Amber T Wolf, Evelyn Minis, Shruthi Mahalingaiah
Between 2010 and 2016, elective oocyte cryopreservation (OC) increased in use by 880% in the United States; however, there have been increasing reports of regret among patients after elective OC. There is a growing need for individualized counseling on the timing and number of oocytes to cryopreserve for patients to make informed choices and set realistic expectations, but currently available tools seem to be insufficient. The purpose of this review is to describe the OC calculators currently available online, identify sources of regret, and illustrate the need for unified counseling tools for improved patient care and education...
July 10, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Hamza Benderradji, Julie Prasivoravong, François Marcelli, Clara Leroy
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by Sertoli cells and is responsible for the regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process. Serum AMH concentrations are at their lowest levels in the first days after birth but increase after the first week, likely reflecting active Sertoli cell proliferation. AMH rises rapidly in concentration in boys during the first month, reaching a peak level at ∼6 months of age, and it remains high during childhood, then they will slowly decline during puberty, falling to low levels in adulthood...
June 24, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
David H Abbott, Beverly A Hutcherson, Daniel A Dumesic
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an important component within androgen receptor (AR)-regulated pathways governing the hyperandrogenic origin of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In women with PCOS, granulosa cell AMH overexpression in developing ovarian follicles contributes to elevated circulating AMH levels beginning at birth and continuing in adolescent daughters of PCOS women. A 6 to 7% incidence among PCOS women of gene variants coding for AMH or its receptor, AMHR2, suggests genetic contributions to AMH-related pathogenesis...
June 22, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Sena Yildiz, Loes M E Moolhuijsen, Jenny A Visser
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, whose actions are restricted to the endocrine-reproductive system. Initially known for its role in male sex differentiation, AMH plays a role in the ovary, acting as a gatekeeper in folliculogenesis by regulating the rate of recruitment and growth of follicles. In the ovary, AMH is predominantly expressed by granulosa cells of preantral and antral follicles (i.e., post primordial follicle recruitment and prior to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) selection)...
May 23, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Terhi T Piltonen, Johanna Viita-Aho, Ulla Saarela, Johanna Melin, Maria Forslund
The 2023 international evidence-based guideline update for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) recommends using the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS. The updated guideline has evidence-based recommendation for the diagnosis, and it now also includes serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurement as an alternative tool for gynecological ultrasound to diagnose polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM). The aim of this new recommendation was to facilitate PCOS diagnostic workup in primary care and other disciplines, as currently most diagnosing is done in gynecology and infertility clinics...
May 22, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Ludovica Cotellessa, Paolo Giacobini
In recent years, the expanding roles of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in various aspects of reproductive health have attracted significant attention. Initially recognized for its classical role in male sexual differentiation, AMH is produced postnatally by the Sertoli cells in the male testes and by the granulosa cells in the female ovaries. Traditionally, it was believed to primarily influence gonadal development and function. However, research over the last decade has unveiled novel actions of AMH beyond the gonads, specifically all along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
April 12, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Perrine Ginod, Michael H Dahan
The recent commercialization of the Embryo Health Score (EHS), determined through preimplantation genetic testing for polygenic conditions, offers the potential to select embryos with lower disease risk, thus potentially enhancing offspring longevity and health. Lately, Orchid Health company increased testing from less than 20 diseases to more than 900+ conditions for birth defects. However, the "geneticization" of phenotype estimates to a health state erases the environmental part, including the in vitro fertilization potential risks, questioning its scientific usefulness...
March 22, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Susana Ruiz-Durán, Celia M Tenorio, Irene Vico-Zúñiga, Sebastián Manzanares, Alberto Puertas-Prieto, Signe Altmäe, Eva Vargas
The female lower reproductive tract microbiota is a complex ecosystem comprising various microorganisms that play a pivotal role in maintaining women's reproductive well-being. During pregnancy, the vaginal microbiota undergoes dynamic changes that are important for a successful gestation. This review summarizes the implications of the cervical mucus plug microenvironment and its profound impact on reproductive health. Further, the symbiotic relationship between the vaginal microbiome and the cervical mucus plug is highlighted, with a special emphasis on how this natural barrier serves as a guardian against ascending infections...
January 23, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Prakash Lingasamy, Vijayachitra Modhukur, Reet Mändar, Andres Salumets
The dynamic interplay between the immunome and microbiome in reproductive health is a complex and rapidly advancing research field, holding tremendously vast possibilities for the development of reproductive medicine. This immunome-microbiome relationship influences the innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby affecting the onset and progression of reproductive disorders. However, the mechanisms governing these interactions remain elusive and require innovative approaches to gather more understanding. This comprehensive review examines the current knowledge on reproductive microbiomes across various parts of female reproductive tract, with special consideration of bidirectional interactions between microbiomes and the immune system...
January 23, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Yosun A Kaya, Marcel R de Zoete, Gaby S Steba
The female reproductive tract (FRT) is home to diverse microbial communities that play a pivotal role in reproductive health and disorders such as infertility, endometriosis, and cervical cancer. To understand the complex host-microbiota interactions within the FRT, models that authentically replicate the FRT's environment, including the interplay between the microbiota, mucus layer, immune system, and hormonal cycle, are key. Recent strides in organoid and microfluidic technologies are propelling research in this domain, offering insights into FRT-microbiota interactions and potential therapeutic avenues...
