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American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768357/hiv-and-cardiovascular-diseases-risk-exploring-the-interplay-between-t-cell-activation-coagulation-monocyte-subsets-and-lipid-subclass-alterations
#1
Eman Teer, Danzil E Joseph, Natasha Driescher, Theo Nell, Leanne Dominick, Natasha Midgley, Gaurang Deshpande, Martin Page, Etheresia Pretorius, Nicholas J Woudberg, Sandrine Lecour, Richard H Glashoff, M Faadiel Essop
Although rollout of combined anti-retroviral treatment (cART) has blunted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) onset, there is increased development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV-infected individuals. While most HIV-infected individuals on cART achieve viral suppression, this may not necessarily result in complete immunological recovery. This study therefore evaluated T cell-mediated changes and coagulation markers in HIV-positive individuals to ascertain their potential to increase CVD risk...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767685/b-anthracis-lethal-toxin-but-not-edema-toxin-increases-pulmonary-artery-pressure-and-permeability-in-isolated-perfused-rat-lungs
#2
Xizhong Cui, Wanying Xu, Pranita Neupane, Andie Weiser-Schlesinger, Ray Weng, Benjamin Pockros, Yan Li, Mahtab Moayeri, Stephen H Leppla, Yvonne Fitz, Peter Q Eichacker
INTRODUCTION: Although lethal (LT) and edema toxin (ET) contribute to lethality during Bacillus anthracis infection, whether they increase vascular permeability and the extravascular fluid accumulation characterizing this infection is unclear. We employed an isolated perfused Sprague-Dawley rat lung model to investigate LT and ETs effects on pulmonary vascular permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lungs (n≥6 per experimental group) were isolated, ventilated, suspended from a force transducer and perfused...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767670/pulmonary-vascular-mechanical-consequences-of-ischemic-heart-failure-and-implications-for-right-ventricular-function
#3
Jennifer L Philip, Thomas M Murphy, David A Schreier, Sydney Stevens, Diana Marcela Tabima, Marjorie E Albrecht, Andrea L Frump, Timothy A Hacker, Tim Lahm, Naomi Chesler
MOTIVATION: Left heart failure (LHF) is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension, which confers an increase in morbidity and mortality in this context. Pulmonary vascular resistance has prognostic value in LHF but otherwise the mechanical consequences of LHF for the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle remain unknown. We sought to investigate mechanical mechanisms of pulmonary vascular and right ventricular dysfunction in a rodent model of LHF to address the knowledge gaps in understanding disease pathophysiology...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767669/nrp1-regulates-hmgb1-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-under-high-homocysteine-condition
#4
Yeshuo Ma, Zhen Zhang, Runtai Chen, Rui Shi, Pingyu Zeng, Ruifang Chen, Yiping Leng, Alex F Chen
Endothelial inflammation plays an important role in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-associated vascular diseases. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a pro-inflammatory danger molecule produced by endothelial cells. However, whether HMGB1 was involved in vascular endothelial inflammation of HHcy is poorly understood. Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) mediates inflammatory response, and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway that has been reported to be involved in regulation of HMGB1. The aim of this study was to determine the alteration of HMGB1 in HHcy, and the role of NRP1 in regulation of endothelial HMGB1 under high homocysteine (Hcy) condition...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767664/proximal-pressure-reducing-effect-of-wave-reflection-in-the-pulmonary-circulation-disappear-in-obstructive-disease-insight-from-a-rabbit-model
#5
Frédéric Vanden Eynden, Bachar El Oumeiri, Thierry Bové, Guido Van Nooten, Patrick Segers
Locating the site of increased resistance within the vascular tree in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), could assist in both patient diagnosis and tailoring treatment. Wave intensity analysis (WIA) is a wave analysis method that may be capable of localizing the major site of reflection within a vascular system. We investigated the contribution of WIA to the analysis of the pulmonary circulation in a rabbit model with animals subjected to variable occlusive pulmonary disease. Animals were embolized with different sized microspheres for 6 weeks (N = 10) or underwent pulmonary artery (PA) ligation for 6 weeks (N = 3)...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735434/transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-trpa1-channel-contributes-to-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Daniel J Conklin, Yiru Guo, Ganapathy Jagatheesan, Matthew A Nystoriak, Detlef Obal, Peter Kilfoil, Luping Guo, Joseph David Hoetker, Roberto Bolli, Aruni Bhatnagar
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in generation of free radicals, accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes, variable angina (pain) and infarction. Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) mediates pain signaling and is activated by unsaturated aldehydes, including acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal. The contribution of TRPA1 (a calcium permeable channel) to I/R-induced myocardial injury is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that cardiac TRPA1 confers myocyte sensitivity to aldehyde accumulation and promotes I/R injury...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735074/left-ventricular-vortex-and-intraventricular-pressure-difference-in-dogs-under-various-loading-conditions
