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American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758982/kcne4-deletion-sex-dependently-inhibits-the-risk-pathway-response-and-exacerbates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#1
Zhaoyang Hu, Thomas Jepps, Leng Zhou, Jin Liu, Mufeng Li, Geoffrey W Abbott
Activation of anti-apoptotic signaling cascades such as the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) and survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE) pathways is protective in a variety of tissues in the context of ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. Hepatic IR injury causes clinically significant hepatocellular damage in surgical procedures including liver transplantation and hepatic resection, increasing associated morbidity and mortality. We previously found that the cardiovascular-expressed potassium channel ancillary subunit, KCNE4, sex-specifically influences the cardiac RISK/SAFE pathway response to IR, and that Kcne4 deletion testosterone-dependently exacerbates cardiac IR injury...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758978/impaired-neonatal-cardiorespiratory-responses-to-hypoxia-in-mice-lacking-pac1-or-vpac2-receptors
#2
Karlene T Barrett, Shabih U Hasan, Morris H Scantlebury, Richard J A Wilson
The stress peptide, PACAP, and its specific receptor, PAC1, have been implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). PACAP is also critical to the neonatal cardiorespiratory response to homeostatic stressors identified in SIDS, including hypoxia. However, which of PACAP's three receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and/or VPAC2, are involved is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that PAC1, but not VPAC2, is involved in mediating the cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia during neonatal development. To test this hypothesis, head-out plethysmography and surface ECG electrodes were used to assess the cardiorespiratory variables of unanesthetized postnatal day 4 PAC1 and VPAC2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice in response to a 10% hypoxic challenge...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758976/a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-induces-hyperphagia-obesity-and-cardiovascular-dysfunction-in-female-cycling-and-pregnant-rats
#3
Hijab Ahmed, Johanna L Hannan, John W Apolzan, Oluwatobiloba Osikoya, Spencer C Cushen, Steven A Romero, Styliani Goulopoulou
The main objective of these studies was to characterize metabolic, body composition, and cardiovascular responses to a free-choice high-fat high-sucrose diet in female cycling and pregnant rats. In the non-pregnant state, female Sprague-Dawley rats offered a 3-week free-choice high-fat high-sucrose diet had greater energy intake, adiposity, serum leptin and triglyceride concentrations compared to rats fed with standard chow, and developed glucose intolerance. In addition, choice diet-fed rats had larger cardiac ventricular weights, smaller kidney and pancreas weights, and higher blood pressure than chow-fed rats, but they did not exhibit resistance artery endothelial dysfunction...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758974/differential-effects-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-a-hypersinsulinemic-isoglycemic-clamp-on-metabolic-pathways-and-insulin-action-in-the-fetal-liver
#4
Amanda K Jones, Laura D Brown, Paul J Rozance, Natalie J Serkova, William W Hay, Jacob E Friedman, Stephanie R Wesolowski
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep have increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) that is resistant to suppression during a hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp (insulin-clamp). We hypothesized that the IUGR fetal liver would have activation of metabolic and signaling pathways that support HGP and inhibition of insulin signaling pathways. To test this, we used transcriptomic profiling with liver samples from control (CON) and IUGR fetuses receiving saline or an insulin-clamp. The IUGR liver had upregulation of genes associated with gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, transcription factor regulation, and cytokine responses and downregulation of genes associated with cholesterol synthesis, amino acid degradation, and detoxification pathways...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758973/low-intensity-exercise-delays-the-shivering-response-to-core-cooling
#5
Tomomi Fujimoto, Bun Tsuji, Yosuke Sasaki, Kohei Dobashi, Yasuo Sengoku, Naoto Fujii, Takeshi Nishiyasu
Hypothermia can occur during aquatic exercise, despite production of significant amounts of heat by the active muscles. Because the characteristics of human thermoregulatory responses to cold during exercise have not been fully elucidated, we investigated the effect of low-intensity exercise on the shivering response to core cooling in cool water. Eight healthy young men (24±3 years) were cooled through cool water immersion while resting (rest trial) and during loadless pedaling on a water cycle ergometer (exercise trial)...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735437/sex-specific-perinatal-programming-of-adult-insulin-resistance-in-guinea-pigs-by-variable-perinatal-growth-induced-by-spontaneous-variation-in-litter-size
#6
Dane M Horton, David A Saint, Kathryn L Gatford, Karen L Kind, Julie A Owens
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and subsequent neonatal catch-up growth are implicated in programming of insulin resistance later in life. Spontaneous IUGR in the guinea pig, due to natural variation in litter size, produces offspring with asymmetric IUGR and neonatal catch-up growth. We hypothesized that spontaneous IUGR and/or accelerated neonatal growth would impair insulin sensitivity in adult guinea pigs. Insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism was determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) in 38 (male=21, female=17) young adult guinea pigs from litters of two to four pups...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735436/low-protein-and-methionine-high-starch-diets-increase-energy-intake-and-expenditure-increase-fgf21-decrease-igf-1-and-has-little-effect-on-adiposity-in-mice
#7
Catherine Chaumontet, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Anne Blais, Julien Piedcoq, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Patrick C Even
Low-protein diets most often induce increased energy intake in an attempt to increase protein intake to meet protein needs with a risk of accumulation as fat of the excess energy intake. In female adult BalbC mice, a decrease in dietary casein from 20% to 6% and 3% increased energy intake and slightly increased adiposity, and this response was exacerbated with soy proteins with low methionine content. The effect on fat mass was however limited because total energy expenditure (TEE) increased to the same extent as energy intake...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30726119/chemogenetic-activation-of-orexin-hypocretin-neurons-ameliorates-aging-induced-changes-in-behavior-and-energy-expenditure
#8
Milos Stanojlovic, Jean Pierre Pallais Yllescas, Vijaya Mavanji, Catherine M Kotz
Aging affects numerous physiological processes as well as behavior. A large number of these processes are regulated, at least partially, by hypothalamic orexin neurons, and orexin tone may decrease with normal aging. In this study, we hypothesized that DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) stimulation of orexin neuronal activity will ameliorate the effect of aging on behavioral and metabolic alterations in young and middle-aged mice. DREADD targeting was achieved by stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors (pAAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry) into lateral hypothalamus of 5 and 12 months old orexin-cre female mice and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of orexin A and mCherry expression...
