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Comparative Medicine

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764892/a-bird-s-eye-view-of-regulatory-animal-care-and-training-considerations-regarding-avian-flight-research
#1
Samuel W Baker, Emily R Tucci, Stephen A Felt, Ashley Zehnder, David Lentink, Jose G Vilches-Moure
A thorough understanding of how animals fly is a central goal of many scientific disciplines. Birds are a commonly usedmodel organism for flight research. The success of this model requires studying healthy and naturally flying birds in a laboratory setting. This use of a nontraditional laboratory animal species presents unique challenges to animal care staff and researchers alike. Here we review regulatory, animal care, and training considerations associated with avian flight research.
February 14, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755290/a-comprehensive-protocol-for-laparotomy-in-swine-to-facilitate-ultrasound%C3%A2-guided-injection-into-the-fetal-intraperitoneal-space
#2
Adeline N Boettcher, Amanda P Ahrens, Sara E Charley, Christopher K Tuggle
Swine are a commonly used animal model for biomedical research. One research application of swine models is the inutero injection of human or pig cells into the fetal liver (FL) or intraperitoneal space. In utero injections can be accomplishedthrough laparotomy procedures in pregnant swine. In this study, we aimed to establish comprehensive laparotomy protocolsfor ultrasound-guided injections into fetuses. Two pregnant gilts, with a total of 16 fetuses, underwent laparotomy at 41 and42 d of gestation. During surgery, we attempted to inject half of the fetuses in the FL or intraperitoneal space with saline andtitanium wire for radiographic imaging after birth...
February 12, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732675/mammosphere-culture-of-mammary-cells-from-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#3
Silmi Mariya, Fitriya N Dewi, Irma H Suparto, Gregory K Wilkerson, J Mark Cline, Diah Iskandriati, I Nengah Budiarsa, Dondin Sajuthi
The mammary gland contains adult stem cells that are capable of self-renewal. Although these cells hold an important rolein the biology and pathology of the breast, the studies of mammary stem cells are few due to the difficulty of acquiring andexpanding undifferentiated adult stem cell populations. In this study, we developed mammosphere cultures from frozen mammary cells of nulliparous cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) as a culture system to enrich mammary stem cells. Small samples of mammary tissues were collected by surgical biopsy; cells were cultured in epithelial cell growth medium and cryopreserved...
February 7, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728094/immunomodulatory-effects-of-stress-and-environmental-enrichment-in-long-evans-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#4
Samantha J Scarola, Jose R Perdomo Trejo, Megan E Granger, Kimberly M Gerecke, Massimo Bardi
Stress can influence the secretion of neuroendocrine mediators, thereby exposing immune cells to altered signaling andinteractions. Here we investigated the synergetic effect of stress and environmental enrichment on the immune response ofLong-Evans rats. Subjects (n = 46) were assigned to 5 treatment groups: acute compared with chronic stress with or withoutenvironmental enrichment, plus an unmanipulated control group. Animals also were classified as active, passive, and flexiblecopers according to back-test assessment...
February 6, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717820/development-of-an-orthotopic-intrasplenic-xenograft-mouse-model-of-canine-histiocytic-sarcoma-and-its-use-in-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-treatment-with-dasatinib
#5
Marilia Takada, Lauren A Smyth, Jeremy Ml Hix, Sarah M Corner, Sandra O'Reilly, Matti Kiupel, Vilma Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan
Canine histiocytic sarcoma is a highly aggressive and metastatic hematopoietic neoplasm that responds poorly to currentlyavailable treatment regimens. Our goal was to establish a clinically relevant xenograft mouse model to assess the preclinical efficacy of novel cancer treatment protocols for histiocytic sarcoma. We developed an intrasplenic xenograft mouse model characterized by consistent tumor growth and development of metastasis to the liver and other abdominal organs. This modelrepresents the metastatic or disseminated form of canine histiocytic sarcoma, which is considered the most clinically challenging form of the disease...