#7
Katsuhiro Matsuura, Kenjiro Shiraishi, Kotomi Sato, Kazumi Shimada, Seijirow Goya, Akiko Uemura, Mayumi Ifuku, Takeshi Iso, Ken Takahashi, Ryou Tanaka
Restrictions on the conventional evaluation of diastolic function has been recognized especially under various loading conditions. Recently, new noninvasive ventricular vortex indexes have been introduced and are expected to reflect the cardiac function. Physiologically, there is a hypothesis that intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) is related to the formation of vortexes. IVPD and the vortex indexes were simultaneously measured and the relationship between the two was investigated. To verify the possibility of diastolic vorticity as an index of diastolic relaxation, a correlation between diastolic vorticity and Tau, load dependency of vorticity was examined...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735073/docosahexaenoic-acid-reduces-resting-blood-pressure-but-increases-muscle-sympathetic-outflow-compared-to-eicosapentaenoic-acid-in-healthy-men-and-women
#8
Jordan B Lee, Karambir Notay, Shannon Klingel, Adrian Chabowski, David M Mutch, Philip J Millar
Supplementation with monounsaturated or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can lower resting blood pressure (BP) and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. The independent contributions of n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on BP, and mechanisms responsible, are unclear. We tested whether EPA, DHA, and olive oil (OO), a source of monounsaturated fat, differentially affect resting hemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Eighty-six healthy young men and women were recruited to participate in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial examining the effects of orally supplementing ~3g/day of EPA (n=28), DHA (n=28), or OO (n=30) on resting hemodynamics, and in a subset (n=31), MSNA...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735072/overexpression-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-promotes-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-by-inducing-apoptosis
#9
Lingfang Zhuang, Chenni Li, Qiujing Chen, Qi Jin, Liqun Wu, Lin Lu, Xiaoxiang Yan, Kang Chen
OBJECTIVE: Fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), a low-molecular-weight protein, participates in lipid transportation, storage, signaling transduction, oxidation, and transcription regulation. Here, we investigated the expression and function of FABP3 in ischemic heart diseases and explored the mechanisms by which FABP3 affected the remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Approach and Results:We showed that ischemic or hypoxic conditions upregulated FABP3 expression in vivo and in vitro...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707616/cardiovascular-injury-induced-by-tobacco-products-assessment-of-risk-factors-and-biomarkers-of-harm-a-tobacco-center-of-regulatory-science-tcors-compilation
#10
Daniel J Conklin, Suzaynn F Schick, Michael J Blaha, Alex Perrow Carll, Andrew DeFilippis, Peter Ganz, Michael E Hall, Naomi M Hamburg, Timothy E O'Toole, Lindsay M Reynolds, Sanjay Srivastava, Aruni Bhatnagar
Although substantial evidence shows that smoking is positively and robustly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), the CVD risk associated with the use of new and emerging tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes, hookah and heat-not-burn products remains unclear. This uncertainty stems from lack of knowledge on how the use of these products affects cardiovascular health. Cardiovascular injury associated with the use of new tobacco products could be evaluated by measuring changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular harm that are sensitive to the use of combustible cigarettes...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707615/right-ventricular-remodeling-in-response-to-volume-overload-in-fetal-sheep
#11
Tara B Karamlou, George D Giraud, Donogh F McKeogh, Sonnet S Jonker, Irving Shen, Ross M Ungerlieder, Kent L Thornburg
The fetal myocardium is known to be sensitive to hemodynamic load, responding to systolic overload with cellular hypertrophy, proliferation and accelerated maturation. However, the fetal cardiac growth response to primary volume overload is unknown. We hypothesized that increased venous return would stimulate fetal cardiomyocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation, particularly in the right ventricle (RV). Sixteen late-gestation fetal sheep had vascular catheters and pulmonary artery flow probes implanted...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707614/the-renin-angiotensin-system-going-beyond-the-classical-paradigms
#12
Robson A Souza Santos, Gavin Y Oudit, Thiago Verano-Braga, Giovanni Canta, Ulrike Muscha Steckelings, Michael Bader
Thirty years ago a novel axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was unveiled by the discovery of angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) generation in-vivo. Later angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was shown to be the main mediator of this reaction and Mas was found to be the receptor for the heptapeptide. The functional analysis of this novel axis of the RAS which followed its discovery revealed numerous protective actions in particular for cardiovascular diseases. In parallel, similar protective actions were also described for one of the two receptors of Ang II, AT2 R, in contrast to the other, AT1 R, which mediates deleterious actions of this peptide e...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707613/important-roles-of-endothelial-caveolin-1-in-endothelium-dependent-hyperpolarization-and-ischemic-angiogenesis-in-mice
#13
