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Journals American Journal of Physiology...

American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/39005083/relative-rdna-copy-number-is-not-associated-with-resistance-training-induced-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-and-does-not-affect-myotube-anabolism-in-vitro
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joshua S Godwin, J Max Michel, Andrew T Ludlow, Andrew D Frugé, C Brooks Mobley, Gustavo A Nader, Michael D Roberts
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies exist across multiple chromosomes and inter-individual variation in copy number is speculated to influence the hypertrophic response to resistance training. Thus, we examined if rDNA copy number was associated with resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Participants (n=53 males, 21±1 years old; n=29 females, 21±2 years old) performed 10-12 weeks of full-body resistance training. Hypertrophy outcomes were determined, as was relative rDNA copy number from pre-intervention vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies...
July 15, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39005082/tissue-desaturation-is-not-a-major-determinant-of-aging-related-impairment-in-skeletal-muscle-reactive-hyperemia-a-retrospective-analysis
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thiago Silveira Alvares, Rogerio Nogueira Soares
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with vascular occlusion test (NIRS-VOT) is a reactive hyperemia technique for in vivo evaluation of skeletal muscle microvascular reactivity. Previous studies using NIRS-VOT have been shown to be able to detect impairments in microvascular function in high-risk cardiovascular disease (CVD) populations such as older individuals. It has been demonstrated that older individuals have slower reactive hyperemia compared to young individuals. Importantly, older individuals also show less desaturation during ischemia compared to young...
July 15, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39005081/sex-differences-in-heat-stress-vulnerability-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-psu-heat-project
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Olivia K Leach, Rachel M Cottle, Kat G Fisher, S Tony Wolf, W Larry Kenney
Individuals over the age of 65 are the most vulnerable population during severe environmental heat events, experiencing worse health outcomes than any other age cohort. The risk is greater in older women than in age-matched men; however, whether that reflects a greater susceptibility to heat in women or simply population sex proportionality is unclear. Seventy-two participants (29 M/43 F) aged 40-92 yrs were exposed to progressive heat stress at a metabolic rate designed to reflect activities of daily living...
July 15, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39005080/effects-of-aging-on-diaphragm-hyperemia-and-blood-flow-distribution-in-male-and-female-fischer-344-rats
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Andrew G Horn, Kiana M Schulze, Judy Muller-Delp, David C Poole, Bradley J Behnke
Aging is associated with inspiratory muscle dysfunction, however, the impact of aging on diaphragm blood flow (BF) regulation, and whether sex-differences exist, is unknown. We tested the hypotheses in young animals, that diaphragm BF and vascular conductance (VC) would be greater in females and that aging would decrease the diaphragm's ability to increase BF with contractions. Young (4-6 months) and old (22-24 months) Fischer-344 rats were divided into four groups: Young Female (YF, n=7), Young Male (YM, n=8), Old Female (OF, n=9), and Old Male (OM, n=9)...
July 15, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39005079/influence-of-angiotensin-ii-and-telmisartan-on-in-vivo-high-resolution-renal-arterial-impedance-in-rats
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yukiko Fukuda, Toru Kawada, Yasuyuki Kataoka, Jon Peterson, Keita Saku, Joe Alexander, Kenji Sunagawa
Angiotensin II (ANGII) is known to play an important role in regulating renal hemodynamics. We sought to quantify this effect in an in vivo rat model with high-resolution renal arterial (RA) impedance. This study examines the effects of ANGII and its type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan (TELM), on RA impedance. In baroreflex deactivated rats, we measured RA pressure ( Pr ) and blood flow ( Fr ) during random ventricular pacing to induce pressure fluctuation at three different mean Pr (60, 80, and 100 mmHg)...
July 15, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38881413/plasma-epinephrine-and-norepinephrine-responses-to-extreme-heat-exposures-in-young-and-older-adults
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zachary J McKenna, Josh Foster, Whitley C Atkins, Caitlin P Jarrard, Satyam Sarma, Craig G Crandall
Hyperthermia is known as a hyperadrenergic state, yet there is a lack of data on the sympathetic responses to ambient heat stress in humans. Therefore, we investigated the plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations of healthy young and older adults exposed to 3-hours of very-hot and dry and hot-humid heat, both with accompanying activities of daily living. We hypothesized that older adults, compared to young adults, would have augmented increases in epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations secondary to increased thermal strain...
June 17, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38881412/valine-administration-in-the-hypothalamus-alters-the-brain-and-plasma-metabolome-in-rainbow-trout
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sara Comesaña, Femilarani Antomagesh, Jose L Soengas, Ayelen M Blanco, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Central administration of valine has been shown to cause hyperphagia in fish. Although mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in this response, the contributions on feed intake of central and peripheral metabolite changes due to excess valine are unknown. Here we investigated whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of valine modulates central and peripheral metabolite profiles and may provide insights into feeding response in fish. Juvenile rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) were administered an ICV injection of valine (10 µg · µL-1 at 1 μL·100 g-1 body weight) and the metabolite profile in plasma, hypothalamus, and rest of the brain (comprising of telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata) was carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics...
