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American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38847760/flow-mediated-dilation-is-modified-by-exercise-training-status-during-childhood-and-adolescence-preliminary-evidence-of-the-youth-athlete-s-artery
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jack S Talbot, Dean R Perkins, Tony G Dawkins, Rachel N Lord, Jon L Oliver, Rhodri S Lloyd, Ali M McManus, Mike Stembridge, Christopher J A Pugh
Chronic exercise training is associated with an 'athlete's artery' phenotype in young adults and an attenuated age-related decline in endothelium-dependent arterial function. Adolescence is associated with an influx of sex-specific hormones that may exert divergent effects on endothelial function, but whether training adaptations interact with biological maturation to produce a 'youth athlete's artery' has not been explored. We investigated the influence of exercise training-status on endothelium-dependent arterial function during childhood and adolescence...
June 7, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38847759/cardiac-stasis-imaging-stroke-and-silent-brain-infarcts-in-patients-with-non-ischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elena Rodríguez-González, Pablo Martinez-Legazpi, Ana González-Mansilla, M Ángeles Espinosa, Teresa Mombiela, Juan A Guzmán-De-Villoria, Maria Guadalupe Borja, Fernando Díaz-Otero, Rubén Gómez de Antonio, Pilar Fernández-García, Ana I Fernández-Ávila, Cristina Pascual-Izquierdo, Juan C Del Alamo, Javier Bermejo
Cardioembolic stroke is one of the most devastating complications of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). However, in clinical trials of primary prevention, the benefits of anticoagulation are hampered by the risk of bleeding. Indices of cardiac blood stasis may account for the risk of stroke and be useful to individualize primary prevention treatments. We performed a cross-sectional study in patients with NIDCM and no history of atrial fibrillation (AF) from two sources: 1) a prospective enrollment of unselected patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <45% and 2) a retrospective identification of patients with a history of previous cardioembolic neurological event...
June 7, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38847758/-runx1-is-sufficient-but-not-required-for-cardiomyocyte-cell-cycle-activation
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kaelin A Akins, Michael A Flinn, Samantha K Swift, Smrithi V Chanjeevaram, Alexandra L Purdy, Tyler Buddell, Mary E Kolell, Kaitlyn G Andresen, Samantha Paddock, Sydney L Buday, Caitlin C O'Meara, Matthew B Veldman, Michaela Patterson
Factors responsible for cardiomyocyte proliferation could serve as potential therapeutics to stimulate endogenous myocardial regeneration following insult, such as ischemic injury. A previously published forward genetics approach on cardiomyocyte cell cycle and ploidy led us to the transcription factor, RUNX1. Here, we examine the effect of Runx1 on cardiomyocyte cell cycle during postnatal development and cardiac regeneration using cardiomyocyte-specific gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. RUNX1 is expressed in cardiomyocytes during early postnatal life, decreases to negligible levels by 3 weeks of age, and increases upon myocardial injury, all consistent with observed rates of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity...
June 7, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38847757/inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-kappab-activation-improves-non-nitric-oxide-mediated-cutaneous-microvascular-function-in-reproductive-aged-healthy-women
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Virginia G Content, Auni C Williams, Lacy M Alexander
The transcriptional regulator nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a mediator of endothelial dysfunction. Inhibiting NF-κB with salsalate is used to investigate inflammatory mechanisms contributing to accelerated cardiovascular disease risk. However, in the absence of disease, inhibition of NF-κB can impact redox mechanisms, resulting in paradoxically decreased endothelial function. This study aimed to measure microvascular endothelial function during inhibition of the transcriptional regulator NF-κB in reproductive-aged healthy women...
June 7, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38847756/machine-learning-a-new-era-for-cardiovascular-pregnancy-physiology-and-cardio-obstetrics-research
#5
REVIEW
Contessa A Ricci, Benjamin Crysup, Nicole R Phillips, William C Ray, Mark K Santillan, Aaron J Trask, August E Woerner, Styliani Goulopoulou
The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes functional and structural adaptations during pregnancy and postpartum to support increased metabolic demands of offspring and placental growth, labor, and delivery, as well as recovery from childbirth. Pregnancy thus poses physiological stress upon the maternal cardiovascular system, and in the absence of an appropriate response it imparts potential risks for cardiovascular complications and adverse outcomes. The proportion of pregnancy-related maternal deaths from cardiovascular events has been steadily increasing, contributing to high rates of maternal mortality...
June 7, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38847755/sex-dependent-remodeling-of-right-ventricular-function-in-a-rat-model-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ethan D Kwan, Becky A Hardie, Kristen M Garcia, Hao Mu, Tsui-Min Wang, Daniela Valdez-Jasso
Right-ventricular (RV) function is an important prognostic indicator for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a vasculopathy that primarily and disproportionally affects women with distinct pre- and post-menopausal clinical outcomes. However, most animal studies have overlooked the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on RV remodeling in PAH. Here, we combined invasive measurements of RV hemodynamics and morphology with computational models of RV biomechanics in sugen-hypoxia (SuHx) treated male, ovary-intact female, and ovariectomized female rats...