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30726118/npy-2-receptor-activation-in-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-increases-food-intake-and-attenuates-cck-induced-satiation-in-male-rats
#9
Nathaneal Jason Huston, Lynne Anne Brenner, Zachary Creed Taylor, Robert C Ritter
NPY, PYY and cognate receptors (YR) are expressed by subpopulations of central and peripheral nervous system neurons. Intracerebroventricular injections of NPY or PYY increase food intake, and intrahypothalamic NPY 1 or 5 receptor agonist injections also increase food intake. In contrast, injection of PYY in the periphery reduces food intake, apparently by activating peripheral Y2R. The dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain (DVC) is the site where vagal afferents relay gut satiation signals to the brain. While contributions of the DVC are increasingly investigated, a role for DVC YR in control of food intake has not been examined systematically...
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30726117/functional-sympatholysis-is-impaired-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#10
Justin D Sprick, Ryan M Downey, Doree Lynn Morison, Ida T Fonkoue, Yunxiao Li, Dana DaCosta, Derick Rapista, Jeanie Park
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have decreased exercise capacity and exercise intolerance that contribute to cardiovascular risk. One potential mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in ESRD is impaired ability to oppose sympathetically-mediated vasoconstriction within exercising skeletal muscle (i.e. functional sympatholysis, FS). We hypothesized that ESRD patients have impaired FS compared to healthy (CON) and hypertensive (HTN) controls, and that impaired FS is related to circulating levels of the uremic toxin, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor...
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30726116/acute-effects-of-hyperglycemia-on-the-peripheral-nervous-system-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-following-nitroreductase-mediated-%C3%AE-cell-ablation
#11
Amanda Rocker, Julia Howell, Gabrielle Voithofer, Jessica Kennett Clark
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is estimated to affect 50% of diabetic patients. Although highly prevalent, molecular mechanisms remain unknown and treatment is limited to pain relief and glycemic control. Here, we provide a novel model of acute DPN in zebrafish (Danio Rerio)larvae. Beginning 5 days post fertilization (dpf), zebrafish expressing nitroreductase in their pancreatic b-cells were treated with metronidazole (MTZ) for 48 hours and checked for b-cell ablation 7 dpf. In experimental design, this was meant to serve as proof of concept that b-cell ablation and hyperglycemia was possible at this time-point, but surprisingly, we observed changes occurring to both sensory and motor nerve components...
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698988/unexpected-effect-of-insulin-on-glucose-disposal-explains-glucose-intolerance-in-trout
#12
Johnathon L I Forbes, Daniel Joseph Kostyniuk, Jan Alexander Mennigen, Jean-Michel Weber
The physiological reasons why salmonids show glucose intolerance are unclear. In mammals, rapid clearance of a glucose load is mainly achieved through insulin-mediated inhibition of hepatic glucose production (Ra ) and stimulation of glucose disposal (Rd ), but the effects of insulin on Ra and Rd glucose have never been measured in fish. The goal of this study was to characterize the impact of insulin on the glucose kinetics of rainbow trout in vivo. Glucose fluxes were measured by continuous infusion of 6-[3 H] glucose before and during 4 h of insulin administration...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698987/inadequacy-of-typical-physiological-experimental-protocols-for-investigating-consequences-of-stochastic-weather-events-emerging-from-global-warming
#13
Warren W Burggren
Increasingly variable, extreme and non-predictable weather events are predicted to accompany climate change, and such weather events will especially affect temperate, terrestrial environments. Yet, typical protocols in comparative physiology that examine environmental change typically employ simple step-wise changes in the experimental stressor of interest (e.g. temperature, water availability, oxygen, nutrition). Such protocols fall short of mimicking actual natural environments, and may be inadequate for fully exploring the physiological effects of stochastic, extreme weather events...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673301/gestational-hypertensive-disorders-show-unique-patterns-of-circulatory-deterioration-with-ongoing-pregnancy
#14
Wilfried Jozef Gyselaers, Sharona Vonck, Anneleen Simonne Eugenie Staelens, Dorien Lanssens, Kathleen Tomsin, Jolien Oben, Pauline Dreesen, Liesbeth Bruckers
A combined assessment of heart, arteries, veins and body fluid content throughout pregnancy has not yet been reported. We hypothesized that a gradual aggravation of circulatory dysfunction exists from latent to clinical phase of gestational hypertensive disease (GHD), and that pathways are unique for preeclampsia with early-onset < 34w (EPE), late-onset ≥ 34w (LPE) and gestational hypertension (GH). Women with singleton pregnancy and no known diseases were invited for a prospective, observational study and had standardized sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurement, bioimpedance body water spectrum analysis, impedance cardiography for cardiac and arterial assessment and combined Doppler-ECG of hepatic and renal interlobar veins and uterine arteries...