Akiyo Ito, Takashi Shiroto, Shigeo Godo, Hiroki Saito, Shuhei Tanaka, Yosuke Ikumi, Shoko Kajitani, Kimio Satoh, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Although increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, the importance of physiological ROS has also been emerging. We have previously demonstrated that endothelium-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is one of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) factors and that loss of endothelial caveolin-1 reduces EDH/H2 O2 in microcirculation. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a scaffolding/ regulatory protein that interacts with diverse signaling pathways including angiogenesis...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707612/sympatho-excitation-in-response-to-cardiac-and-pulmonary-afferent-stimulation-of-trpa1-channels-is-attenuated-in-chronic-heart-failure-rats
#14
Ryan J Adam, Zhiqiu Xia, Kristina Pravoverov, Juan Hong, Adam J Case, Harold D Schultz, Steven Lisco, Irving H Zucker, Han-Jun Wang
Excessive sympatho-excitation characterizes the chronic heart failure (CHF) state. An exaggerated cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to this sympatho-excitation. Prior studies demonstrate that the CSAR to capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) is exaggerated in CHF animal models. We recently discovered that capsaicin application to the lung visceral pleura in anesthetized, vagotomized, open-chested rats increases mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA)...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707611/solving-a-century%C3%A2-old-conundrum-underlying-cardiac-force%C3%A2-length-relations
#15
June-Chiew Han, Toan Pham, Andrew J Taberner, Denis S Loiselle, Kenneth Tran
In the late 19th Century, Otto Frank presented a diagram showing that cardiac end‑systolic pressure‑volume relations are dependent on the mode of contraction: one for isovolumic contractions that locates above that for afterloaded ejecting contractions. Conflicting results to Frank's have been subsequently demonstrated in various species both within and among preparations ranging from the whole‑hearts to single myocytes, showing a single pressure‑volume or force‑length relation that is independent of the mode of contraction...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707610/sex-differences-in-cerebral-autoregulation-is-unaffected-by-menstrual-cycle-phase-in-young-healthy-women
#16
Michelle Elizabeth Favre, Jorge M Serrador
Sex is known to affect the prevalence of conditions such as stroke. However, effects of sex on cerebral blood flow regulation are still not well understood. Critical to this understanding is how fluctuations in hormones across the menstrual cycle affect cerebral autoregulation. We measured autoregulation in early follicular, late follicular, and mid-luteal phases during spontaneous and induced blood pressure oscillations in 26 (13 women) young (26 ± 4 years), healthy individuals. Men participated 3 times, ~1-3 weeks apart...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707595/modulating-cardiac-conduction-during-metabolic-ischemia-with-perfusate-sodium-and-calcium-in-guinea-pig-hearts
#17
Sharon Ann George, Gregory Hoeker, Patrick Calhoun, Michael Entz, Tristan B Raisch, David Ryan King, Momina Khan, Chandra E Baker, Robert G Gourdie, James W Smyth, Morten Schak Nielsen, Steven Poelzing
INTRODUCTION: We previously demonstrated that altering extracellular sodium (Nao ) and calcium (Cao ) can modulate a form of electrical communication between cardiomyocytes, termed ephaptic coupling, especially during loss of gap junction coupling. We hypothesized that altering Nao and Cao modulates conduction velocity (CV) and arrhythmic burden during ischemia. METHODS: Electrophysiology was quantified by optically mapping Langendorff-perfused guinea pig ventricles with modified Nao (147 or 155mM) and Cao (1...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681370/exogenous-ubiquitin-reduces-inflammatory-response-and-preserves-myocardial-function-3-days-post-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Stephanie L C Scofield, Suman Dalal, Kristina A Lim, Patsy R Thrasher, Christopher R Daniels, Jonathan M Peterson, Mahipal Singh, Krishna Singh
β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation increases extracellular levels of ubiquitin (UB) in myocytes, and exogenous UB decreases β-AR-stimulated myocyte apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. Here, we hypothesized that exogenous UB modulates inflammatory response, thereby playing a protective role in cardiac remodeling following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. C57Bl/6 mice, infused with vehicle or UB (1mg/g/h), were subjected to myocardial I/R injury. Functional and biochemical parameters of the heart were examined 3 days post-I/R...
January 25, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681369/testosterone-and-cardiac-remodeling-why-are-older-men-susceptible-to-heart-disease
#19
Pavel Zhabyeyev, Mahmoud Gheblawi, Gavin Y Oudit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681368/a-1-adenosine-receptor-and-mitochondria-targets-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#20
Diamela T Paez, Mariana Garces, Valeria Calabró, Eliana P Bin, Veronica D Annunzio, Julieta Del Mauro, Timoteo Marchini, Christian Höcht, Pablo Evelson, Ricardo J Gelpi, Martin Donato
Adenosine is involved in classic preconditioning in most species and acts especially through adenosine A1 and A3 receptors. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) activates A1 adenosine receptors and improves mitochondrial function, thereby reducing myocardial infarct size. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (I/R). In a second group, before isolation of the heart, a rIPC protocol (3 cycles of hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion) was performed...
January 25, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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