June 7, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38819385/early-to-mid-gestational-testosterone-excess-leads-to-adverse-cardiac-outcomes-in-postpartum-sheep
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bashar Alkhatib, Joseph Ciarelli, Adel Ghnenis, Brooke Pallas, Nicholas Olivier, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Arpita Kalla Vyas
Cardiovascular dysfunctions complicate 10-20% of pregnancies, increasing the risk for postpartum mortality. Various gestational insults, including preeclampsia are reported to be associated with adverse maternal cardiovascular outcomes. One such insult, gestational hyperandrogenism increases the risk for preeclampsia and other gestational morbidities but its impact on postpartum maternal health is not well known. We hypothesize that gestational hyperandrogenism such as testosterone (T) excess will adversely impact the maternal heart in the postpartum period...
May 31, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38819384/s100a1-s-single-cysteine-is-an-indispensable-redox-switch-for-the-protection-against-diastolic-calcium-wavesin-cardiomyocytes
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Andreas Seitz, Martin Busch, Jasmin Kroemer, Andrea Schneider, Stephanie Simon, Andreas Jungmann, Hugo A Katus, Patrick Most, Julia Ritterhoff
The EF-hand calcium (Ca2+ ) sensor protein S100A1 combines inotropic with antiarrhythmic potency in cardiomyocytes (CM). Oxidative posttranslational modification (ox-PTM) of S100A1's conserved, single cysteine residue (C85) via reactive nitrogen species (i.e. S-nitrosylation or glutathionylation) has been proposed to modulate conformational flexibility of intrinsically disordered sequence fragments and to increase the molecule's affinity towards Ca2+ . In light of the unknown biological functional consequence, we aimed to determine the impact of the C85 moiety of S100A1 as a potential redox-switch...
May 31, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38819383/effects-of-nitric-oxide-inhalation-on-pulmonary-arterial-impedance-differences-between-normal-and-pulmonary-hypertension-male-rats
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Masafumi Fukumitsu, Toru Kawada, Takuya Nishikawa, Shohei Yokota, Hiroki Matsushita, Hidetaka Morita, Kei Sato, Yuki Yoshida, Kazunori Uemura, Keita Saku
Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in participants with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although it can reduce pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in PAH, its impact on the dynamic mechanics of pulmonary arteries and its potential difference between control and PAH participants remain unclear. PA impedance provides a comprehensive description of PA mechanics. Using an arterial model, PA impedance can be parameterized into peripheral pulmonary resistance (Rp), arterial compliance (Cp), characteristic impedance of the proximal arteries (Zc), and transmission time from the main PA to the reflection site...
May 31, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38819382/guidelines-for-in-vivo-models-of-developmental-programming-of-cardiovascular-risk
#10
REVIEW
Junie P Warrington, Helen E Collins, Sandra T Davidge, Jussara M do Carmo, Styliani Goulopoulou, Suttira Intapad, Analia S Loria, Jenny L Sones, Loren E Wold, Erin K Zinkhan, Barbara T Alexander
Research utilizing animals depends on the generation of offspring for use in experiments or for the maintenance of animal colonies. While not considered by all, several different factors preceding and during pregnancy, as well as during lactation, can program various characteristics in the offspring. Here, we present the most common models of developmental programming of cardiovascular outcomes, important considerations for study design, and provide guidelines for producing and reporting rigorous and reproducible cardiovascular studies in offspring exposed to normal conditions or developmental insult...