January 23, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673300/editorial-focus-the-perils-of-rehydrating-with-soft-drinks-following-heat-and-exercise
#15
Laura Gabriela Sandez-Lozada, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Fernando Enrique García-Arroyo, Thomas Jensen, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673296/role-of-socs3-in-pomc-neurons-in-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-regulation
#16
Zhen Wang, Jussara M do Carmo, Alexandre A da Silva, Kandice C Bailey, Nicola Aberdein, Sydney P Moak, John E Hall
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a negative regulator of leptin signaling. We previously showed that the chronic effects of leptin on blood pressure (BP) and glucose regulation are mediated by stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. In this study, we examined the importance of endogenous SOCS3 in POMC neurons in control of metabolic and cardiovascular function and potential sex differences. Male and female SOCS3flox/flox /POMC-Cre mice in which SOCS3 was selectively deleted in POMC neurons and control SOCS3flox/flox mice were studied during a control diet (CD) or high fat diet (HFD) and during chronic leptin infusion...
January 23, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649893/how-does-homeostasis-happen-integrative-physiologic-systems-biologic-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#17
David S Goldstein
Homeostasis is a founding principle of integrative physiology. In current systems biology, however, homeostasis seems almost invisible. Is homeostasis a key goal driving body processes, or is it an emergent mechanistic fact? In this perspective piece I propose that the integrative physiologic and systems biologic viewpoints about homeostasis reflect different epistemologies-different philosophies of knowledge. Integrative physiology is concept-driven. It attempts to explain biological phenomena by continuous formation of theories that experimentation or observation can test...
January 16, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649892/metformin-counteracts-glucose-dependent-lipogenesis-and-impairs-transdeamination-in-the-liver-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#18
Ania Rashidpour, Jonás I Silva-Marrero, Lidia Seguí, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug with a major impact on regulating blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis but also affecting other pathways, including glucose transport and energy/lipid metabolism. Carnivorous fish are considered glucose intolerant, as they exhibit poor ability to using dietary carbohydrates. To increase the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms by which metformin can improve glucose homeostasis in carnivorous fish, we addressed the effect of intraperitoneal administration of metformin, in the presence or absence of a glucose load, on metabolic rate-limiting enzymes and lipogenic factors in the liver of gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata)...
January 16, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624978/interleukin-4-supplementation-improves-the-pathophysiology-of-hypertension-in-response-to-placental-ischemia-in-rupp-rats
#19
Jesse N Cottrell, Lorena M Amaral, Ashlyn C Harmon, Denise C Cornelius, Mark W Cunningham, Venkata Ramana Vaka, Tarek Ibrahim, Florian Herse, Gerd Wallukat, Ralf Dechend, Babbette D LaMarca
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by chronic inflammation, elevated agonistic autoantibodies to the Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA), ET-1, and uterine artery resistance index (UARI) during pregnancy. Previous studies report an imbalance among immune cells with TH2 being decreased during PE. We hypothesized that Interleukin-4 (IL-4) would increase TH2s and improve the pathophysiology observed in response to placental ischemia during pregnancy. IL-4, 600 ng/day, was administered via a mini-osmotic pump on day 14 of gestation into normal pregnant (NP) and RUPP rats...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624977/reducing-lung-liquid-volume-increases-biventricular-outputs-and-systemic-arterial-blood-flows-despite-decreased-cardiac-filling-pressures-in-fetal-lambs
#20
Joseph J Smolich, Jonathan P Mynard
As prior work has shown that reducing lung liquid volume 1) increases pulmonary arterial (PA) blood flow, 2) augments right ventricular (RV) output/power, and 3) decreases left atrial (LA) pressure, we tested the hypothesis that this perturbation has global cardiovascular effects. Ten anesthetized, open-chest fetal lambs (gestation 128±2d, term=147d) were acutely instrumented with 1) LA and right atrial (RA) catheters, 2) aortic and pulmonary trunk catheters, 3) brachiocephalic trunk (BCT), aortic isthmus (AI), ductal and left PA flow probes to obtain left ventricular (LV) and RV outputs and hydraulic power, and flow in the descending thoracic aorta (DTA), and 4) an endotracheal tube to remove lung liquid...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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