John Fastenau, Kunj Jain, Aleksandar Popovic, Evan Kovac
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to investigate the current use and effectiveness of active surveillance (AS) for clinical low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) in men considered to be "high-risk" based on the factors of race, genetics, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in molecular biomarkers and imaging have improved the detection, risk stratification, and treatment of PCa. Still, overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent disease remain a concern...
March 30, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Thaiphi Luu, Ricardo R Gonzalez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common medical condition of older men that often requires medical or surgical therapy. Surgical options for BPH have grown exponentially over the last two decades. The numerous options and/or lack of access to them can make it challenging for new trainees to gain proficiency. We examine the literature for available BPH surgical simulators, learning curves, and training pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Each BPH surgical therapy has a learning curve which must be overcome...
March 22, 2023: Current Urology Reports
George Brown, Andrea Ong, Patrick Juliebø-Jones, Niall F Davis, Andreas Skolarikos, Bhaskar Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ureteroscopy is a well-established treatment modality for kidney and ureteric calculi in addition to playing a key role in upper tract cancer diagnostics. Traditional reusable flexible ureteroscopes are technologically advanced and expensive pieces of equipment that require repeat sterilisation and periodical repair. These issues have led to the development of single-use flexible ureteroscopes that are disposed of after each case. Whilst this may be advantageous in many respects, the environmental impact of such technology is yet to be fully determined...
March 14, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Anh T Nguyen, Devashish J Anjaria, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to survey current literature on urologic graduate medical education focusing on surgical autonomy. RECENT FINDINGS: Affording appropriate levels of surgical autonomy has a key role in the education of urologic trainees and perceived preparedness for independent practice. Recent studies in surgical resident autonomy have demonstrated a reduction in autonomy for trainees in recent years. Efforts to advance the state of modern surgical training include creation of targeted curricula, enhanced with use of surgical simulation, and structured feedback...
March 14, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Vineet Gauhar, Carlo Giulioni, Nariman Gadzhiev, Virgilio De Stefano, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Ho Yee Tiong, Kazumi Taguchi, Giulio Milanese, Andrea Benedetto Galosi, Bhaskar Kumar Somani, Daniele Castellani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kidney puncture is a key step in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Ultrasound/fluoroscopic-guided access to the collecting systems is commonly used in PCNL. Performing a puncture is often challenging in kidneys with congenital malformations or complex staghorn stones. We aim to perform a systematic review to examine data on in vivo applications, outcomes, and limitations of using artificial intelligence and robotics for access in PCNL. RECENT FINDINGS: The literature search was performed on November 2, 2022, using Embase, PubMed, and Google Scholar...
March 10, 2023: Current Urology Reports
A Yebes, C Toribio-Vazquez, S Martinez-Perez, J M Quesada-Olarte, A Rodriguez-Serrano, M Álvarez-Maestro, L Martinez-Piñeiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pathologies of the prostate in men are one of the most prevalent clinical conditions today [1]. Specifically, pelvic inflammatory disease such as prostatitis can cause symptoms and syndromes different from urological ones, such as bowel or nervous system manifestations. This has a largely negative impact on the quality of life of patients. Therefore, it is convenient to know and update the information about the therapeutic approach to prostatitis, which is a challenge that involves different medical specialties...
March 7, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Shreya R Lamba, Casey A Seideman, Nishant D Patel, Ryan W Dobbs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate recent literature regarding the pathways and options for unmatched urology applicants. RECENT FINDINGS: Urology remains a competitive surgical sub-specialty with a match process independent of the National Resident Matching Program. Each year a cohort of competitive applicants go unmatched and are faced with the decision to reapply the following cycle while doing a research fellowship or a preliminary internship in the interim or choose a different specialty altogether...
February 28, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Megha Garg, Hans Johnson, Su-Min Lee, Bhavan Prasad Rai, Bhaskar Somani, Joe Philip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy success rates depend on several stone and patient-related factors, one of which is stone density which is calculated on computed tomography scan in Hounsfield Units. Studies have shown inverse correlation between SWL success and HU; however, there remains considerable variation between studies. We performed a systematic review regarding the use of HU in SWL for renal calculi to consolidate the current evidence and address current knowledge gaps...
February 21, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Timothy N Chu, Elyssa Y Wong, Runzhuo Ma, Cherine H Yang, Istabraq S Dalieh, Andrew J Hung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to explore the current state of research on the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the management of prostate cancer. We examine the various applications of AI in prostate cancer, including image analysis, prediction of treatment outcomes, and patient stratification. Additionally, the review will evaluate the current limitations and challenges faced in the implementation of AI in prostate cancer management. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature has focused particularly on the use of AI in radiomics, pathomics, the evaluation of surgical skills, and patient outcomes...
February 18, 2023: Current Urology Reports
T Max Shelton, Connor Drake, Ruben Vasquez, Marcelino Rivera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews contemporary literature on RASP and HoLEP to evaluate perioperative outcomes, common complications, cost analytics, and future directions of both procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: RASP is indicated for prostates > 80 mL, while HoLEP is size-independent. No notable differences were found in operative time, PSA nadir (surrogate for enucleation volume), re-catheterization rates, or long-term durability. Prolonged incontinence and bladder neck contracture rates are low for both surgeries...