February 4, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704552/characterization-of-baboon-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-healthy-adult-baboons-papio-anubis
#6
Erin L Willis, Taylor L Stevens, Gary L White, Dianne McFarlane
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common chronic herpesvirus found in humans and numerous other mammalian species. In people, chronic viruses like CMV can alter overall health and immunity and pose a serious risk for those with an inadequate immune system. In addition, CMV plays an important role in animal health, and could affect the health of vulnerable populations, like endangered species. Previous studies found a high rate of CMV seropositivity among adult baboons (Papio anubis), and results from our laboratory revealed that baboon CMV (BaCMV) seropositivity was correlated with altered immune cell populations...
January 31, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696519/ketamine-tolerance-in-sprague-dawley-rats-after-chronic-administration-of-ketamine-morphine-or-cocaine
#7
Samantha A Gerb, Jemma E Cook, Alexandria E Gochenauer, Camille S Young, Linda K Fulton, Andrew W Grady, Kevin B Freeman
Ketamine is one of the most commonly used anesthetics in human and veterinary medicine, but its clinical effectiveness isoften compromised due to tolerance to its anesthetic effects. Although ketamine tolerance has been demonstrated in a numberof behavioral measures, no published work has investigated tolerance to ketamine's anesthetic effects other than durationof anesthesia. In addition, a reported practice in anesthesiology is to alter anesthetic doses for procedures when the patienthas a history of drug abuse...
January 29, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30591092/comparison-of-reproductive-function-in-female-tgmisiir%C3%A2-tag-transgenic-and-wildtype-c57bl-6-mice
#8
Patricia B Hoyer, Photini F Rice, Caitlin C Howard, Jennifer W Koevary, Joceline P Dominguez Cooks, Gabrielle V Hutchens, Setsuko K Chambers, Zelieann R Craig, Denise C Connolly, Jennifer K Barton
Transgenic TgMISIIR-TAg (TAg) mice express the oncogenic virus SV40 in Mullerian epithelial cells. Female TAg micespontaneously develop epithelial ovarian carcinoma, the most common type of ovarian cancer in women. Female TAg miceare infertile, but the reason has not been determined. We therefore investigated whether female TAg mice undergo puberty,demonstrate follicular development, maintain regular cycles, and ovulate. Ovarian cancers in women commonly develop aftermenopause. The occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) accelerates follicle degeneration in the ovariesof rats and mice, causing early ovarian failure...
December 27, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30591091/comparison-of-reproductive-function-in-female-tgmisiir%C3%A2-tag-transgenic-and-wildtype-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Patricia B Hoyer, Photini F Rice, Caitlin C Howard, Jennifer W Koevary, Joceline P Dominguez Cooks, Gabrielle V Hutchens, Setsuko K Chambers, Zelieann R Craig, Denise C Connolly, Jennifer K Barton
Transgenic TgMISIIR-TAg (TAg) mice express the oncogenic virus SV40 in Mullerian epithelial cells. Female TAg micespontaneously develop epithelial ovarian carcinoma, the most common type of ovarian cancer in women. Female TAg miceare infertile, but the reason has not been determined. We therefore investigated whether female TAg mice undergo puberty,demonstrate follicular development, maintain regular cycles, and ovulate. Ovarian cancers in women commonly develop aftermenopause. The occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) accelerates follicle degeneration in the ovariesof rats and mice, causing early ovarian failure...
December 27, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30563585/factors-affecting-growth-kinetics-and-spontaneous-metastasis-in-the-b16f10-syngeneic-murine-melanoma-model
#10
Natalie Fowlkes, Kelli Clemons, Paul Jf Rider, Ramesh Subramanian, Nobuko Wakamatsu, Ingeborg Langohr, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Melanoma is an immunogenic tumor that can metastasize quickly to proximal and distal sites, thus complicating the applicationof therapeutic modalities. Numerous mouse model systems have been used to gain understanding of the immunobiology and metastatic potential of melanoma. Here, we report the optimization of a syngeneic mouse melanoma model protocol using the mouse B16-derived melanoma cell line B16F10 that ensures the production of tumors on mice pinnae that are similar in size between animals and that enlarge in a time-dependent manner...
