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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

Geoffrey L Heyer
BACKGROUND: A previous study of electroencephalography (EEG) changes with syncope led to a finding that some young patients develop prolonged periods of tilt-induced hypotension, but they do not lose consciousness. The present study aim was to compare patterns of hemodynamic changes, measures of duration, and sweating between these patients and patients with tilt-induced vasovagal syncope. METHODS: In an observational study, qualitative changes in hemodynamic parameters were compared between patients with prolonged hypotension (n = 30) and with syncope (n = 30)...
March 9, 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Luca Baldelli, Federica Provini
Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) is a hereditary prion disease caused by a mutation at codon 178 of the prion-protein gene leading to a D178N substitution in the protein determining severe and selective atrophy of mediodorsal and anteroventral thalamic nuclei. FFI is characterized by physiological sleep loss, which polygraphically appears to be a slow wave sleep loss, autonomic and motor hyperactivation with peculiar episodes of oneiric stupor. Alteration of autonomic functions is a great burden for FFI patients consisting in sympathetic overactivation, dysregulation of its physiological responses and disruption of circadian rhythms...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Marco Giuseppe Del Buono, Rocco Antonio Montone, Massimiliano Camilli, Filippo Luca Gurgoglione, Gessica Ingrasciotta, Maria Chiara Meucci, Francesco Fracassi, Giampaolo Niccoli, Filippo Crea
Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is a condition of transient regional ventricular systolic dysfunction, usually presenting with acute chest pain and/or dyspnea, that is increasingly recognized especially in post-menopausal women following a psychological or physical stress. Initially considered as a benign condition with an isolated and self-limiting episode, it is now recognized that it is associated with a significant risk of in-hospital mortality and of recurrence. We herein describe a case of a 61-year-old female with left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) who experienced a recurrence of TS, highlighting the potential pathophysiological role for LVNC in predisposing this syndrome and its recurrence...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Eduardo E Benarroch
Sleep and arousal from sleep are associated with profound changes in cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Fluctuations of arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and respiration occur both during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep and during transitions between sleep and behavioral arousal. These changes reflect complex, state-dependent interactions among several neuronal groups in the hypothalamus and brainstem. These neurons utilize the excitatory amino-acid L-glutamate or the inhibitory amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and are modulated in a state-dependent manner by inputs from cholinergic, monoaminergic, and hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mark Evans, Mark Butt, Patrice Belanger, Thomas Cummings, Jessica-Lyn Gremminger, Mark Zorbas
Tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, has demonstrated efficacy and safety profiles in Phase III clinical trials of chronic pain. In a 24-week study in non-human primates, morphological observations of sympathetic ganglia showed decreased ganglia volume, decreased neuronal size, and increased glial cell density compared with controls after 3 tanezumab treatments. Using stereological techniques to quantify glial cells, the present 26-week study found no significant difference after weekly treatments in total cervicothoracic ganglia satellite glial cell number between placebo- or tanezumab-treated cynomolgus monkeys...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Ruud M Buijs, Mara A Guzmán Ruiz, Rebeca Méndez Hernández, Betty Rodríguez Cortés
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is responsible for determining circadian variations in physiological setpoints. The SCN achieves such control through projections to different target structures within and outside the hypothalamus. Thus the SCN prepares the physiology of the body every 24 h via hormones and autonomic nervous system (ANS), to coming changes in behavior. Resulting rhythms in hormones and ANS activity transmit a precise message to selective organs, adapting their sensitivity to coming hormones, metabolites or other essentials...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Alessandro Silvani
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the first cause of death globally. The nighttime is generally a period of relative protection from CVD events such as myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and stroke, at least compared to the early morning period. The nighttime also generally entails lower values of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) and higher cardiac parasympathetic modulation. These day-night cardiovascular rhythms are ultimately driven by circadian molecular oscillators in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and in peripheral cells, including those in the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Toru Kawada, Takashi Sonobe, Yohsuke Hayama, Takuya Nishikawa, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, James T Pearson, Masaru Sugimachi
Complex interactions are known to occur between the sympathetic and parasympathetic controls of the heart. Although sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) usually augments the heart rate (HR) response to vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), exogenously administered norepinephrine (NE) can attenuate the HR response as well as the myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) release during VNS. To provide a basis for an integrative knowledge about the opposing adrenergic effects on the vagal control of the heart, we examined whether SNS significantly attenuates VNS-induced myocardial interstitial ACh release in the in vivo beating heart...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
R R Dhingra, G Kola, S J Lewis, M Dutschmann
Stimulation of thoracic sympathetic chain (TSC) afferents has been shown to slow the respiratory rhythm in dogs, monkeys and humans. However, sparse information exists about the physiological role of TSC afferents in modulating respiration or the central pathways of these afferents. Here, we sought to investigate whether the perfused preparation of juvenile rats is a suitable experimental model to study the role of TSC-afferents in the modulation of respiration. We show that tonic (30s) TSC stimulation initially triggered either prolonged post-inspiratory vagal nerve discharge, or when the stimulus onset occurred in the second half of expiration, TSC stimulation also modulated late-expiratory abdominal nerve activity...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Jose-Alberto Palma, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by impaired development of primary sensory and autonomic neurons resulting in a severe neurological phenotype, which includes arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex failure with high frequency of sleep-disordered breathing and sudden death during sleep. Although a rare disease, familial dysautonomia represents a unique template to study the interactions between sleep-disordered breathing and abnormal chemo- and baroreflex function...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Ana Carolina S Felix, Ada C Gastaldi, Sabrina G V Dutra, Ana Caroline Silva de Freitas, Stella V Philbois, Tábata de Paula Facioli, Valdo J D Da Silva, Thauane H Fares, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of early ovarian hormones deprivation on morphology and cardiac function and the effects of aerobic training on these parameters, in old rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (N = 48) were divided into two groups, at 10 weeks of life: early ovarian hormones deprivation by ovariectomy (OVX; N = 24) and sham (SHAM; N = 24). Between weeks 62 and 82, 12 animals of each group underwent aerobic training (OVX-T and SHAM-T, N = 12)...