February 17, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Andrew G Winer, Llewellyn M Hyacinthe, Jeffrey P Weiss, Ashanda R Esdaille, Brian K McNeil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, the increasing diversity of our society is poorly reflected in the urology workforce. In this review, we sought to address this disparity by highlighting key components involved in forming an academic urology department and training program that is focused on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) as well as recruitment and retention of underrepresented in medicine (URiM) trainees and faculty. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified obstacles and provided approaches to enhance the ability of a department in creating a DEI-based curriculum and recruitment strategy with a key focus on understanding and addressing unconscious biases and microaggressions in the workplace...
February 11, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Marco-Jose Rivero, Farah Rahman, Katherine Campbell, Braian Rene Ledesma, Ranjith Ramasamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quality mentorship is difficult to attain amidst the conflicting demands of academic medicine. In this review, we sought to characterize mentor-mentee relationships and discuss their optimization towards productivity in the research team setting. RECENT FINDINGS: A high-value mentor, defined by exceptional commitment to both research productivity and mentoring, naturally attracts prospective mentees, who can demonstrate their interest by shadowing and completing delegated tasks...
February 10, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Jake Huntzinger, Meron Selassie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common yet complex disease in the field of urology, gynecology, and pain management. This review article summarizes the anatomy and physiology of CPP with an in-depth discussion of established and emerging interventional treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Though psychosocial variables play a significant role in the development and propagation of CPPS, interventional treatment strategies are available to ameliorate symptoms...
January 31, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Virginia Massella, Patrick Juliebø-Jones, Amelia Pietropaolo, Christian Beisland, Bhaskar K Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Double J ureteric stents (DJs) are useful aids for urinary drainage in case of stones or tumour causing ureteric obstruction. Prolonged dwelling time such as when forgotten can lead to encrustation. Our aim was to perform a literature review to evaluate outcomes associated with endourological management of encrusted stents (ES). RECENT FINDINGS: There now exist validated tools which can aid in grading the severity of encrustation and aid operative planning such as the total number of surgeries that may be required...
January 27, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Armaan Singh, Caleb A Cooper, Sean W Hou, Omer A Raheem
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the current surgical advances and patients' satisfactions after penile prosthesis (PP) implantation, there has been paucity of data on reported partner satisfaction and their quality-of-life (QoL). Our objective was to summarize the current literature on partner satisfaction for both heterosexual and non-heterosexual populations, respectively. We specifically conducted a systematic review according to the Cochrane and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards, and stratified studies into three tiers by methodological rigor...
January 21, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Rajan S Sandhu, Felix Cheung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent experience with robotic vesicovaginal fistula repair and describe the contemporary technique. RECENT FINDINGS: Robotic vesicovaginal repair has been tested at multiple centers, with similar outcomes to open surgery. It has benefits including decreased hospital stay, less blood loss, and similar long-term outcomes. As long as the surgeon is experienced in robotic surgery, this technique appears to be promising. Robotic vesicovaginal repair results in similar outcomes to open surgery with decreased morbidity...
January 10, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Neha Udayakumar, Elainea Smith, Amy Boone, Kristin K Porter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the pathway of Mullerian and Wolffian duct development, anomalies that result from disruptions to this pathway, and the characteristics on advanced imaging that identify them. RECENT FINDINGS: In-office evaluation for reproductive anomalies is usually inadequate for the diagnosis of congenital reproductive anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has usurped invasive diagnostic methods including laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, and vasography as the new gold standard...
January 3, 2023: Current Urology Reports
Rand N Wilcox Vanden Berg, Arvin K George, Deborah R Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of transperineal prostate biopsy (TP-bx) to evaluate its potential role as the standard of care for prostate biopsy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have suggested no difference in prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate between TP-bx and transrectal biopsy (TR-bx) but have suggested potentially increased detection of anterior prostate tumors. Advances in anesthetic technique have obviated the need for sedation thus allowing TP-bx to become an office-based procedure, which in turn can decrease the overall cost of TP-bx...
March 2023: Current Urology Reports
Carlos Toribio-Vázquez, Álvaro Yebes, José Quesada-Olarte, Andrea Rodriguez, María Alonso-Bartolomé, Héctor Ayllon, Luis Martinez-Piñeiro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Genital mutilation in males can range from minor injuries (cuts from a blade) to severe urological emergencies (testicular or penile amputation). Due to the rarity of these events, there is a lack of extensive reports, as most of the available literature is regarding single cases. Genital mutilation has been associated with psychotic and non-psychotic causes, psychiatric conditions, drug consumption, sexual practices, or even cultural or religious beliefs. It is crucial to perform a psychiatric evaluation of these patients to obtain the best therapeutic approach...
March 2023: Current Urology Reports
Anton M Gillespie, Connie Wang, Miyad Movassaghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to discuss the various work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) among urologists and provide an overview of the latest recommendations to improve awareness of ergonomic principles that can be applied in the operating room, with special consideration of challenges faced during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Urologists suffer from a large burden of WRMDs. The main drivers of pain associated with the various surgical approaches include repetitive movements, static and awkward body positions, and the use of burdensome equipment...
December 29, 2022: Current Urology Reports
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