 11, 2019: Biogerontology
Yang Zhou, Lili Song, Shousheng Ni, Yu Zhang, Shicui Zhang
One of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures of aging process is the oxidative stress theory. Current studies have generated disputes on the effects of GDF11 and GDF8, a closely related member of GDF11, on rejuvenation and anti-aging properties. In this study, we first demonstrated that when recombinant GDF8 (rGDF8) and GDF11 (rGDF11) of the fish Nothobranchius guentheri were injected into 20-month-old male mice, their serum GDF8 and GDF11 levels were clearly increased. We also showed that injection of rGDF8 and rGDF11 had little influences on the body weight and serological parameters of the mice, indicating their general condition and physiology were not affected...
February 6, 2019: Biogerontology
Yuta Miyagi, Yusuke Kondo, Yuichiro Kusuda, Yusuke Hori, Seiya Yamazaki, Takashi Munemasa, Taro Mukaibo, Chihiro Masaki, Ryuji Hosokawa
Aging has pronounced effects on mammalian tissues and cells, but the impacts of aging on salivary gland function are relatively unknown. This study aims to evaluate the effects of aging on submandibular gland (SMG) and parotid gland (PG) functions in the male senescence-accelerated mouse. In vivo analysis at the systemic level revealed that salivary secretion induced by pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist, from the SMG was significantly decreased in aged mice, whereas salivary secretion from the PG was not affected...
January 25, 2019: Biogerontology
Hannah E Walters, Lynne S Cox
Cell senescence, a state of cell cycle arrest and altered metabolism with enhanced pro-inflammatory secretion, underlies at least some aspects of organismal ageing. The sirtuin family of deacetylases has been implicated in preventing premature ageing; sirtuin overexpression or resveratrol-mediated activation of sirtuins increase longevity. Here we show that sirtuin inhibition by short-term, low-dose treatment with the experimental anti-cancer agent Tenovin-6 (TnV6) induces cellular senescence in primary human fibroblasts...
January 21, 2019: Biogerontology
Sofie Lautrup, Domenica Caponio, Hoi-Hung Cheung, Claudia Piccoli, Tinna Stevnsner, Wai-Yee Chan, Evandro F Fang
Aging is a natural and unavoidable part of life. However, aging is also the primary driver of the dominant human diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Unraveling the sophisticated molecular mechanisms of the human aging process may provide novel strategies to extend 'healthy aging' and the cure of human aging-related diseases. Werner syndrome (WS), is a heritable human premature aging disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Werner (WRN) DNA helicase...
January 21, 2019: Biogerontology
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