May 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Francesca Baschieri, Pietro Cortelli
Circadian rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate are regulated by a biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which modulates the autonomic nervous system activity directed to the heart and blood vessels. Humoral mediators released with periodicity induced by the SCN as well as sleep are also important factors. Disruption of physiological cardiovascular circadian rhythms has important clinical implications, as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
March 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Hiroshi Saito
To elucidate location and characteristics of the central thermoregulatory sudomotor pathway in the human brainstem, thermoregulatory sweating (TS) in 91 patients with focal brainstem lesions was studied. TS was symmetric or minimally asymmetric in 40 subjects (Group S), and was apparently asymmetric in 51 patients (Group AS). In Group AS, the main abnormality was ipsilateral segmental hypohidrosis with a varying extent, involving predominantly the upper half of the body. Lesion locations, correlations between thermoregulatory sweat test results, and other autonomic and somatic functions were compared between the groups...
March 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Clotilde Lecrux, Miled Bourourou, Edith Hamel
Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI, map brain activity through hemodynamic-based signals, and are invaluable diagnostic tools in several neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia. Hemodynamic signals are normally precisely related to the underlying neuronal activity through neurovascular coupling mechanisms that ensure the supply of blood, glucose and oxygen to neurons at work. The knowledge of neurovascular coupling has greatly advanced over the last 30 years, it involves multifaceted interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, astrocytes, and the microvessels...
March 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Tristan W Dorey, Myles W O'Brien, Derek S Kimmerly
Long-term endurance training is associated with an increased risk of atrial arrhythmia in older adults (OA). We tested the hypothesis that Aerobically-Fit OA would have prolonged indices related to atrial arrhythmias (e.g. PR-intervals and P durations) compared to younger adults (YA) and Aerobically-Unfit OA. 10-minute stable supine electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were collected at 1000 Hz in 15 YA (4F, 22 ± 2 years, 50.7 ± 8.5 ml/kg/min), 11 Aerobically-Unfit OA (6♀, 63 ± 7 years, 25...
March 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Bryan K Becker, Dingguo Zhang, Reham Soliman, David M Pollock
Cardiovascular and renal physiology follow strong circadian rhythms. For instance, renal excretion of solutes and water is higher during the active period compared to the inactive period, and blood pressure peaks early in the beginning of the active period of both diurnal and nocturnal animals. The control of these rhythms is largely dependent on the expression of clock genes both in the central nervous system and within peripheral organs themselves. Although it is understood that the central and peripheral clocks interact and communicate, few studies have explored the specific mechanism by which various organ systems within the body are coordinated to control physiological processes...
March 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Tymoteusz Żera, Artur Nowiński, Agnieszka Segiet, Paweł Smykiewicz
High salt diet alters cardiovascular control by increasing concentration of sodium ions (Na+ ) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is a risk factor for hypertension. Hypernatremic conditions activate microglia and upregulate renin-angiotensin system in the brain. Thus, we checked if chronic elevation of CSF Na+ affects neural control of circulatory system via microglia and brain angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs). Normotensive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received two-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of either isoosmotic saline (0...
January 6, 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Luca Carnevali, Matteo Mancini, Julian Koenig, Elena Makovac, David R Watson, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with both autonomic dysfunction, notably decreased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), and neurostructural abnormalities. Regional differences in brain morphometry correlate with vmHRV in healthy individuals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific focal abnormalities in cortical structure in GAD underpin decreased vmHRV. Adult female patients with GAD (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 18) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging after characterization of symptoms and quantification of resting vmHRV derived from continuous pulse oximetry...
January 4, 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
E Myfanwy Cohen, Suja Mohammed, Mary Kavurma, Polina E Nedoboy, Siân Cartland, Melissa M J Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
The RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) contains over-active C1 neurons, which model the pathology of essential hypertension. Hypertension involves chronic low-grade neuroinflammation. Inflammation in the brain is produced and maintained primarily by microglia. We assessed microglial gene expression (P2Y12R and CX3CR1) and morphology in the RVLM of SHR compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The gene expression of the metabotropic purinergic receptor P2Y12 and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was downregulated in the RVLM of SHR compared to WKY (by 37...
January 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Pedro L Katayama, Jaci A Castania, Rubens Fazan, Helio C Salgado
Electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex has been thoroughly investigated for treating drug-resistant hypertension in humans. However, a previous study from our laboratory, performed in conscious rats, has demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus/nerve (CS) activated both the carotid baroreflex as well as the carotid chemoreflex, resulting in hypotension. Additionally, we also demonstrated that the carotid chemoreceptor deactivation potentiated this hypotensive response. Therefore, to further investigate this carotid baroreflex/chemoreflex interaction, besides the hemodynamic responses, we evaluated the respiratory responses to the electrical stimulation of the CS in both intact (CONT) and carotid chemoreceptors deactivated (CHEMO-X) conscious rats...
January 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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