Kinju Adhikari, Nithesh Naik, Bm Zeeshan Hameed, S K Raghunath, Bhaskar K Somani
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: ChatGPT is programmed to generate responses based on pattern recognition. With this vast popularity and exponential growth, the question arises of moral issues, security and legitimacy. In this review article, we aim to analyze the ethical and legal implications of using ChatGPT in Urology and explore potential solutions addressing these concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many potential applications of ChatGPT in urology, and the extent to which it might improve healthcare may cause a profound shift in the way we deliver our services to patients and the overall healthcare system...
January 2024: Current Urology Reports
Nithesh Naik, Ali Talyshinskii, Dasharathraj K Shetty, B M Zeeshan Hameed, Rano Zhankina, Bhaskar K Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial intelligence (AI) can significantly improve physicians' workflow when examining patients with UTI. However, most contemporary reviews are focused on examining the usage of AI with a restricted quantity of data, analyzing only a subset of AI algorithms, or performing narrative work without analyzing all dedicated studies. Given the preceding, the goal of this work was to conduct a mini-review to determine the current state of AI-based systems as a support in UTI diagnosis...
December 19, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Allison Grant, Christina P Carpenter, Belinda Li, Soo Jeong Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of hydrometrocolpos, covering disease etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic and management techniques, and known outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: This narrative review presents the literature on hydrometrocolpos in the pediatric population from the past 5 years. We highlight the 69 reported cases of hydrometrocolpos and classify them based on type of obstruction or associated anomaly, discuss new diagnostic algorithms based on imaging, and present novel and underutilized surgical techniques for definitive management...
December 1, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Zhemin Lin, Zhanliang Liu, Yinong Niu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the widespread utilization of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) for managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), certain BPH patients exhibit unresponsiveness to 5-ARIs therapy. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the current perspectives on the mechanisms of 5-ARIs resistance in BPH patients and integrates potential biomarkers and underlying therapeutic options for 5-ARIs resistance. These findings may facilitate the development of novel or optimize more effective treatment options, and promote personalized medicine for BPH...
November 21, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Bader Alsaikhan, Faisal Abugamza, Ali Almuhanna, Mohammed Bakarmom, Saleh Alhussaini, David Hajek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this study, we describe a rare case of a male with a duplex renal collecting system with ectopic ureter insertion into the prostate who presented with sepsis and required urgent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. This study offers urologists and emergency care practitioners a great overview of the variety of manifestations, anatomic differences, and therapeutic approaches for similar patients. RECENT FINDINGS: modified reconstructive strategy could be a method of choice when addressing particular anatomies, such as incomplete duplex kidneys with ureteropelvic junction obstruction in both upper and lower poles when the obstruction is close to the confluence of the two ureters...
November 9, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Kevin Birdsall, Ricardo R Gonzalez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of the lower urinary tract which often requires surgical treatment. Recently, there has been a deluge of new treatment options, rarely validated or compared to current treatments on a benchtop model. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature and report which benchtop models are currently being used, which therapies have been tested on them, and what outcomes are being studied on each model. RECENT FINDINGS: There are various benchtop models to choose from, each with their unique benefits and drawbacks...
November 9, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Zhen Kang, Daniel J Margolis, Shaogang Wang, Qiubai Li, Jian Song, Liang Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) category 3 lesions present a clinical dilemma due to their uncertain nature, which complicates the development of a definitive management strategy. These lesions have an incidence rate of approximately 22-32%, with clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) accounting for about 10-30%. Therefore, a thorough evaluation is warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: This review highlights the need for radiology peer review, including the confirmation of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) compliance, as the initial step...
November 8, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Butool Durrani, Ashu Mohammad, Bernardita M Ljubetic, Amy D Dobberfuhl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores the role of persister cells in urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections, affecting millions of people worldwide. Persister cells are a subpopulation of bacteria with dormant metabolic activity which allows survival in the presence of antibiotics. RECENT FINDINGS: This review summarizes recent research on the pathogenesis of persister cell formation in UTIs, the impact of persister cells on the effectiveness of antibiotics, the challenges they pose for treatment, and the need for new strategies to target these cells...
November 1, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Bernardita M Ljubetic, Ashu Mohammad, Butool Durrani, Amy D Dobberfuhl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) can be found in the general population but it is more common in catheterized patients. Some patients develop urinary tract infections (UTI) and others stay asymptomatic throughout time. The scientific community lacks a pathophysiologic explanation of why asymptomatic bacteriuria stays asymptomatic most of the time, and why and how it sometimes transitions to UTI. In an attempt to bridge this gap in knowledge, a summary of the current literature is conducted on the pathophysiologic differences between ASB and UTI, beyond their clinical differences...
November 2023: Current Urology Reports
Meenakshi Davuluri, Gina DeMeo, Suhas Penukonda, Basimah Zahid, Jim C Hu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress urinary incontinence after prostatectomy is a common and debilitating side effect. Immediate post-prostatectomy management emphasizes pelvic floor muscle exercises. Per American Urologic Association guidelines, if incontinence persists for more than 12 months postoperatively, surgical interventions are the mainstay of treatment. Treatment decisions depend on a multitude of factors. The goal of this paper is to review recent literature updates regarding the diagnosis of male SUI to better guide surgical treatment decision-making...