June 17, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38881411/the-multidrug-resistance-protein-mrp-4-is-expressed-and-functionally-active-in-isolated-bladder-from-pig
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Erick de Toledo Gomes, Gabriela Reolon Passos, Natalícia de Jesus Antunes, Mariana G de Oliveira, Valeria Barbosa de Souza, André Almeida Schenka, José Luiz da Costa, Edson Antunes, Fabíola Zakia Mónica
Multidrug resistance proteins type 4 (MRP4) and 5 (MRP5) play pivotal roles in the transport of cyclic nucleotides in various tissues. However, their specific functions within the lower urinary tract remain relatively unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pharmacological inhibition of MRPs on cyclic nucleotide signaling in isolated pig bladder. The relaxation responses of the bladder were assessed in the presence of the MRP inhibitor, MK571. The temporal changes in intra- and extracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP in stimulated tissues were determined by mass spectrometry...
June 17, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38860288/gaps-in-our-understanding-of-how-vagal-afferents-to-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-detect-luminal-stimuli
#9
REVIEW
Edward A Fox, Hannah K Serlin
Vagal afferents to the gastrointestinal tract are crucial for regulation of food intake, signaling negative feedback that contributes to satiation and positive feedback that produces appetition and reward. Vagal afferents to the small intestinal mucosa contribute to this regulation by sensing luminal stimuli and reporting this information to the brain. These afferents respond to mechanical, chemical, thermal, pH, and osmolar stimuli and to bacterial products and immunogens. Surprisingly little is known about how these stimuli are transduced by vagal mucosal afferents, or how their transduction is organized among these afferents' terminals...
June 11, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38860282/neuroprotection-provided-by-hypothermia-initiated-with-high-transnasal-flow-with-ambient-air-in-a-model-of-pediatric-cardiac-arrest
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zeng-Jin Yang, C Danielle Hopkins, Polan T Santos, Shawn Adams, Ewa Kulikowicz, Jennifer K Lee, Harikrishna Tandri, Raymond C Koehler
Clinical trials of hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) have not seen robust improvement in functional outcome, possibly because of the long delay in achieving target temperature. Previous work in infant piglets showed that high nasal airflow, which induces evaporative cooling in the nasal mucosa, reduced regional brain temperature uniformly in half the time needed to reduce body temperature. Here, we evaluated whether initiation of hypothermia with high transnasal airflow provides neuroprotection without adverse effects in the setting of asphyxic CA...
June 11, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842519/electroneutral-na-cl-cotransport-activity-of-zebrafish-slc12a10-1-expressed-in-xenopus-oocytes
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Chihiro Ota, Ayumi Nagashima, Akira Kato
Na+ /Cl- cotransporter 2 (Ncc2 or Slc12a10), is a membrane transport protein that belongs to the electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporter family. The Slc12a10 gene ( slc12a10 ) is widely present in bony vertebrates but is deleted or pseudogenized in birds, some bony fishes, and most mammals. Slc12a10 is highly homologous to Ncc (Slc12a3 or Ncc1); however, there are only a few reports measuring the activity of Slc12a10. In this study, we focused on zebrafish Slc12a10.1 (zSlc12a10.1) and analyzed its activity using Xenopus oocyte electrophysiology...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842518/metabolic-pathways-that-mediate-the-effects-of-food-deprivation-on-reproductive-behavior-in-female-d-rosophila-melanogaster
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Attilio Ceretti, Zimo Yang, Jill E Schneider
In most species studied, energy deficits inhibit female reproductive behavior, but the location and nature of energy sensors and how they affect behavior are unknown. Progress has been facilitated by using Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which reproduction and food availability are closely linked. Adult males and females were either fed or food deprived (FD) and tested in an arena with a fed, opposite-sex conspecific with no food in the testing arena. Only FD females (not FD males) significantly decreased their copulation rate and increased their copulation latency, and the effects of FD were prevented in females fed either yeast alone or glucose alone, but not sucralose alone, cholesterol alone, or amino acids alone...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842517/sympathoinhibition-during-cardiopulmonary-baroreceptor-loading-is-attenuated-in-older-females
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Keisho Katayama, Kana Shiozawa, Jordan B Lee, Haruna Kondo, Natsuki Seo, Koji Ishida, Philip J Millar, Ryoichi Banno, Shigehiko Ogoh
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the impact of age on the sympathoinhibitory response to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor loading in females. Nine older females (mean±SD, 70±6 years) and eleven younger females (20±1 years) completed the study. A passive leg raising (PLR) test was performed wherein the participants were positioned supine (baseline, 0º), and their lower limbs were passively lifted at 10º, 20º, 30º, and 40º (3 min at each angle). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded via microneurography of the left radial nerve...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842516/skin-response-to-chronic-crowding-stress-in-shy-bold-behavioral-groups-of-male-and-female-zebrafish
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gallage Chanuka P Fernando, Ali R Khansari, Lluis Tort