January 23, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Aaron Brant, Peter N Schlegel
Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) is among the most common causes of male infertility. For men with NOA seeking fertility treatment, microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE) is the best option for retrieving sperm, which can be used with in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve pregnancy in their partner. With the aid of the operating microscope, microTESE allows for thorough evaluation of the testis tissue and selection of seminiferous tubules that appear most capable of sperm production...
January 23, 2024: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Marilina Romeo, Valeria Donno, Giorgia Spaggiari, Antonio R M Granata, Manuela Simoni, Antonio La Marca, Daniele Santi
Although epidemiology shows that both men and woman can experience infertility, the female partner usually experiences most of the diagnostic and therapeutic burden. Thus, management of couple infertility is a unique example of gender inequality. The use of exogenous gonadotropins in assisted reproductive technology (ART) to induce multifollicular growth is well consolidated in women, but the same is not done with the same level of confidence and purpose in infertile men. Indeed, the treatment of idiopathic male infertility is based on an empirical approach that involves administration of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in dosages within the replacement therapy range...
December 29, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Meurig T Gallagher, Ingrida Krasauskaite, Jackson C Kirkman-Brown
In this Seminar , we present an overview of the current and emerging methods and technologies for optimizing the man and the sperm sample for fertility treatment. We argue that sperms are the secret to success, and that there are many avenues for improving both treatment and basic understanding of their role in outcomes. These outcomes encompass not just whether treatment is successful or not, but the wider intergenerational health of the offspring. We discuss outstanding challenges and opportunities of new technologies such as microfluidics and artificial intelligence, including potential pitfalls and advantages...
December 19, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Robin Vanstokstraeten, Thomas Demuyser, Denis Piérard, Ingrid Wybo, Christophe Blockeel, Shari Mackens
In recent years, the study of the human microbiome has surged, shedding light on potential connections between microbiome composition and various diseases. One specific area of intense interest within this research is the female reproductive tract, as it holds the potential to influence the process of embryo implantation. Advanced sequencing technologies have delivered unprecedented insights into the microbial communities, also known as microbiota, residing in the female reproductive tract. However, their efficacy encounters significant challenges when analyzing low-biomass microbiota, such as those present in the endometrium...
December 15, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Samantha McLean, Christina E Boots
Obesity affects nearly 40% of reproductive-aged women and has serious implications for women's overall and reproductive health. Women with an elevated body mass index (BMI) have higher rates of anovulation and irregular menses, lower success with fertility treatment, and significantly higher rates of pregnancy complications, such as hypertension/preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm delivery. Many studies have also shown an association between obesity and early pregnancy loss. However, the causal association between BMI and miscarriage has not been elucidated, likely due to the multifactorial effects that BMI may have on early pregnancy development...
December 15, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Chau Thien Tay, Fleur Williams, Aya Mousa, Helena Teede, Tania S Burgert
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy with wide-ranging implications for affected individuals. Literature has shown that patients with PCOS are dissatisfied with the health information provided to them and that healthcare professionals lack adequate knowledge. In this narrative review with systematic approach, we explored the unmet information needs in PCOS care for both patients and healthcare professionals. A comprehensive search of databases yielded 41 relevant studies, predominantly of observational and qualitative design...
December 5, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Rhonda M Garad, Mahnaz Bahri-Khomami, Maureen Busby, Tania S Burgert, Jacky Boivin, Helena J Teede
This review assesses gender-sensitive language in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) guidelines, including a guideline for polycystic ovary syndrome. We conducted a systematic search across databases like Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane until July 31, 2023, using terms related to gender-inclusivity, SRH, and guideline protocols. Criteria for inclusion were gender-sensitive language, SRH focus, and guideline relevance, excluding non-English articles or those without policy considerations. Our search yielded 25 studies, with 6 included for qualitative synthesis...
December 5, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Adam T Evans, Wendy S Vitek
Obesity has been associated with a multitude of medical comorbidities, infertility, and adverse obstetric outcomes. Weight stigma and weight bias pervade not only the medical field but also education, employment, and activities of daily living. The experience of weight stigma has been shown to adversely impact not only the mental health of individuals with overweight or obesity but also worsen obesogenic behaviors, and medical comorbidities. This review frames the rise of weight stigma and weight bias within the context of the "obesity epidemic" and explores its associations with infertility and decreased access to health care and its subsequent impact on the lives of individuals...
November 22, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Alyse S Goldberg, Samin Dolatabadi, Heidi Dutton, Jamie L Benham
Utilization of anti-obesity agents is rising in reproductive-age females with some planning for future pregnancy. Lifestyle-induced weight loss has been shown to increase spontaneous conception rate, improve rates of fertility intervention complications, and decrease pregnancy comorbidities. However, the definitive role of assisting weight loss with medication prior to pregnancy remains to be established. The implications of anti-obesity agent used prior to pregnancy are explored in this narrative review, considering benefits of weight loss as well as available evidence for use and risks of anti-obesity agents prior to pregnancy...
November 16, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Ciara Marshall, Stephanie J Estes
Obesity is the most common medical problem in women of reproductive age. The surgical applications for this population, many of who are interested in current or future fertility, are critical to safe and effective evaluation and management of issues that impact the reproductive system. As rates of obesity continue to rise worldwide, it is projected that one in two individuals will have obesity by 2030 leading to increasing numbers of individuals affected by a disease process that has implications for their gynecologic surgical care, fertility-related assessment, and infertility treatment...
November 15, 2023: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
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