November 2023: Current Urology Reports
Mark A Moyad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The history of multiple weight loss medications has been a concerning paradox based on an increased cardiovascular risk despite significant reductions in adipose tissue and weight. A new class of weight loss medications could change this past narrative based on early preliminary results of cardiovascular risk (not events-still need to be determined) and weight reduction in non-diabetics that acutely competes with results achieved with bariatric surgery. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the advantages and disadvantages of these newer medications, and how they could impact urology...
November 2023: Current Urology Reports
Michael J Jalfon, Om V Sakhalkar, Soum D Lokeshwar, Victoria A Marks, Ankur U Choksi, Zachary Klaassen, Michael S Leapman, Isaac Y Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metastatic prostate cancer remains universally lethal. Although de-novo metastatic prostate cancer was historically managed with systemic therapy alone, local therapies are increasingly utilized in the early treatment of the disease, particularly in patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer (OMPC). OMPC represents an intermediate stage between clinically localized and widespread metastatic disease. Diseases classified within this stage present an opportunity for localized targeting of the disease prior to progression to widespread metastases...
October 2023: Current Urology Reports
Melinda Z Fu, Raeesa Islam, Joseph DeMarzo, Benjamin Lichtbroun, Alexandra L Tabakin, Ji Hae Park, Sammy E Elsamra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight literature regarding resident boot camps published across surgical specialties with a focus on urology. Herein, we discuss different boot camp iterations, their results, and the integration of simulation into their curriculum. We review program elements such as curriculum, course length, and efficacy as well as areas for continued investigation. RECENT FINDINGS: The field of urology has grown in both the breadth of knowledge and the complexity of procedures...
September 26, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Christopher Wanderling, Aaron Saxton, Dennis Phan, Lauren Sheppard, Nathan Schuler, Ahmed Ghazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surgical simulation has become a cornerstone for the training of surgical residents, especially for urology residents. Urology as a specialty bolsters a diverse range of procedures requiring a variety of technical skills ranging from open and robotic surgery to endoscopic procedures. While hands-on supervised training on patients still remains the foundation of residency training and education, it may not be sufficient to achieve proficiency for graduation even if case minimums are achieved...
September 22, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Ali Talyshinskii, Nithesh Naik, B M Zeeshan Hameed, Patrick Juliebø-Jones, Bhaskar Kumar Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots have emerged as a potential tool to transform urology by improving patient care and physician efficiency. With an emphasis on their potential advantages and drawbacks, this literature review offers a thorough assessment of the state of AI-driven chatbots in urology today. RECENT FINDINGS: The capacity of AI-driven chatbots in urology to give patients individualized and timely medical advice is one of its key advantages...
September 19, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Patrick Juliebø-Jones, Bhaskar K Somani, Peder Gjengstø, Mathias Sørstrand Æsøy, Christian Beisland, Øyvind Ulvik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarise the literature on laser safety during endourological practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Holmium and Thulium Fiber laser are the two main energy sources in the current clinical practice. The latter may have superior properties, but more clinical studies are needed to formally establish this. Laser injury to urothelium is more dependent on user experience rather than laser type. Smaller laser fibres allow for lower intra-renal temperature profiles. Operators should pay close attention to laser technique including maintaining the safety distance concept and only firing the laser when tip is clearly in view...
September 2023: Current Urology Reports
David S Han, Justin W Ingram, Prakash Gorroochurn, Gina M Badalato, Christopher B Anderson, Gregory A Joice, Jay Simhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of urotrauma is a crucial part of a urologist's knowledge and training. We therefore sought to understand the state of urotrauma education in the United States. RECENT FINDINGS: Using themes of "Urotrauma" and "Education," we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching for studies in MEDLINE, all Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Scopus, and Web of Science through May 2023. The primary outcome was the pooled rate of urology trainee and program director attitudes toward urotrauma education...
August 12, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Mriganka Mani Sinha, Vineet Gauhar, Lazaros Tzelves, Tzevat Tefik, Rifat Burak Ergul, Patrick Juliebø-Jones, Bhaskar K Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robotic surgery in urology has already been widely employed in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for minimally invasive procedures (MIS). We wanted to analyse rapidly developing robotic ureteroscopy (RoboURS) for the treatment of renal stone disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A comprehensive literature review was performed for technical aspects and clinical outcomes of RoboURS. RoboURS has made significant breakthroughs with each model proving that this technology improves ergonomics and supports surgeon and instrument longevity while minimising musculoskeletal issues in retrograde intra-renal surgery (RIRS)...
August 2023: Current Urology Reports
Andrea Ong, George Brown, Theodoros Tokas, B M Zeeshan Hameed, Joe Philip, Bhaskar K Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of uric acid (UA) urolithiasis contributes significantly to global disease burden, due to high rates of recurrence and diagnostic challenges. Dissolution therapy plays a valuable role in the conservative management of UA calculi, reducing the requirement for surgical intervention. This review summarises the existing evidence for the efficacy of medical dissolution of uric acid urolithiasis. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search was conducted of worldwide literature according to PRISMA methodology and Cochrane standards for systematic review...
August 2023: Current Urology Reports
James T Kearns, Brian T Helfand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many prostate cancer active surveillance protocols mandate serial monitoring at defined intervals, including but certainly not limited to serum PSA (often every 6 months), clinic visits, prostate multiparametric MRI, and repeat prostate biopsies. The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether current protocols result in excessive testing of patients on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies have been published in the past several years evaluating the utility of multiparametric MRI, serum biomarkers, and serial prostate biopsy for men on active surveillance...
July 12, 2023: Current Urology Reports
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