In recent years, there has been a burgeoning interest in exploring the nuances of animal stress physiology, particularly in relation to parameters such as sex, and behavioral phenotype-dependent variations, that is crucial for understanding phenotypic variation and its role in evolutionary selection. However, a significant dearth remains in how chronic stressors affect organismal stress physiology concerning the aforesaid parameters. This void is even wider pertaining to the response of peripheral tissues, such as the skin, the organ with the highest surface contact area with the environment...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842515/effects-of-acute-simulated-altitude-on-the-maximal-lactate-steady-state-in-humans
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Austin T Beever, Andrea Y Zhuang, Juan M Murias, Saied J Aboodarda, Martin J MacInnis
We sought to determine the effects of acute simulated altitude on the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and physiological responses to cycling at and 10 W above the MLSS-associated power output (PO) (MLSSp and MLSSp+10 , respectively). Eleven (4 female) participants (mean [SD]; 28 [4] years; V̇O2 max: 54.3 [6.9] mL×kg-1 ×min-1 ) acclimatized to ~1100 m performed 30-min constant PO trials in simulated altitudes of 0 m (SL), 1111 m (MILD), and 2222 m (MOD). MLSSp , defined as the highest PO with stable (<1mM change) blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) between 10 and 30 min, was significantly lower in MOD (209 [54] W) compared to SL (230 [56] W; p<0...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842514/heavy-intensity-priming-exercise-extends-the-v%C3%AC-o-2max-plateau-and-increases-peak-power-output-during-ramp-incremental-exercise
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gabriele Marinari, Danilo Iannetta, Robert John Holash, Alessandro M Zagatto, Daniel A Keir, Juan M Murias
PURPOSE: To investigate whether a heavy-intensity priming exercise precisely prescribed within the heavy-intensity domain would lead to a greater peak-power output (POpeak ) and a longer maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max ) plateau. METHODS: Twelve recreationally active adults participated in this study. Two visits were required: (i) a step-ramp-step test (RI control), and (ii) a RI-test preceded by a priming exercise within the heavy-intensity domain (RI primed)...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842513/actigraphy-based-sleep-and-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-humans
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jeremy A Bigalke, Ian M Greenlund, Jennifer R Bigalke, Jason R Carter
Short and insufficient sleep are prevalent and associated with cardiovascular disease, with the sympathetic nervous system as a suspected mediator. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between objective, actigraphy-based total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE) and cardiovascular and sympathetic regulation in healthy adults. We hypothesized that short TST and low SE would be associated with elevated resting blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38842512/elucidation-of-the-pathophysiology-of-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-via-experimental-autoimmune-cystitis-rat-model
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Katsumi Kadekawa, Saori Nishijima, Katsuhiko Noguchi, Seiji Matsumoto, Kimio Sugaya
Although the cause of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) remains unknown, autoimmune involvement has been strongly suggested to be a contributing factor. To elucidate the pathophysiology of IC/PBS, we characterized the experimental autoimmune cystitis (EAC) in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the EAC and control groups. The EAC rats were generated by administrating a homogenate of donor rat bladder tissue as a bladder antigen. The characteristics of the two groups were determined by evaluating pain behavior and conducting cystometry, histopathology, and molecular analyses...
June 6, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38780441/probiotic-and-high-fat-diet-effects-on-pain-assessment-body-composition-and-cytokines-in-male-and-female-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hershel Raff, Keri R Hainsworth, Victoria L Woyach, Dorothee Weihrauch, Xuemeng Wang, Caron Dean
Obesity in adolescence is increasing in frequency and is associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines and chronic pain in a sex-dependent manner. Dietary probiotics may mitigate these detrimental effects of obesity. Using a Long-Evans adolescent and adult rat model of overweight (high fat diet - 45% kcal from fat from weaning; HFD), we determined the effect of a single strain dietary probiotic (L. plantarum 299v [Lp299v] from weaning) on the theoretically increased neuropathic injury-induced pain phenotype and inflammatory cytokines...
May 23, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38780425/urothelium-derived-prostanoids-enhance-contractility-of-urinary-bladder-smooth-muscle-and-stimulate-bladder-afferent-nerve-activity-in-the-mouse
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thomas J Heppner, Hannah J Fallon, Jason L Rengo, Elleanor M Beaulieu, Grant W Hennig, Mark T Nelson, Gerald M Herrera
The transitional epithelial cells (urothelium) that line the lumen of the urinary bladder form a barrier between potentially harmful pathogens, toxins, and other bladder contents and the inner layers of the bladder wall. The urothelium, however, is not simply a passive barrier, as it can produce signaling factors, such as ATP, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and other prostanoids, that can modulate bladder function. We investigated whether select substances produced by the urothelium could directly modulate the contractility of the underlying urinary bladder smooth muscle...
May 23, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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