December 18, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545428/effects-of-azithromycin-on-behavior-pathologic-signs-and-changes-in-cytokines-chemokines-and-neutrophil-migration-in-c57bl-6-mice-exposed-to-dextran-sulfate-sodium
#11
Stefanie J Anderson, Joey S Lockhart, Mehrbod Estaki, Candice Quin, Simon A Hirota, Laurie Alston, Andre G Buret, Trina M Hancock, Björn Petri, Deanna L Gibson, Douglas W Morck
Here we characterized the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of acute colitis. Specifically, we evaluated azithromycinand metronidazole treatment regimens to assess their effects on animal wellbeing, pathologic changes, barrier function,cytokine and chemokine profiles, and neutrophil migration in colon tissue. Azithromycin treatment significantly reduced theseverity of colitis, as assessed through body weight change, water consumption, macroscopic lesions, and animal behaviors(activity level, climbing, and grooming), but did not alter food consumption or feeding behavior...
December 13, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541636/longitudinal-evaluation-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-model-of-hiv-infection
#12
Rebecca A Tarantelli, Finja Schweitzer, Marc A Simon, Rebecca R Vanderpool, Ian Christman, Emily Rayens, Heather M Kling, ToniAnn Zullo, Jonathan P Carney, Brian J Lopresti, Thomas Bertero, Stephen Y Chan, Karen A Norris
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease with higher incidence in HIV-infected compared withnoninfected patients. SIV-infected NHP develop clinical manifestations of HIV infection, including PAH. To understand thepathogenesis of PAH and determine the relationship between hemodynamic changes and clinical characteristics associatedwith SIV infection, we performed right heart catheterization and echocardiographic imaging of 21 rhesus macaques before andafter SIV infection. Between 6 and 12 mo after infection, 11 of the 21 animals had elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure(mPAP; greater than 25 mm Hg)...
December 12, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30486920/spontaneous-spongiform-brainstem-degeneration-in-a-young-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus-with-conspicuous-behavioral-motor-growth-and-ocular-pathologies
#13
Daniel Schmidtke, Charlotte Lempp, Marko Dubicanac, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Sabine Kästner, Martin Meier, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, R Alan Harris, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Donna M Muzny, Kim C Worley, Jeffrey Rogers
Here we report a case of severe growth retardation and neurologic abnormalities in a female gray mouse lemur (Microcebusmurinus), a small NHP species for which the genomic sequence recently became available. The female lemur we present heredied on postnatal day 125. This lemur had impaired development of motor skills and showed severe ataxia and tremors. In addition, hearing seemed normal whereas ophthalmic examination revealed incipient bilateral cataracts, abnormal pigmentation in the lens of the left eye, and a missing optokinetic nystagmus, which indicated impaired vision...
November 28, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30486919/identifying-and-implementing-endpoints-for-geriatric-mice
#14
Linda A Toth
The types of changes in physical appearance and behavior that occur in elderly people similarly develop in elderly animals.Signs and symptoms that might cause concern in younger people or mice may be normal in their elderly but generally healthy counterparts. Although numerous scoring methods have been developed to assess rodent health, these systems wereoften designed for young adults used in specific types of research, such as cancer or neurologic studies, and therefore may be suboptimal for assessing aging rodents...
November 28, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30486918/longitudinal-mri-evaluation-of-ischemic-stroke-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-with-seizures
#15
Chun-Xia Li, Doty J Kempf, Frank C Tong, Yumei Yan, Zhengfeng Xu, Fawn R Connor-Stroud, Byron D Ford, Leonard L Howell, Xiaodong Zhang
An adult rhesus macaque developed seizures after the induction of ischemic stroke. Initially, on the day of surgery, a focalischemic lesion was present exclusively in the right caudate nucleus. By 48 h after stroke induction, the lesion had extendedinto the putamen, when a seizure was observed. Our report highlights the temporal changes in infarction of unilateral basalganglia after acute stroke and the accompanying clinical symptoms. This unusual case may provide additional informationregarding the involvement of the basal ganglia in seizures, given that prior case reports and studies usually have not describedthe temporal and spatial evolution of the lesion before clinical symptoms emerge...