May 31, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787388/non-invasive-assessment-of-human-microvascular-function-in-health-and-disease-using-incident-dark-field-microscopy
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Boran Katunaric, Gopika SenthilKumar, Forrest Stehula, Alec Werthman, Henry Bordas-Murphy, Julie K Freed
Reduced peripheral microvascular reactivity is associated with increased risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Tools for non-invasive assessment of peripheral microvascular function are limited and existing technology is poorly validated in both healthy populations and patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we utilized a handheld incident-darkfield imaging tool (CytoCam) to test the hypothesis that compared to healthy individuals (no risk factors for CVD), subjects formally diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD) or those with ≥ 2 risk factors for CAD (Endothelial Dysfunction; ED) would exhibit impaired peripheral microvascular reactivity...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787387/editorial-focus-on-h-00211-2024r1expanding-the-horizons-of-cardioprotection-unveiling-a-role-of-non-neuronal-cholinergic-signaling-in-hypoxic-preconditioning
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hans Erik Bøtker, Jacob Marthinsen Seefeldt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787386/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-murray-s-law-in-the-coronary-arterial-circulation
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daniel J Taylor, Harry Saxton, Ian Halliday, Tom Newman, D R Hose, Ghassan S Kassab, Julian P Gunn, Paul D Morris
Murray's law has been viewed as a fundamental law of physiology. Relating blood flow (Q) to vessel diameter (D) (Q µD3 ), it dictates minimum lumen area (MLA) targets for coronary bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The cubic exponent (3.0) however, has long been disputed, with alternative theoretical derivations arguing this should be closer to 2.33 (7/3). The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the optimum flow-diameter exponent in human and mammalian coronary arteries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all articles quantifying an optimum flow-diameter exponent for mammalian coronary arteries within the Cochrane library, PubMed Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases on 20/3/2023...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787385/percent-duration-of-heart-rate-acceleration-within-the-respiratory-cycle-a-novel-approach-to-assess-heart-rate-asymmetry
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yong-Ping Wang, Guo-Zhi Wang, Cheryl C H Yang
Accelerations and decelerations of heart rate are nonsymmetrical in the magnitude and number of beat-to-beat changes.The asymmetric features of heart rate variability are related to respiratory durations. To explore the link between respiration and heart rate asymmetry (HRA), we evaluated 14 seated, healthy young adults who breathed with nine combinations of inspiration duration (TI ) and expiration duration (TE ), chosen respectively from 2, 4, and 6 seconds. A 5-minute R-R interval (RRI) time series was obtained from each study period to construct an averaged pattern waveform relative to the respiratory cycle...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787384/cardiovascular-consequences-of-preeclampsia-is-the-reactivity-to-stress-the-missing-piece-of-the-puzzle
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
André L Teixeira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787383/very-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-mediates-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-induced-oxidative-stress-and-insulin-resistance
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tahar Hajri, Mohamed Gharib, Thomas Fungwe, Amosy M'Koma
Obesity is associated with excess lipid deposition in non-adipose tissues, leading to increased oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), a member of the LDL receptor family, binds and increases the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Although VLDLR is highly expressed in the heart, its role in obesity-associated oxidative stress and insulin resistance is unclear. Here, we used lean (WT), genetically obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob), and leptin-VLDLR double-null (ob/ob-VLDLR-/- ) mice to determine the impact of VLDLR deficiency on obesity-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance in the heart...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787382/innervation-of-adipocytes-is-limited-in-mouse-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marie Hanscom, Wilmarie Morales-Soto, Stephanie W Watts, William F Jackson, Brian D Gulbransen
BACKGROUND: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) regulates vascular tone by releasing anticontractile factors. These anticontractile factors are driven by processes downstream of adipocyte stimulation by norepinephrine; however, whether norepinephrine originates from neural innervation or other sources is unknown. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neurons innervating PVAT provide the adrenergic drive to stimulate adipocytes in aortic and mesenteric perivascular adipose tissue (aPVAT, mPVAT), and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787381/effect-of-acute-intranasal-insulin-administration-on-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-healthy-young-adults
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Neil J McMillan, Dain W Jacob, Brian Shariffi, Jennifer L Harper, Glen E Foster, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Jaume Padilla, Jacqueline K Limberg
Systemic insulin increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) via both central actions within the brainstem and peripheral activation of the arterial baroreflex. Augmented MSNA during hyperinsulinemia likely restrains peripheral vasodilation and contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure (BP). However, in the absence of insulin action within the peripheral vasculature, whether central insulin stimulation increases MSNA and influences peripheral hemodynamics in humans remains unknown. Herein, we hypothesized intranasal insulin administration would increase MSNA and BP in healthy young adults...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787380/the-interaction-of-macro-and-microvascular-function-underlies-brachial-artery-flow-mediated-dilation-in-humans
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Clare E Thorn, Phillip E Gates, Francesco Casanova, Alessandro Ramalli, Piero Tortoli, Carlo Palombo, Angela C Shore, Kunihiko Aizawa
Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD) is induced by hyperemic wall shear rate (WSR) following forearm ischemia. In older adults, there appears to be a reduced hyperemic WSR and altered stimulus-response relationship occurring at the brachial artery compared to young adults. However, it is unclear if an altered forearm microvascular response to ischemia influences brachial hyperemic WSR in older adults. We determined the association between brachial hyperemic WSR and forearm skeletal muscle oxygen saturation in young and older adults...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787379/detecting-heart-failure-from-b-mode-ultrasound-characterisation-of-arterial-pulse-waves
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ryan M Reavette, Anenta Ramakrishnan, Ethan M Rowland, Meng-Xing Tang, Jamil Mayet, Peter D Weinberg
This study investigated the sensitivity and specificity of identifying heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from measurements of the intensity and timing of arterial pulse waves. Previously validated methods combining ultrafast B-mode ultrasound, plane-wave transmission, singular value decomposition and speckle tracking were used to characterise the compression and decompression ("S" and "D") waves occurring in early and late systole, respectively, in carotid arteries of outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%, determined by echocardiography, and signs and symptoms of heart failure, or with LVEF ≥50% and no signs or symptoms of heart failure...
May 24, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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