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Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774559/do-5-month-old-infants-possess-an-evolved-detection-mechanism-for-snakes-sharks-and-rodents
#1
David H Rakison
The four experiments reported here used the preferential looking and habituation paradigms to examine whether 5-month-olds possess a perceptual template for snakes, sharks, and rodents. It was predicted that if infants possess such a template then they would attend preferentially to schematic images of these non-human animal stimuli relative to scrambled versions of the same stimuli. The results reveal that infants look longer at a schematic snake than at two scrambled versions of that image and generalize from real snakes to the schematic image...
2018: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30613194/children-s-evaluation-and-categorization-of-transgender-children
#2
Selin Gülgöz, Eric M Gomez, Madeleine R DeMeules, Kristina R Olson
Despite extant evidence of negative peer treatment of transgender adolescents and adults, little is known about how young children perceive transgender peers, particularly those who have socially-transitioned, or are living in line with their gender, rather than sex at birth. Whereas children have been shown to be averse to gender nonconformity in peers, because many transgender children appear and behave in ways consistent with their expressed gender (but not their sex at birth), it is unclear how children evaluate these identities...
2018: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30443199/children-use-nonverbal-cues-from-an-adult-to-evaluate-peers
#3
Elizabeth Brey, Kristin Shutts
What factors contribute to children's tendency to view individuals as having different traits and abilities? The present research tested whether young children are influenced by adults' nonverbal behaviors when making inferences about peers. In Study 1, participants (5-6 years) viewed multiple videos of interactions between a 'teacher' and two 'students;' all individuals were unfamiliar to participants. In each clip, the students behaved similarly, but the teacher did not: She either smiled, nodded, touched, or shook her head at one student, and looked at the other student with a neutral expression...
2018: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30333714/verbal-and-nonverbal-predictors-of-executive-function-in-early-childhood
#4
Rebecca L Stephens, Benjamin Langworthy, Sarah J Short, Barbara D Goldman, Jessica B Girault, Jason P Fine, J Steven Reznick, John H Gilmore
The study of executive function (EF) has become increasingly popular in multiple areas of research. A wealth of evidence has supported the value of EF in shaping notable outcomes across typical and atypical development; however, little evidence has supported the cognitive contributors to early EF development. The current study used data from a large longitudinal sample of healthy children to investigate the differential influence of verbal and nonverbal cognition on later EF. Participants were assessed at 2 years of age using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and Mullen scores were used to calculate nonverbal and verbal developmental quotients...
2018: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30271277/early-gesture-provides-a-helping-hand-to-spoken-vocabulary-development-for-children-with-autism-down-syndrome-and-typical-development
#5
Şeyda Özçalışkan, Lauren B Adamson, Nevena Dimitrova, Stephanie Baumann
Typically developing (TD) children refer to objects uniquely in gesture (e.g., point at cat) before they produce verbal labels for these objects ("cat"; Bates et al., 1979). The onset of such gestures predicts the onset of similar spoken words, showing a strong positive relation between early gestures and early words (Iverson & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). We ask whether gesture plays the same door-opening role in word learning for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down syndrome (DS), who show delayed vocabulary development and who differ in the strength of gesture production...
2017: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29270083/the-socialization-of-children-s-memory-linking-maternal-conversational-style-to-the-development-of-children-s-autobiographical-and-deliberate-memory-skills
#6
Hillary A Langley, Jennifer L Coffman, Peter A Ornstein
Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were 3, 5, and 6 years of age, and the results reveal concurrent and longitudinal linkages between maternal conversational style in a mother-child reminiscing task and children's autobiographical memory performance...
2017: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28890668/multiracial-children-s-and-adults-categorizations-of-multiracial-individuals
#7
Steven Othello Roberts, Susan Gelman
Research has explored how multiracial individuals are categorized by monoracial individuals, but has not yet explored how they are categorized by multiracial individuals themselves. We examined how multiracial children (4-9 years) and adults categorized multiracial targets (presented with and without parentage information). When parentage information was provided, multiracial targets were more likely to be categorized as neither wholly black nor wholly white. However, both multiracial adults and children more often categorized multiracial targets as black than as white regardless of the absence or presence of parentage information...
2017: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29033694/reading-development-in-typically-developing-children-and-children-with-prenatal-or-perinatal-brain-lesions-differential-school-year-and-summer-growth
#8
Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Susan C Levine
Summer slide, uneven growth of academic skills over the calendar year, captures the fact that the learning gains children make over the school year do not continue at the same pace over the summer, when children are typically not in school. We compared growth of reading skills during the school year and over the summer months in children with pre-or perinatal brain lesion (PL) and typically-developing (TD) children from varying socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds as a new way to probe the role of structured environmental support in functional plasticity for reading skills in children with PL...
2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28713222/young-children-prefer-and-remember-satisfying-explanations
#9
Brandy N Frazier, Susan A Gelman, Henry M Wellman
Research with preschool children shows that explanations are important to them in that they actively seek explanations in their conversations with adults. But, what sorts of explanations do they prefer, and what, if anything, do young children learn from the explanations they receive? Following a preliminary study with adults (N=67) to establish materials for use with children, we addressed this question using a semi-naturalistic methodology. 4- and 5-year-olds (N=69) were dissatisfied when receiving non-explanations to their explanatory questions, but satisfied when receiving explanations, and their satisfaction varied appropriately across several levels of explanatory information...
