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Attachment & Human Development

German Posada, Brian E Vaughn, Manuela Veríssimo, Ting Lu, Olivia I Nichols, Mona El-Sheikh, Jill M Trumbell, Laura Anaya, Garene Kaloustian
Associations between attachment security, assessed as a secure base script (SBS), and teachers' social competence ratings were examined in two samples (one from the Midwest region and the other from the Southern region of the United States). Consistent with previous reports, significant associations between domains were obtained in both samples and after combining the two samples, r = .33, p < .001. The associations remained significant when child sex, age, and verbal intelligence were controlled. Findings are discussed with reference to relations between SBS scores and the covariates...
February 12, 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Olivia Nichols, Brian E Vaughn, Ting Lu, Lisa Krzysik, Mona El-Sheikh
Attachment theorists have characterized children's internal working models, forged from early attachment relationship histories, as the link between earlier and later manifestations of competence. In this study, working models of attachment were measured as access to and use of the secure base script (SBS) to organize children's attachment relevant narratives (N = 139). Study goals were to assess relations between SBS use and a range of adaptive functioning domains including peer social competence, teacher/child relationships, effortful control, executive function, and verbal intelligence...
February 12, 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Brian E Vaughn, German Posada, Manuela Veríssimo, Ting Lu, Olivia I Nichols
Building on aframework presented by Bretherton and associates, Waters and associates argued that interaction sequences relevant to children's access to and use of asecure base for exploration during infancy/toddlerhood become internalized as script-like representations. For adults, these scripted representations are readily assessed using word-prompt lists d to elicit attachment relevant narratives. However, this method is not appropriate during early childhood. Waters and associates used stories from Bretherton's Attachment Story Completion Task for this purpose...
February 7, 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Marilia Fernandes, Manuela Verissimo, António J Santos, Carla Fernandes, Marta Antunes, Brian E Vaughn
Recent meta-analyses have reported significant effects of attachment quality on social competence, mostly using observational assessments of attachment behavior to assess security. We analyze the associations between attachment security - assessed as a secure base script, and social competence with peers - measured by teachers' ratings on two self-report instruments, in a Portuguese sample of 82 preschool children (34 boys and 48 girls). We also tested the association between children's secure base script scores and teacher ratings for externalizing and internalizing symptomatology...
February 6, 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Cecilia Serena Pace, Simona Di Folco, Viviana Guerriero, Stefania Muzi
This paper reports on a long-term follow-up of a longitudinal study conducted in Italy that assessed attachment patterns of late-adopted children (placed between 4 and 8 years old) and their adoptive mothers, in three phases: T1, at placement; T2, in childhood (7-8 months after adoption); and T3, in adolescence (current study). The following hypotheses were tested: 1) children' IWMs will shift from insecurity towards security in a long-term follow-up; and 2) there will be a significant association between adoptees' and adoptive mothers' IWMs in adolescence...
February 4, 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Laura E Brumariu, Loredana R Diaconu-Gherasim, Kathryn A Kerns, Nicholette C Lewis
This study assessed how children's choices of attachment figures are related to the quality of the parent-child relationship and parental economic migration in a Romanian sample. Two hundred and twenty-two children (n girls =130) 10-13 years of age completed the Attachment Figure Interview and a parental migration interview, and reported their attachment security with mother and father. Approximately 35.6% (n = 79) of children had mothers with a migration history and 48.7% (n = 104) of children had fathers with a migration history...
December 26, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Nancy E Suchman, Jessica L Borelli, Cindy L DeCoste
This study evaluated methods for training community-based clinicians to deliver a mentalization-based parenting intervention in an addiction treatment setting. Mothering from the Inside Out (MIO) targets psychological deficits associated with early stages of addiction recovery by fostering improvement in parental reflective functioning, the capacity to make sense of strong emotions in oneself and the child. Fifteen addiction counselors were randomized to training in MIO versus a Parent Education comparison, and completed eight training sessions and a clinically-supervised 12-session training case...
December 26, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Éric Alain Feugé, Chantal Cyr, Louise Cossette, Danielle Julien
Fathers' sensitivity and child attachment security and externalizing and internalizing problems were investigated among families headed by two adoptive gay fathers. A sample of 68 fathers and their 34 children aged 1-6 years participated in the study. Fathers completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist. Parental sensitivity and child attachment security were assessed by independent coders with Q-sort methodology during parent-child interactions at home. Results indicate that few children had low attachment security scores and behavior problems in the clinical range...
December 20, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Francesca Suardi, Dominik Andreas Moser, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Aurélia Manini, Marylène Vital, Gaëlle Merminod, Axelle Kreis, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Daniel Scott Schechter
The aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal mentalization, interactive behavior, and child symptoms in families in which mothers suffer from interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD). Fifty-six mothers and children (aged 12-42 months) including mothers with a diagnosis of IPV-PTSD were studied. Mentalization was measured by the Parental Reflective Functioning (PRF) Scale. Interactive behavior during free-play was measured via the CARE-Index. Child symptoms were measured by the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA)...
December 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Michelle Sleed, Arietta Slade, Peter Fonagy
The Reflective Functioning coding of the Parent Development Interview (PDI-RF) is a widely used method for assessing a caregivers' capacity for mentalization. However, little is known about its psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine the distributions and discriminant and criterion validity of the PDI-RF scale in relation to a number of demographic and socioeconomic factors. Mothers of infants and toddlers (N = 323) from low, medium, and high-risk samples were interviewed with the PDI and transcripts were coded for RF...