November 28, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30458902/effects-of-rodent-thermoregulation-on-animal-models-in-the-research-environment
#16
F Claire Hankenson, James O Marx, Christopher J Gordon, John M David
To best promote animal wellbeing and the efficacy of biomedical models, scientific, husbandry, and veterinary professionalsmust consider the mechanisms, influences, and outcomes of rodent thermoregulation in contemporary research environments.Over the last 2 decades, numerous studies have shown that laboratory mice and rats prefer temperatures that are several degrees warmer than the environments in which they typically are housed within biomedical facilities. Physiologic changes torodents that are cage-housed under standard temperatures (20 to 26 °C) are attributed to 'cold stress' and include alterationsin metabolism, cardiovascular parameters, respiration, and immunologic function...
November 20, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30424824/effects-of-intraoperative-vagal-nerve-stimulation-on-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Megan M Haney, Aaron C Ericsson, Teresa E Lever
The gastrointestinal microbiota (GM) plays a fundamental role in health and disease and contributes to the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal system and brain. The direct line of communication between these organ systems is through the vagus nerve. Therefore, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), a commonly used technique for multiple disorders, has potential to modulate the enteric microbiota, enabling investigation and possibly treatment of numerous neurologic disorders in which the microbiota has been linked with disease...
November 13, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30305197/system-for-scoring-severity-of-acute-radiation-syndrome-response-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#18
Gregory L King, David J Sandgren, Jennifer M Mitchell, David L Bolduc, William F Blakely
We developed a clinical assessment tool for use in an NHP radiation model to 1) quantify severity responses for subsyndromes of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS; that is, hematopoietic and others) and 2) identify animals that required enhanced monitoring. Our assessment tool was based primarily on the MEdical TREatment ProtocOLs for Radiation AccidentVictims (METREPOL) scoring system but was adapted for NHP to include additional indices (for example, behaviors) for usein NHP studies involving limited medical intervention...
October 10, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30282570/comparison-of-aerosol-and-percutaneous-acquired-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-in-humans-and-nonhuman-primates-for-suitability-in-predicting-clinical-efficacy-under-the-animal-rule
#19
Janice M Rusnak, Lesley C Dupuy, Nancy A Niemuth, Andrew M Glenn, Lucy A Ward
Licensure of medical countermeasure vaccines to protect against aerosolized Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) requires the use of the Animal Rule to assess vaccine efficacy, because human studies are not feasible or ethical. We therefore performed a retrospective study of VEE cases that occurred in at-risk laboratory workers and support personnel during the United States Biowarfare Program (1943-1969) to better define percutaneous- and aerosol-acquired VEE in humans and to compare these results with those described for the NHP model (in which high-dose aerosol VEEV challenge led to more severe encephalitis than parenteral challenge)...
October 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30278860/identification-of-carboxylesterase-butyrylcholinesterase-acetylcholinesterase-paraoxonase-and-albumin-pseudoesterase-in-guinea-pig-plasma-through-nondenaturing-gel-electrophoresis
#20
Geoffroy Napon, Alicia J Dafferner, Ashima Saxena, Oksana Lockridge
Drugs to protect against nerve agent toxicity are tested in animals. The current preferred small animal model is guinea pigs because their plasma bioscavenging capacity resembles that of NHP. We stained nondenaturing polyacrylamide slab gels with a variety of substrates, inhibitors, and antibodies to identify the esterases in heparinized guinea pig plasma. An intense band of carboxylesterase activity migrated behind albumin. Minor carboxylesterase bands were revealed after background activity from paraoxonase was inhibited by using EDTA...
October 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
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