2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28190976/interactions-between-knowledge-and-testimony-in-children-s-reality-status-judgments
#10
Gabriel Lopez-Mobilia, Jacqueline D Woolley
In two studies we attempt to capture the information processing abilities underlying children's reality-status judgments. Forty 5- to 6-year-olds and 53 7- to 8-year-olds heard about novel entities (animals) that varied in their fit with children's world knowledge. After hearing about each entity, children could either guess reality status immediately or listen to testimony first. Informants varied in their expertise and in their testimony, which either supported or refuted the entities' existence. Results revealed that children were able to evaluate the fit between the new information and their existing knowledge; this information then governed their decision regarding whether to seek testimony...
2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27212893/evolutionary-relevance-and-experience-contribute-to-face-discrimination-in-infant-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#11
Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Annika Paukner
In human children and adults, familiar face types-typically own-age and own-species faces-are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias, but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual attunement, which predicts advantages in discrimination for the most-experienced face types; additionally or alternatively, there may be an experience-independent bias for infants to discriminate own-species faces, an adaptation for evolutionarily relevant faces...
2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27092030/early-verb-learning-how-do-children-learn-how-to-compare-events
#12
Jane B Childers, Rebecca Parrish, Christina V Olson, Clare Burch, Gavin Fung, Kevin McIntyre
An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions, however comparing events is difficult. Two studies test whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ('progressive alignment') while learning new verbs, and whether this influence changes with age. In Study 1, 2 ½- and 3 ½-year-old children participated in an interactive task. Children who saw a pair of similar events and then varied events were able to extend verbs at test, differing from a control group; children who saw two pairs of varied events did not differ from the control group...
2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27030791/an-attentional-goldilocks-effect-an-optimal-amount-of-social-interactivity-promotes-word-learning-from-video
#13
Kate Nussenbaum, Dima Amso
Television can be a powerful education tool; however, content-makers must understand the factors that engage attention and promote learning from screen media. Prior research suggests that social engagement is critical for learning and that interactivity may enhance the educational quality of children's media. The present study examined the effects of increasing the social interactivity of television on children's visual attention and word learning. Three- to 5-year-old (MAge = 4;5 years, SD = 9 months) children completed a task in which they viewed videos of an actress teaching them the Swahili label for an on-screen image...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27019647/the-shape-of-things-the-origin-of-young-children-s-knowledge-of-the-names-and-properties-of-geometric-forms
#14
Brian N Verdine, Kelsey R Lucca, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Nora S Newcombe
How do toddlers learn the names of geometric forms? Past work suggests that preschoolers have fragmentary knowledge and that defining properties are not understood until well into elementary school. The current study investigates when children first begin to understand shape names and how they apply those labels to unusual instances. We tested 25- and 30-month-old children's (N = 30 each) understanding of names for canonical shapes (commonly-encountered instances, e.g., equilateral triangles), non-canonical shapes (more irregular instances, e...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26924946/action-interrupted-processing-of-movement-and-breakpoints-in-toddlers-and-adults
#15
Margaret Friend, Amy E Pace
From early in development, segmenting events unfolding in the world in meaningful ways renders input more manageable and facilitates interpretation and prediction. Yet, little is known about how children process action structure in events comprised of multiple coarse-grained actions. More importantly, little is known about the time-course of action processing in young children or about the specific features that recruit attention. This is particularly true when we consider action that pauses unexpectedly-as actions sometimes do-violating the expectation of a continuous unfolding of motion...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26430391/maternal-behavior-modifications-during-pretense-and-their-long-term-effects-on-toddlers-understanding-of-pretense
#16
Naoko Nakamichi
Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their toddlers understand maternal pretense. Experiment 1 investigated whether mothers would change their behaviors during pretense with a sample of 31 Japanese mother-infant pairs...
August 8, 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25969673/relations-among-early-object-recognition-skills-objects-and-letters
#17
Elaine Augustine, Susan S Jones, Linda B Smith, Erica Longfield
Human visual object recognition is multifaceted, with several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing letters relates to their ability to recognize 3-dimensional objects from sparse shape information alone. A relation is predicted because perception of the spatial relations is critical in both domains...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26074736/conflict-inhibitory-control-facilitates-pretense-quality-in-young-preschoolers
#18
Jennifer Van Reet
The present research explores the role of inhibitory control in young preschoolers' pretense ability using an ego depletion paradigm. In Experiment 1 (N = 56), children's pretense ability was assessed either before or after participating in conflict inhibitory control or control tasks, and in Experiment 2 (N = 36), pretense ability was measured after children engaged in either conflict or delay inhibitory control tasks. In both experiments, pretense scores were significantly higher only after engaging in conflict inhibitory control tasks...
March 1, 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26257584/contributions-of-head-mounted-cameras-to-studying-the-visual-environments-of-infants-and-young-children
#19
Linda Smith, Chen Yu, Hanako Yoshida, Caitlin M Fausey
Head-mounted video cameras (with and without an eye camera to track gaze direction) are being increasingly used to study infants' and young children's visual environments and provide new and often unexpected insights about the visual world from a child's point of view. The challenge in using head cameras is principally conceptual and concerns the match between what these cameras measure and the research question. Head cameras record the scene in front of faces and thus answer questions about those head-centered scenes...
2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26120283/experimentally-induced-increases-in-early-gesture-lead-to-increases-in-spoken-vocabulary
#20
Eve Sauer LeBarton, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Stephen Raudenbush
Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produce at 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produce at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009b). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the increases lead to increases in spoken vocabulary. Fifteen children aged 1;5 participated in an 8-week at-home intervention study (6 weekly training sessions plus follow-up 2 weeks later) in which all were exposed to object words, but only some were told to point at the named objects...
2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
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