December 13, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Allison K Farrell, Theodore E A Waters, Ethan S Young, Michelle M Englund, Elizabeth E Carlson, Glenn I Roisman, Jeffry A Simpson
Children who experience high-quality early parenting tend to have better physical health, but limited research has tested whether this association extends into adulthood using prospective, observational assessments. Likewise, mechanisms that may explain such links have not yet been illuminated. In this study, we test whether the quality of early maternal sensitivity experienced during the first 3½ years of life predicts cardiometabolic risk at midlife (ages 37 and 39 years) via attachment representations measured in young adulthood (ages 19 and 26 years)...
February 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Michael W Harvey, Allison K Farrell, Ledina Imami, Justin M Carré, Richard B Slatcher
Prior evidence suggests that an individual's attachment orientation is linked to the health and health-related biology of his/her romantic relationship partners. The current study examined whether this effect extends to parent-child relationships. Specifically, we investigated the association between maternal attachment anxiety and avoidance and diurnal cortisol of offspring. In a sample of 138 youth with asthma and their primary caregivers, caregivers reported their attachment orientations, and their children (aged 10-17) supplied four saliva samples per day over four days to assess diurnal cortisol patterns...
February 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Katherine B Ehrlich, Jude Cassidy
Over the last 40 years, researchers have made considerable progress identifying the ways in which attachment security shapes individuals' social and emotional functioning. In recent years, new investigations have shed light on connections between attachment and physiological systems in the body. The goal of this special issue is to focus attention on how attachment may be related to biological markers that relate to physical health, including inflammation, cortisol, and cardiometabolic risk. The papers in this special issue, highlighted in this introduction, demonstrate that these links may exist across the lifespan...
February 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Katherine B Ehrlich, Jessica A Stern, Jacquelynne Eccles, Julie V Dinh, Elizabeth A Hopper, Margaret E Kemeny, Emma K Adam, Jude Cassidy
Individuals' social experiences are associated with their mental health, physical health, and even mortality. Over the last 30 years, researchers have examined the ways in which these social experiences might be associated with chronic inflammation - a component underlying many of the chronic diseases of aging. Little research, however, has examined the role of adults' attachment style as a specific social component that might be associated with inflammation. In the present study, we utilized data from a sample of 59 African-American adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS) to examine the links between attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety and C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6...
February 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Kristin Bernard, Camelia E Hostinar, Mary Dozier
In the current pilot study, we examined whether insecure or disorganized attachment was associated with elevated inflammation (i.e. C-reactive protein [CRP]) in children with histories of child protective services (CPS) involvement, and whether early childhood CRP predicted body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. Participants included 45 CPS-referred children and 39 low-risk comparison children, for whom we assessed levels of CRP in early childhood (Mean age = 4.9 years). For the CPS-referred children, who were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study, we had attachment classifications (assessed during infancy with the Strange Situation) and BMI data (assessed during early and middle childhood); these data were not available for the low-risk comparison group...
February 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Jean-Philippe Gouin, Sasha MacNeil
Attachment style may influence the acculturation process by shaping the types of social relationships that individuals form and maintain. Social relationship quantity and quality have been linked to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, an immune process associated with risk for age-related diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate whether attachment style moderates the change in systemic inflammation during the early phases of the acculturation process, a period associated with rapid changes in social functioning...
February 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Jennifer M StGeorge, Jaime K Wroe, Miranda E Cashin
Reviews of attachment research point to fathers' capacity to provide for a secure child-parent attachment relationship; a suggested mechanism for the development of this relationship may be sensitive and challenging play interactions. This review synthesises research on fathers' challenging and stimulating play by mapping the variation in construct definitions and reporting on the association of fathers' stimulating play with child outcomes. Using search terms such as "father", "stimulating"and "challenging", 26 studies were identified, including 16 longitudinal studies, which assessed the association between father-child stimulating or challenging play, and child outcomes...
December 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Stella Tsotsi, Jessica L Borelli, Nurshuhadah Binte Abdulla, Hui Min Tan, Lit Wee Sim, Shamini Sanmugam, Kok Hian Tan, Yap Seng Chong, Anqi Qiu, Helen Chen, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
Caregiving insensitivity and fear dysregulation predict anxiety symptoms in children. It is unclear, however, whether sensitive parental care during infancy predicts fear regulation later in childhood. To address this question, we asked whether observed maternal sensitivity, measured at 6 months, predicts 42-month-old children's laboratory-induced fear responses (n=213) during a fear-eliciting episode. We predicted that higher levels of maternal sensitivity would be associated with greater fear regulation. We operationalized fear regulation as decreases in fear over repeated trials of a novel, potentially frightening, stimulus...
November 8, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Alessandro Talia, Laura Muzi, Vittorio Lingiardi, Svenja Taubner
This paper investigates if therapists' attachment classifications are linked to different types of therapists' attunement in session. We present coding procedures and validation of the Therapist Attunement Scales (TASc), a transcript-based instrument that assesses attunement in therapy and that we hypothesized would be associated with therapists' attachment classifications. Fifty therapists were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), and therapy sessions with each therapist were rated with the TASc...
October 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Mikko J Peltola, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Santeri Yrttiaho
The present study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether cortical responses to facial expressions of fear are associated with the development of secure and insecure patterns of infant-mother attachment during the first year. Based on previous findings showing reduced attentional biases to fearful faces in infants with insecure and disorganized attachment, we hypothesized that insecure and disorganized attachment would be associated with reduced ERP differentiation of fearful from non-fearful faces...
October 10, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
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